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HARNACK, THEODOSIUS: German theologian; b. at St. Petersburg Jan. 3, 1817; d. at Dorpat Sept. 23, 1889. In 1834 he entered the University of Dorpat and pursued the study of theology under the prevailing conservative influences. In 1837 he left Dorpat and, after living for some time as tutor in the family of a Livonian nobleman, finished his studies at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. Returning to Dorpat, he became extraordinary professor of practical theology in 1847 and ordinary professor in the following year. His adherence to the con­fessional standpoint appeared in his Grundbekennt­niase der evaragelisch lutherischen Kirche (Dorpat, 1845), a work which reveals depth of insight, skill in the elaboration of a thesis, and a style of ex­position which was always attractive and often fascinating. Besides the professorship in sys­tematic theology for which he exchanged his earlier chair, he held, after 1847, the post of univer­sity preacher. He presided over a committee of the synod of Livonia entrusted with the task of gathering material for the elaboration and improve­ment of the liturgy of the province, and his Lritur­gische Formulare fur die evangelische Kirche in Rusaland (2 vols., Dorpat, 18774) was made the basis of subsequent revisions in 1885 and in 1898. He took an active part in the conflict between the orthodox clergy and the Moravians, pub­lishing against them Die lutherische Kirche Liv­landsand die herrnhutiache Brudergemeinde (Er­langen, 1860). In 1853 Harnack was called to Erlangen, where he published in 1862 the first volume of his Lathers Theologiemit besonderer Be­ziehung auf seine Veraohnungs  and Erloaurcgslehre. In 1866 he returned to Dorpat, but retired from active duty in 1875. In the quiet of his last years he produced the greatest of his works, Praktische Theologie (Erlangen, 1877), supplemented by the Katechetik  and Katechismua Erkldrung (Erlangen, 1882). He contributed articles on liturgical sub­jects and pastoral theology to ZSckler's Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschoften, and entered into the discussion of modern problems with Ueber den Kanon and die Inspiration der heiligen Schrift (Dorpat, 1885). He published a second volume on Luther's doctrine (Leipsic, 1886), which was his last production; in this he took occasion to express his dissent from the latest theological developments. In addition to the books mentioned he published Der christliche Gemeindegottesdienst im apostolischenand altkatholischen Zeitalxer (Dorpat, 1854); Die Union and ihre neuester Vertreter (Erlangen, 1855); Der kleineKatechismusM. Lathers (Stuttgart, 1856);and Die Kirche, ihr Amt and Regiment (Nilremberg, 1862). He was the father of Adolf Harnack (q.v.). (F. HoExacarLtaArrNt.)
HARDER, ROBERT FRANCIS: Baptist layman; b. at New Concord, O., Oct. 18, 1864. He was edu­cated at Muskingum College, New Concord, O ., at the University of Chicago (B. A., 1883), and at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1886).

He was instructor in Semitic languages at Yale

from 1886 to 1891, as well as Assyriologist (and

delegate of Yale) to the expedition of the Oriental

Exploration Fund (under the auspices of the Uni­

versity of Pennsylvania) in 1888 89. He has been

at the University of Chicago in the capacities of

associate professor of Semitic languages (1892­

1900), and professor (since 1900), and is at present

(1908) the acting head professor of the Semitic

department. He is editor of The American Journal



o f Semitic Languages and Literatures and associate

editor of The Biblical World and The American



Journal o f Theology. In theology he adheres to

the views of the liberal school. He has written The



Esarhaddon Inscriptions (New Haven, Conn., 1888);

Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Belonging to the

Kouyunjik Collections o f the British Museum (8 parts,

London and Chicago, 1892 1902); Assyrian and



Babylonian Literature (New York, 1901); and The

Code o f Hammurabi, King o f Babylon (about 2250

B.C.) (Chicago, 1904).

HARDER, WILLIAM RAINEY: Baptist layman;

b. at New Concord, O., July 26, 1856; d. at Chicago

Jan. 10, 1906. He was educated at Muskingum

College, New Concord (B.A.,1870), and Yale (Ph.D.,

1875). After being principal of Masonic College,

Macon, Tenn. (1875 76), he was tutor (1876 79)

and principal (1879 80) of the preparatory depart­

ment of benison University, Granville, O., and

professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis

in Baptist Union Theological Seminary, Chicago

(1880 86). He then went to Yale as professor of

Hebrew, where he remained until 1891, when he

became president and head professor of Semitic

languages and literatures in the newly established

University of Chicago. He was also principal of the

Chautauqua College of Liberal Arts in 1885 91,

Woolsey professor of Biblical literature in Yale

University, and instructor in Semitics in Yale

Divinity School in 1889 91, a member of the Chicago

Board of Education in 1896 98, and director of

the Haskell Oriental Museum in the University of

Chicago. In 1881 he commenced to teach Hebrew

by correspondence, thus inaugurating a movement

which culminated in the organization of the Amer­

ican Institute of Sacred Literature, and three years

later (1884) he founded the American Institute of

Hebrew. His remarkable ability as 'an organizer

was strikingly exemplified by his development of

the University of Chicago into one of the leading

American institutions of learning. Harper was

likewise an editor of The Biblical World, The Amer­



ican Journal o f Theology, and The American Journal

o f Semitic Languages and Literatures, all published

under the auspices of the University of Chicago.

Among his numerous publications, special mention

may be made of his Elements o f Hebrew (New York,

1881); Elements of Hebrew Syntax by art Inductive

Method (1883); Introductory New Testament Greek

Method (in collaboration with R. F. Weidner; 1888);

Constructive Studies in the Priestly Element in the

Old Testament (Chicago, 1902); Religion and the

Higher Life (1904); The Structure of the Text of the

Book of Amos (1904); The Prophetic Element in

the Old Testament (1905); The Structure of the Text

of the Book of Hoses. (1905); The Trend in Higher




159 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA

Education (1905); and A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos arid Hosea (New York, 1905).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A sketch of his life is given in Old Testa­ment and Semitic Studies. In Memory of William Rainey Harper, ad. Robert Francis Harper, Francis Brown, and George Foot Moore, 2 vols., Chicago, 1907.



HARRACH, har'rm, COUNT KARL PHILIPP VON: German philanthropist; b. at Prague Nov. 16, 1795; d. at Breslau Nov. 25, 1878. Destined for a military career by his father, a Roman Catholic, after completing his education at the academy of engineering in Vienna, he entered the Austrian army in 1813. He took part in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, but, finding no satisfaction in the service, he resigned in the early twenties and bought the estate of Rosnochau, near Oberglogau, in Prussian Silesia. There he devoted himself to agriculture until this later years of his life. He gradually became a convert to the Evangelical Church, which he formally joined in 1852, determining, in his zeal, to spend a considerable portion of his wealth for religious purposes. In this he was encouraged by Johann Heinrich Wichern (q.v.), the father of home missions in Germany. During a temporary resi­dence at Berlin, Harrach spent large sums for the advancement of home missions, and he was equally generous at Breslau. He was a member of the board of directors of the Silesian provincial society for home missions, which came into existence in the beginning of the sixties, and bequeathed to it a capital of 60,000 marks, in addition to 30,000 marks for the purpose of educating young men as teachers of Evangelical schools in the province of Silesia.

Harrach also conceived the plan of aiding theo­logical students by giving them an opportunity for a strictly scientific education on the basis of the Gospel. This idea took more definite shape under the guidance of Tholuck, who had long been ani­mated by the same desire. In accordance with their plan, a Konvikt for nine theological students from Silesia and three from other provinces was founded at Halle in 1865, Tholuck being its first president. All the expenses of the students are paid, and those from Silesia are required to devote their services to the Evangelical Church in their native province. Harrach also manifested his interest in the advancement of Christian life by supplying funds for the continuance of the parochial visitations in Silesia, which had been instituted by Frederick William IV., but which had ceased in the early sixties for financial reasons.

(DAVID ERDMANNt.)

HARRIS, GEORGE: Congregationalist; b. at East Machias, Me., Apr. 1, 1844. He was educated at Amherst (B.A., 1866) and Andover Theological Seminary (1869). He was then pastor of High Street Congregational Church, Auburn, Me. (1869­1872), and of Central Congregational Church, Prov­idence, R. I. (1872 83). He was professor of Christian theology in Andover Theological Seminary (1883 99), being also president of the faculty (1869 99). In 1884 he began, with four colleagues, to edit The Andover Review, which he conducted until 1893, and, in consequence of certain articles

published in it, was tried, together with the other editors, for heresy in 1886, being acquitted, how­ever, in 1892. Since 1899 he has been president of Amherst College. Besides editing Hymns o f the Faith in collaboration with W. J. Tucker and E. K. Glezen (Boston, 1888), he has written Moral Evo­lution (Boston, 1896) and Inequality and Progress (1897).

HARRIS, HOWEL: Welsh revivalist, one of the founders of Methodism in Wales; b. at Trevecca, in the parish of Talgarth, Breconshire, Jan. 31,1714; d. there July 21, 1773. He entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, on Nov. 25, 1735, but returned to South Wales at the close of his first term and began his evangelistic labors, traveling through the country and preaching as often as five times a day. He was the first lay preacher in the great Methodist movement, and was even a year or more ahead of Whitefield and Wesley. By 1739 he had founded thirty societies in South Wales, and in 1741 the number had grown to 300. In 1751, as a result of a disagreement with Daniel Rowlands (q.v.), his great coadjutor in the establishment of Methodism in Wales, he retired to his home at Trevecca, and founded there, in 1752, a sort of Protestant mon­astery. This institution, which has long been ex­tinct, had 120 inmates in 1755, not counting a number of families from North Wales, which had settled in the neighborhood. In 1759, when a French invasion was imminent, Harris accepted an ensigncy in the Breconshire militia, and dur­ing his three years' service preached in his regi­mental dress in various parts of England. He had the hearty support of Whitefield and the Wesleys. Toward the close of his life he preached in White­field's tabernacle in London, and also before aris­tocratic assemblies in private houses there. He was repeatedly assaulted by mobs, continually per­secuted by the magistrates and the clergy, and de­nied ordination on account of the irregularity of his methods.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Brief Account of the Life of Howl Harris . from Papers Written by Himself, ed. B. T., Trevecca, 1791; T. Jackson, The Life of Howsl Harris, vol. si. of A Library of Christian Biography, London, 1837 sqq.; H. J. Hughes, Life of Howel Harris, ib. 1892.


HARRIS, JAMES RENDEL: English Friend; b. at Plymouth, Devonshire, Jan. 27, 1852. He was educated at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A., 1874, graduated third wrangler), where he was fellow in 1875 78,1892, 1898, and 1902 04. He was professor of New Testament Greek at Johns Hopkins Univer­sity (1882 85), and at Haverford College, Haver­ford, Pa. (1886 92). He was then university lec­turer in paleography at Cambridge, and, after being professor of theology at the University of Leyden in 1903 04, was appointed to his present position of director of studies at the Friends' Settle­ment for Social and Religious Study at Woodbrooke, near Birmingham. He has written or edited:

The Teaching of the Apostles and the Sibylline Books (Cam­bridge, 1885); Frapmanta of Philo Judeew (1888); The Origin of the Leicester Codex (1887); The Teaching of the Apostles (Baltimore, Md., 1887); The Rest of the Words of Baruch (Haverford, Pa., 1889); Biblical Fragments from Mount Sinai, (Cambridge, 1890); The Diatessaron (1890); The Acts of Perpetua (1890); A Study of Codex Beza (1890);




Harris THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 180

Hartmann


The Apology of Aristidw (1891); Codex Sanpallenaia

(1891); Some Interesting Syrian and Palestinian Inscrip­



tions (1891); Memoranda Sacra (London, 1892); Pope­

tar Account of the Newly Recovered Gospel o/ St. Peter

(1892); Origin of As Perrar Group (Cambridge, 1893);



Stichomatry (1893); Lectures on the Western Text of the New

Testament (1894); Prapmente of the Commentary of Ephrem

Syrus upon the Diatessaron (1$95); Union with God (Lon­

don, 1895); Herman in Arcadia and Other Essays (Cambridge,

1896); Letters from Armenia (in collaboration with his wife,

Helen B. Harris; London, 1897); The Homeric Centones



and the Acts of Pirate (Cambridge, 1898); Life of Prancis

William Crossley (London, 1899); The Gospel of the Twelve

Apostles (Cambridge, 1900); Purther Researches into the

History of the Perrar Group (Cambridge, 1900); Annotators

of the Code Basin (1901); The Dioscuroi in Christian Legend

(1908); The Guiding Hand of God (London, 1905); and



Cult q/ the Heavenly Twins (Cambridge, 1906). He like­

wise collaborated with R. L. Benely and F. C. Burkitt

in editing The Pour Gospels in Syriac Transcribed from the

Sinaitie Palimpsest (Cambridge, 1894), and with F. C. Cony­

beare and Agree Smith Lewis in editing The Story of A,hilsar



from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek, and

Slavonic Versions (London, 1898).

HARRIS, JOHN: English Congregationalist; b.

at Ugborough (12 m. e. of Plymouth), Devonshire,

Mar. 8, 1802; d. at St. John's Wood, London,

Dec. 21, 1856. AB a boy he began preaching in

the villages around Bristol, whither his parents had

moved about 1815, and quickly won local fame as

" the boy preacher." He entered the independent

college at Hoxton in 1823, and in 1825 became

pastor of the Congregational Church at Epsom,

where he established his reputation as a preacher.

In 1837 he was appointed to the chair of theology

at Cheshunt College. When the independent col­

leges of Highbury, Homerton, and Coward were

amalgamated into New College (London) in 1850,

he became principal of this institution, and in 1851

professor of theology. In 1852 he was chosen chair­

man of the Congregational Union of England and

Wales. He was also one of the editors of the

Biblical Review, a regular contributor to Congrega­

tional and Evangelical periodicals, and the author

of a number of meritorious works that have had

a large circulation, particularly in America. The

more important are: The Great Teacher (London;

1835), which is considered his best book; Mammon

(1836), a prize essay of which more than 100,000

copies were sold; The Great Commission.(1842), a

prize essay on Christian missions; The Pre Adamite

Earth (1846); and Man Primeval (1849). His

Posthumous Works, composed of sermons only, were

edited by P. Smith (2 vols., 1857).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Eclectic Review, 4th ser., iv. 303 319, xxi.

137 154, xxvi. 612 625; DNB, xxv. 15 16.

HARRIS, SAMUEL: Name of two American cler­

gymen.

1. Baptist, called the "Apostle of Virginia"; b. in



Hanover County, Va., Jan. 12, 1724; d. there prob­

ably in 1'794. In his early and middle life he held

many public offices, including those of  sheriff,

burgess for the county, and colonel of militia. In

1758 he was converted under the preaching of two

itinerant Baptist preachers, and became a dis­

tinguished exhorter among the poor white settlers.

He was ordained in 1769, and in 1774 was invested

by the General Association of Separate Baptists

with the office of " apostle." He devoted his for­

tune to religious and charitable work, lived with

extreme frugality, and suffered much persecution from the Established Church.

2. Congregationalist; b. at East Machias, Me.,

June 14, 1814; d. at Litchfield, Conn., June 25, 1899.

He was graduated at Bowdoin College (1833), and

after being principal of Limerick Academy„„ Me.

(1833 34), and of Washington Academy, East

Machias, Me. (1834 35), entered Andover Theolog­

ical Seminary, frbm which he was graduated in

1838. He then returned for three years to his

principalship at East Machias, after which he held

successive pastorates at Conway, Mass. (1841 51),

and Pittsfield, Mass, '(1851 55). From 1855 to 1867

he was professor of systematic theology in Bangor

Theological Seminary, holding this position jointly

with George Shephard, acting pastor of the Central

Church, Bangor, from 1855 to 1863. In 1867 he

was chosen president of Bowdoin College, but

resigned in 1871 to accept the Dwight professorship

of systematic theology in the Yale Divinity School.

In 1896 he retired as professor emeritus. In addi­

tion to numerous sermons, pamphlets, and contri­

butions to periodicals, he wrote: Zaccheus : or, The

Scriptural Plan of Beneficence (Boston, 1844);

Christ's Prayer for the Death of His Redeemed (1863);

The Kingdom of Christ on Earth (Andover, 1874);

The Philosophical Basis of Theism (New York,

1883); The Self Revelation of God (1887); and God



the Creator and Lord of All (2 vols., 1896).

HARRISON, FREDERIC: English Positivist; b.

at London Oct. 18, 1831. He was educated at

Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., 1853; M.A., 1858),

where he was fellow and tutor in 1854 56, and be­

came, honorary fellow in 1899. He was admitted

to practise at Lincoln's Inn, London, as a barrister

at law in 1858. He was a member of the Royal

Commission on Trades Unions in 1867 69 and secre­

tary to the Royal Commission for Digesting the Law

in 1869 70. He was also professor of jurisprudence

in the Inns of Court from 1877 to 1889, and was

examiner in the same subject in the Inns of Court

in 1875, in London University in 1873 76, and in

Oxford University in 1877 and 1881. He was an

alderman of the London County Council from 1889

to 1893. Originally a member of the Church of

England, and with a thorough theological training

at Wadham College, he followed, while at the bar,

the sermons of F. D. Maurice, Stopford Brooke, and

Benjamin Jowett. He gradually came, however,

under the influence of Auguste Comte, and finally

adopted Positivism, the " Religion of Humanity,"

in 1870. Since that time he has come to be the

leading exponent of Positivist doctrines in England,

and from 1879 to 1904 was president of the English

Positivist Committee, as well as a member of the

Occidental Positivist Committee of Paris. In addi­

tion to numerous contributions to various period­

icals his works include Meaning o f History (London,

1862); Order and Progress (1875); The Choice o f



Books (1886); Studies in Early Victorian Literature

(2 vols., 1895 97); Byzantine History in the Early



Middle Ages (1900); George Washington and Other.

American Addresses (1901); Theophano (1904); Her­

bert Spencer (Oxford 1905); Memoirs tired Thoughts

(London, 1906); Philosophy of Common ,Sense






181 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA $~m

(1907); The Creed of a Layman: Apologia pro fide mea (1907); My Alpine Jubilee (1908); and Na­tional and Social Problems (1908). He prepared also the second volume of the English translation of the works of Comte (London, 1875), and delivered numerous addresses before the Positivist Society, in addition to being Gibbon Centenary Lecturer at London in 1895, Rede Lecturer at Cambridge in 1900, George Washington Lecturer at Chicago in 1901, Alfred Millenary Lecturer at Winchester in the same year, and Herbert Spencer Lecturer at Oxford in 1905.
HARRISON, ROBERT (or RICHARD; the True and Short Declaration always calls him " Robert," other early authorities name him " Richard "): English separatist; d. at Middelburg, Zealand, about 1585. He studied at St. John's and Corpus Christi Colleges, Cambridge (B.A., 1567; M.A., 1572); was removed from the mastership of the grammar school at Aylaham, Norfolk, in Jan., 1574, for Puritanical objections to the baptismal service; later became master of a hospital at Norwich. He was an early friend of Robert Browne (q.v.) and his chief helper and disciple. Browne lived in Harrison's house at Norwich, and together they organized the church there in 1580; Harrison went with the con­gregation to Middelburg the next year, and, after Browne's departure, became its head. He published

A Little Treatise upon the First Verse of the 122nd

Psalm, Stirring up unto Careful Desiring and Dutiful

Labouring for the True Church Government (1583;

reprinted by William Brewster at Leyden, 1618);

and Three Forms of Catechisms, Containing the Most

Principal Forma of Religion (1583). Harrison pub­

lished also: 0 f Ghosts and Spirits Walking by Night,



and o f Strange Noises, Cracks, and Sundry Fore­

warnings, which commonly happen before the Death

of Men, Great Slaughters, and Alterations of King­

doms : one Book : written by Lewis Lavaterus o f

Tigurine, and translated into English by R. H.

(London, 1572 and 1596); A Book o f the Form o f



Common Prayers, Administration o f the Sacraments,

etc., Agreeable to God's Word and the Use of the

Reformed Churches (1586).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the writings of Robert Browne, particularly A True and Short Declaration. Consult: H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, New York, 1880; W. Walker, Hiat. of the Congre­gational Churches in the U. S., pp. 3b 40, New York, 1894; C. Burrage, The True Story of Robert Browne, pp. 9 28, Oxford, 1908.


HART, SAMUEL: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Saybrook, Conn., June 4, 1845. He was educated at Trinity College (B.A., 1866) and the Berkeley Divinity School, and was ordered deacon in 1869 and ordained priest in the following year. He was tutor (1868 70), assistant professor (1870­1873), and full professor of mathematics (1873 83), and professor of Latin in Trinity College (1883­1899). Since 1899 he has been vice dean and professor of doctrinal theology in Berkeley Di­vinity School, Middletown, Conn., having declined the proffered bishopric of Vermont in 1893. He has been registrar of the diocese of Connecticut since 1874, custodian of the Standard Book of Common Prayer since 1886, secretary of the House of Bishops V. 11

since 1892, and historiographer of the Church since

1898. In 1892 he prepared the report on the

Standard Book of Common Prayer for the General

Convention of 1892, and is likewise the author of

several historical addresses. He has written or

edited: Satires o f Juvenal (Boston, 1873); Bishop

Seabury's Communion Ote, with Notes (New York,

1874); Satires of Persius (Boston, 1875); G. F.

Maclear's Instruction for Confirmation and Holy



Communion (New York, 1895); History o f the Amer­

ican Prayer Book in W. H. Frere's edition of F.

Procter's New History o f the Book o f Common Prayer



(1901); and Short Daily Prayers for Families (1902).
HARTMANN, JOHANNES: German Roman Catholic; b. at Herbigahagen (a village near Duder atadt, 15 m. s.e. of G6ttingen) Oct. 3, 1829. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1854, and, after being a chaplain in Heiligenstadt from that year until 1857, was a teacher in Belgium till 1868. He then studied law at the University of Bonn for three years, and in the following year (1872) was ap­pointed director of the theological seminary and professor of canon law at Paderborn. Two years later he was called to his present position of pro­fessor of canon law at the Academy of Munster.

HARTMANN, KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON: German philosopher; b. at Berlin Feb. 23, 1842; d. at the same place June 5, 1906. He was edu­cated at the school of artillery in Berlin (185J­1862); and held a commission (1860 65), when he was compelled to retire on account of serious knee trouble. He took his degree at Rostock in 1867, returned to Berlin, and retired to Lichterfelde (5 m. s.w. of Berlin) in 1885, doing most of his work in bed while suffering great pain. After developing the thought for twenty two years, he began in 1864 to prepare his main philosophical work, Philosophie des Unbewussten (Berlin, 1869; 11th ed., 3 vols., 1904; French transl., M. D. Nolen, 2 vols., Paris, 1876; Eng. transl., by W. C. Coupland, Philosophy of the Unconscious, 3 vols., London, 1884). Next in rank was his Dos sittliehe Bewusstaein, appearing first as Ph4nomenologie des sittlichen Bewusstseina (Berlin, 1879); and next to that was the Religions­philosophie (2 vols., Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menachheit and Die Religion des Geistes, 1882).

The object of his philosophy was to unite the " idea " of Hegel with the " will " of Schopenhauer in his doctrine of the Absolute Spirit, or, as he pre­ferred to characterize it, spiritual monism. He held that " a will which does not will something is not." The world was produced by will and idea, but not as conscious; for consciousness, instead of being essential, is accidental to will and idea the two poles of " the Unconscious." Matter is both idea and will. In organic existences, in instinct, in the human mind, on the field of history, the un­conscious will acts as though it possessed con­sciousness, i.e., were aware of the ends and of the infallible means for their realization. Consciousness arises from the temporary diremption of the idea from the active will and the will's opposition to this condition. Because of the wisdom displayed in the action of the Unconscious, this is the best possible world; only this does not prove that the


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