HARNACK, THEODOSIUS: German theologian; b. at St. Petersburg Jan. 3, 1817; d. at Dorpat Sept. 23, 1889. In 1834 he entered the University of Dorpat and pursued the study of theology under the prevailing conservative influences. In 1837 he left Dorpat and, after living for some time as tutor in the family of a Livonian nobleman, finished his studies at Berlin, Bonn, and Erlangen. Returning to Dorpat, he became extraordinary professor of practical theology in 1847 and ordinary professor in the following year. His adherence to the confessional standpoint appeared in his Grundbekenntniase der evaragelisch lutherischen Kirche (Dorpat, 1845), a work which reveals depth of insight, skill in the elaboration of a thesis, and a style of exposition which was always attractive and often fascinating. Besides the professorship in systematic theology for which he exchanged his earlier chair, he held, after 1847, the post of university preacher. He presided over a committee of the synod of Livonia entrusted with the task of gathering material for the elaboration and improvement of the liturgy of the province, and his Lriturgische Formulare fur die evangelische Kirche in Rusaland (2 vols., Dorpat, 18774) was made the basis of subsequent revisions in 1885 and in 1898. He took an active part in the conflict between the orthodox clergy and the Moravians, publishing against them Die lutherische Kirche Livlandsand die herrnhutiache Brudergemeinde (Erlangen, 1860). In 1853 Harnack was called to Erlangen, where he published in 1862 the first volume of his Lathers Theologiemit besonderer Beziehung auf seine Veraohnungs and Erloaurcgslehre. In 1866 he returned to Dorpat, but retired from active duty in 1875. In the quiet of his last years he produced the greatest of his works, Praktische Theologie (Erlangen, 1877), supplemented by the Katechetik and Katechismua Erkldrung (Erlangen, 1882). He contributed articles on liturgical subjects and pastoral theology to ZSckler's Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschoften, and entered into the discussion of modern problems with Ueber den Kanon and die Inspiration der heiligen Schrift (Dorpat, 1885). He published a second volume on Luther's doctrine (Leipsic, 1886), which was his last production; in this he took occasion to express his dissent from the latest theological developments. In addition to the books mentioned he published Der christliche Gemeindegottesdienst im apostolischenand altkatholischen Zeitalxer (Dorpat, 1854); Die Union and ihre neuester Vertreter (Erlangen, 1855); Der kleineKatechismusM. Lathers (Stuttgart, 1856);and Die Kirche, ihr Amt and Regiment (Nilremberg, 1862). He was the father of Adolf Harnack (q.v.). (F. HoExacarLtaArrNt.)
HARDER, ROBERT FRANCIS: Baptist layman; b. at New Concord, O., Oct. 18, 1864. He was educated at Muskingum College, New Concord, O ., at the University of Chicago (B. A., 1883), and at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1886).
He was instructor in Semitic languages at Yale
from 1886 to 1891, as well as Assyriologist (and
delegate of Yale) to the expedition of the Oriental
Exploration Fund (under the auspices of the Uni
versity of Pennsylvania) in 1888 89. He has been
at the University of Chicago in the capacities of
associate professor of Semitic languages (1892
1900), and professor (since 1900), and is at present
likewise an editor of The Biblical World, The Amer
ican Journal o f Theology, and The American Journal
o f Semitic Languages and Literatures, all published
under the auspices of the University of Chicago.
Among his numerous publications, special mention
may be made of his Elements o f Hebrew (New York,
1881); Elements of Hebrew Syntax by art Inductive
Method (1883); Introductory New Testament Greek
Method (in collaboration with R. F. Weidner; 1888);
Constructive Studies in the Priestly Element in the
Old Testament (Chicago, 1902); Religion and the
Higher Life (1904); The Structure of the Text of the
Book of Amos (1904); The Prophetic Element in
the Old Testament (1905); The Structure of the Text
of the Book of Hoses. (1905); The Trend in Higher
159 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
Education (1905); and A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos arid Hosea (New York, 1905).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A sketch of his life is given in Old Testament and Semitic Studies. In Memory of William Rainey Harper, ad. Robert Francis Harper, Francis Brown, and George Foot Moore, 2 vols., Chicago, 1907.
HARRACH, har'rm, COUNT KARL PHILIPP VON:German philanthropist; b. at Prague Nov. 16, 1795; d. at Breslau Nov. 25, 1878. Destined for a military career by his father, a Roman Catholic, after completing his education at the academy of engineering in Vienna, he entered the Austrian army in 1813. He took part in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, but, finding no satisfaction in the service, he resigned in the early twenties and bought the estate of Rosnochau, near Oberglogau, in Prussian Silesia. There he devoted himself to agriculture until this later years of his life. He gradually became a convert to the Evangelical Church, which he formally joined in 1852, determining, in his zeal, to spend a considerable portion of his wealth for religious purposes. In this he was encouraged by Johann Heinrich Wichern (q.v.), the father of home missions in Germany. During a temporary residence at Berlin, Harrach spent large sums for the advancement of home missions, and he was equally generous at Breslau. He was a member of the board of directors of the Silesian provincial society for home missions, which came into existence in the beginning of the sixties, and bequeathed to it a capital of 60,000 marks, in addition to 30,000 marks for the purpose of educating young men as teachers of Evangelical schools in the province of Silesia.
Harrach also conceived the plan of aiding theological students by giving them an opportunity for a strictly scientific education on the basis of the Gospel. This idea took more definite shape under the guidance of Tholuck, who had long been animated by the same desire. In accordance with their plan, a Konvikt for nine theological students from Silesia and three from other provinces was founded at Halle in 1865, Tholuck being its first president. All the expenses of the students are paid, and those from Silesia are required to devote their services to the Evangelical Church in their native province. Harrach also manifested his interest in the advancement of Christian life by supplying funds for the continuance of the parochial visitations in Silesia, which had been instituted by Frederick William IV., but which had ceased in the early sixties for financial reasons.
HARRIS, GEORGE:Congregationalist; b. at East Machias, Me., Apr. 1, 1844. He was educated at Amherst (B.A., 1866) and Andover Theological Seminary (1869). He was then pastor of High Street Congregational Church, Auburn, Me. (18691872), and of Central Congregational Church, Providence, R. I. (1872 83). He was professor of Christian theology in Andover Theological Seminary (1883 99), being also president of the faculty (1869 99). In 1884 he began, with four colleagues, to edit The Andover Review, which he conducted until 1893, and, in consequence of certain articles
published in it, was tried, together with the other editors, for heresy in 1886, being acquitted, however, in 1892. Since 1899 he has been president of Amherst College. Besides editing Hymns o f the Faith in collaboration with W. J. Tucker and E. K. Glezen (Boston, 1888), he has written Moral Evolution (Boston, 1896) and Inequality and Progress (1897).
HARRIS, HOWEL:Welsh revivalist, one of the founders of Methodism in Wales; b. at Trevecca, in the parish of Talgarth, Breconshire, Jan. 31,1714; d. there July 21, 1773. He entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, on Nov. 25, 1735, but returned to South Wales at the close of his first term and began his evangelistic labors, traveling through the country and preaching as often as five times a day. He was the first lay preacher in the great Methodist movement, and was even a year or more ahead of Whitefield and Wesley. By 1739 he had founded thirty societies in South Wales, and in 1741 the number had grown to 300. In 1751, as a result of a disagreement with Daniel Rowlands (q.v.), his great coadjutor in the establishment of Methodism in Wales, he retired to his home at Trevecca, and founded there, in 1752, a sort of Protestant monastery. This institution, which has long been extinct, had 120 inmates in 1755, not counting a number of families from North Wales, which had settled in the neighborhood. In 1759, when a French invasion was imminent, Harris accepted an ensigncy in the Breconshire militia, and during his three years' service preached in his regimental dress in various parts of England. He had the hearty support of Whitefield and the Wesleys. Toward the close of his life he preached in Whitefield's tabernacle in London, and also before aristocratic assemblies in private houses there. He was repeatedly assaulted by mobs, continually persecuted by the magistrates and the clergy, and denied ordination on account of the irregularity of his methods.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Brief Account of the Life of Howl Harris . from Papers Written by Himself, ed. B. T., Trevecca, 1791; T. Jackson, The Life of Howsl Harris, vol. si. of A Library of Christian Biography, London, 1837 sqq.; H. J. Hughes, Life of Howel Harris, ib. 1892.
HARRIS, JAMES RENDEL:English Friend; b. at Plymouth, Devonshire, Jan. 27, 1852. He was educated at Clare College, Cambridge (B.A., 1874, graduated third wrangler), where he was fellow in 1875 78,1892, 1898, and 1902 04. He was professor of New Testament Greek at Johns Hopkins University (1882 85), and at Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. (1886 92). He was then university lecturer in paleography at Cambridge, and, after being professor of theology at the University of Leyden in 1903 04, was appointed to his present position of director of studies at the Friends' Settlement for Social and Religious Study at Woodbrooke, near Birmingham. He has written or edited:
The Teaching of the Apostles and the Sibylline Books (Cambridge, 1885); Frapmanta of Philo Judeew (1888); The Origin of the Leicester Codex (1887); The Teaching of the Apostles (Baltimore, Md., 1887); The Rest of the Words of Baruch (Haverford, Pa., 1889); Biblical Fragments from Mount Sinai, (Cambridge, 1890); The Diatessaron (1890); The Acts of Perpetua (1890); A Study of Codex Beza (1890);
Harris THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 180
The Apology of Aristidw (1891); Codex Sanpallenaia
(1891); Some Interesting Syrian and Palestinian Inscrip
181 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA $~m
(1907); The Creed of a Layman: Apologia pro fide mea (1907); My Alpine Jubilee (1908); and National and Social Problems (1908). He prepared also the second volume of the English translation of the works of Comte (London, 1875), and delivered numerous addresses before the Positivist Society, in addition to being Gibbon Centenary Lecturer at London in 1895, Rede Lecturer at Cambridge in 1900, George Washington Lecturer at Chicago in 1901, Alfred Millenary Lecturer at Winchester in the same year, and Herbert Spencer Lecturer at Oxford in 1905. HARRISON, ROBERT (or RICHARD; the True and Short Declaration always calls him " Robert," other early authorities name him " Richard "): English separatist; d. at Middelburg, Zealand, about 1585. He studied at St. John's and Corpus Christi Colleges, Cambridge (B.A., 1567; M.A., 1572); was removed from the mastership of the grammar school at Aylaham, Norfolk, in Jan., 1574, for Puritanical objections to the baptismal service; later became master of a hospital at Norwich. He was an early friend of Robert Browne (q.v.) and his chief helper and disciple. Browne lived in Harrison's house at Norwich, and together they organized the church there in 1580; Harrison went with the congregation to Middelburg the next year, and, after Browne's departure, became its head. He published
A Little Treatise upon the First Verse of the 122nd
and Three Forms of Catechisms, Containing the Most
Principal Forma of Religion (1583). Harrison pub
lished also: 0 f Ghosts and Spirits Walking by Night,
and o f Strange Noises, Cracks, and Sundry Fore
warnings, which commonly happen before the Death
of Men, Great Slaughters, and Alterations of King
doms : one Book : written by Lewis Lavaterus o f
Tigurine, and translated into English by R. H.
(London, 1572 and 1596); A Book o f the Form o f
Common Prayers, Administration o f the Sacraments,
etc., Agreeable to God's Word and the Use of the
Reformed Churches (1586).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are the writings of Robert Browne, particularly A True and Short Declaration. Consult: H. M. Dexter, Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, New York, 1880; W. Walker, Hiat. of the Congregational Churches in the U. S., pp. 3b 40, New York, 1894; C. Burrage, The True Story of Robert Browne, pp. 9 28, Oxford, 1908.
HART, SAMUEL: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Saybrook, Conn., June 4, 1845. He was educated at Trinity College (B.A., 1866) and the Berkeley Divinity School, and was ordered deacon in 1869 and ordained priest in the following year. He was tutor (1868 70), assistant professor (18701873), and full professor of mathematics (1873 83), and professor of Latin in Trinity College (18831899). Since 1899 he has been vice dean and professor of doctrinal theology in Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn., having declined the proffered bishopric of Vermont in 1893. He has been registrar of the diocese of Connecticut since 1874, custodian of the Standard Book of Common Prayer since 1886, secretary of the House of Bishops V. 11
since 1892, and historiographer of the Church since
1898. In 1892 he prepared the report on the
Standard Book of Common Prayer for the General
Convention of 1892, and is likewise the author of
several historical addresses. He has written or
edited: Satires o f Juvenal (Boston, 1873); Bishop
Procter's New History o f the Book o f Common Prayer
(1901); and Short Daily Prayers for Families (1902). HARTMANN, JOHANNES: German Roman Catholic; b. at Herbigahagen (a village near Duder atadt, 15 m. s.e. of G6ttingen) Oct. 3, 1829. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1854, and, after being a chaplain in Heiligenstadt from that year until 1857, was a teacher in Belgium till 1868. He then studied law at the University of Bonn for three years, and in the following year (1872) was appointed director of the theological seminary and professor of canon law at Paderborn. Two years later he was called to his present position of professor of canon law at the Academy of Munster.
HARTMANN, KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON: German philosopher; b. at Berlin Feb. 23, 1842; d. at the same place June 5, 1906. He was educated at the school of artillery in Berlin (185J1862); and held a commission (1860 65), when he was compelled to retire on account of serious knee trouble. He took his degree at Rostock in 1867, returned to Berlin, and retired to Lichterfelde (5 m. s.w. of Berlin) in 1885, doing most of his work in bed while suffering great pain. After developing the thought for twenty two years, he began in 1864 to prepare his main philosophical work, Philosophie des Unbewussten (Berlin, 1869; 11th ed., 3 vols., 1904; French transl., M. D. Nolen, 2 vols., Paris, 1876; Eng. transl., by W. C. Coupland, Philosophy of the Unconscious, 3 vols., London, 1884). Next in rank was his Dos sittliehe Bewusstaein, appearing first as Ph4nomenologie des sittlichen Bewusstseina (Berlin, 1879); and next to that was the Religionsphilosophie (2 vols., Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menachheit and Die Religion des Geistes, 1882).
The object of his philosophy was to unite the " idea " of Hegel with the " will " of Schopenhauer in his doctrine of the Absolute Spirit, or, as he preferred to characterize it, spiritual monism. He held that " a will which does not will something is not." The world was produced by will and idea, but not as conscious; for consciousness, instead of being essential, is accidental to will and idea the two poles of " the Unconscious." Matter is both idea and will. In organic existences, in instinct, in the human mind, on the field of history, the unconscious will acts as though it possessed consciousness, i.e., were aware of the ends and of the infallible means for their realization. Consciousness arises from the temporary diremption of the idea from the active will and the will's opposition to this condition. Because of the wisdom displayed in the action of the Unconscious, this is the best possible world; only this does not prove that the