161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels



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Hibbert Leotnree

also an embassy to pay homage. The comparison

of these statements with the other accounts of

Sennacherib's victories shows that the campaign

against Hezekiah failed in its principal aim. Prob­

ably Sennacherib, during his operations with the

main army in Philistia, sent to Judah a division

which occupied and devastated the county and

also surrounded Jerusalem. Thereupon Hezekiah

gave up his enterprise, although he had been one

of the leaders in the revolt. He sent the message

of his submission to Sennacherib at Lachish, prob­

ably after the battle at Eltekeh, and before the fall

of Ekron, at the same time surrendering Padi. At

first Sennacherib seemed to be satisfied with this;

but after Ekron was taken and he decided to move

on toward Egypt, he did not consider it prudent

to leave Hezekiah's still unimpaired and fortified

city in his rear, and he demanded through the

rabshak [commander] the surrender of Jerusalem.

The surrender of Jerusalem to the Assyrians would

have ended the remnant of independence enjoyed

by Judah, and would have brought Hezekiah per­

sonally into great danger. In his perplexity Heze­

kiah turned to his God; and just as Isaiah had

been right when he told Israel it would be to its

injury to take part in world politics, so also the

prophecy which he was then empowered to give

proved true. Sennacherib was thus forced to

return home without capturing Jerusalem. The

cause of his return was probably, according to

II Kings xix. 7, the news of a renewal of revolt in

Babylonia. In addition to this (if II Kings xix.

9 19, 36 also refers to what took place in 701 B.c.,

and not, as Winckler conjectures  Geschichte Baby­

loniens and Assyriens, Leipsic, 1892, pp. 255 258­

to a later event) some great misfortune, probably a

plague, befell his army just when he intended to

move on toward Egypt.

Although God did not .permit the Assyrians to

capture Jerusalem, nevertheless Hezekiah became

a vassal of Assyria. Of greater value

4. Hezeki  than this semi independence was the

ah's increase of earnest faith which the

Later Life pious Jews derived from their mis­

and fortunes. The people, however, soon

Deeds. relapsed into the state of immorality;

and under Manasseh the moral and

religious condition of the people became worse than

it had been under Hezekiah. For this reason even

in Hezekiah's time (cf. Jer. xxvi. 17 19) Micah

prophesied that the day would come when God

would deliver Jerusalem to destruction. Hezekiah's

intimate relation to his God is shown by the de­

scription of the illness which brought him near to

death, when, after a fervent prayer of the sick king,

he was cured by a remedy employed by Isaiah.

isa. xxxviii. contains a song of thanksgiving ascribed

to Hezekiah after his illness, of the authenticity of

which there should be no doubt. It is certainly an

error on the part of later critics to undervalue the

title of the collection of proverbs, Prov. xxv. xxix.:

" These are also proverbs of Solomon which the

men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, copied out." This

is undeniable testimony that Hezekiah appointed

a commission to make a selection of the proverbs



of Solomon. That this commission had also other

literary duties, especially that of collecting psalms, is highly probable. Lastly, according to II Kings xx. 20; II Chron. xxxii. 30; Ecclus. xlviii. 17, Hezekiah built a subterranean canal from Gihon, the Virgin's Fountain of to day, on the eastern slope of the southern spurs of Zion, to a pool at the lower end of the Tyropaean valley. The Siloam Inscrip­tion (q.v.), found in this tunnel in 1880, is con­sidered the oldest Hebrew inscription known, and to date from the time of Hezekiah. The Shiloah mentioned in Isa. viii. 6 was probably a watercourse which existed before Hezekiah's day. W. LoTz.

BIBLIOORAPRY: Besides the literature given under Ahab. consult: the sources in 11 Kings xviii. xx.; II Chron. xxix. xxxii.; and Isa. xxxvi xxxix; R. W. Rogers, Hint. op Babylonia and Assyria, 2 vole., New York, 1900; R. Sinker, Hezekiah and his Age, London, 1897; L. B. Paton, Early Hiat. of Syria and Palestine, ib. 1901; J. V. Prasek, Sanheribs Feldafge gegen Judo, in Mitteilun­pen der vorderasialiachen Gesellechaft, viii. 4, Berlin, 1903; O. Weber, Sanherib, Konig yon Assyrien, in Der alts Orient, vi. 3, Leipeic, 1903; DB, ii. 376 379; EB, ii. 205 60; the commentaries on the Scriptural sours; and C. F. Kent, The Student'a Old Testament, ii. 499 502, New York, 1905.

HIBBERT LECTURES: Next to the Bampton and the Boyle lectures perhaps the most note­worthy of the lectureships in Great Britain. The lectureship is named from Robert Hibbert (1770­1849), an English Unitarian, whose business inter­ests were in Jamaica. In 1847 he executed a deed conveying to trustees after the death of his wife $90,000 in American railroad utocks, the income to be applied in a way " most conducive to the spread of Christianity in its most simple and in­telligible form, and to the unfettered exercise of the right of private judgment in matters of religion." The income from the funds was used for some time in forwarding the independent research of students for the ministry whose attainments were regarded as especially brilliant. In 1878, however, a part of the funds was set apart for a limited series of years for the establishment of a lectureship to deal with the history of the religions of the world. The result is a series of volumes most of which have taken their place as classics in the subjects of which they treat. Many of the volumes have passed through several editions, and a new uniform edition has been issued, London, 1891 97. The following is a list of the lecturers and their subjects:

1878. F. Max Mfiller, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religions of India, Oxford, 1878.

1879. P. Le Page Renouf, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of Ancient Egypt, London, 1880.

1880. J. E. Renan, The Influence of the Institutions, Thought and Culture of Rome on Christianity and as Do. velopment of the Catholic Church, ib. 1880.

1881. T. W. Rhys Davids, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by some Paints in the History of Indian Buddhism, ib. 1882.

1882. A. Kuenen, National Religions and Universal Re­ligions, ib. 1882.

1883. C. Beard, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Cen­tury in its Relation to Modern Thought and Knowledge, ib. 1883.

1884. ,A. REville, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Native Religions of Mexico and Peru, ib. 1884.

1885. O. Pfleiderer, The Influence of the Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity, ib. 1885.




Hiokes

8ieronymites



THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG

274

1888. J. Rhys, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Re­ligion, as Illustrated by Celtic Heathendom, ib. 1887.

1887. A. H. 8ayee, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of



Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Baby­lonians, ib. 1887.

1888. E. Hatch, The Infuenoe of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, edited by A. M. Fairbairn, ib. 1890.

1891. E. Goblet d'Alviella, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of the Conception of God, as Illustrated by Anthro­pology and History, ib. 1891.

1892. C. G. Montefiore, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient He­bre", ib. 1893.

1893. C. B. Upton, The Bases of Religious Belief, ib. 1894.

1894. J. Drummond, via, veritas, vita: Lectures on Christianity in its most simple and intelligible Form, ib. 1895.

HICKES, GEORGE: English nonjuror; b. at Newsham, near Thirsk (20 m. n.w. of York), York­shire, June 20, 1642; d. in London Dec. 15, 1715. He studied at St. John's and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford (B.A., 1663; M.A., 1665; B.D., 1675), and became fellow at Lincoln 1664; was appointed chaplain to the duke of Lauderdale 1676, and ac­companied him to Scotland; was made prebendary of Worcester and vicar of All Hallows, Barking, 1680, chaplain to the king 1681, and dean of Worcester 1683. Refusing the oath of allegiance after the revolution of 1688, he was deprived of his deanery 1690, and for the rest of his life lived chiefly in London in more or less close concealment. In 1694 he was consecrated bishop of Thetford by the nonjurors. He published many sermons and controversial tracts, wrote the preface for a " re­formed " version of John Austin's Devotions (see AusTIN, JOHN), and edited Thomas A Kempis; his Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatieo criticus et archteologicus (Oxford, 1703­1705) is a work of much learning and industry.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Lathbury, A Hist. of the Nonjurors, London, 1862; DNB, xxvi. 35U 354 (gives full fist of his works); W. H. Hutton, English Church . . . Id85 171.¢, pp. 244, 316, 343, London, 1903.

HICKOCg, LAURENS PERSEUS: Presbyterian; b. at Bethel, Conn., Dec. 29, 1799; d. at Amherst, Mass., May 6, 1888. He was educated at Union College (B.A., 1820), and after studying theology privately was ordained to the Congregational min­istry in 1824. He held pastorates in that denom­ination at Kent, Conn. (1824 29), and Litchfield, Conn. (1829 36), and from 1836 to 1844 was pro­fessor of theology in Western Reserve College, O. He then accepted a call to the professorship of the same subject in Auburn Theological Seminary, a position which he held until 1852, resigning to be­come professor of mental and moral science and vice president of Union College. In 1862 he be­came acting president of the same institution, of which he was full president from 1866 to 1868. In the latter year he retired from active life. He wrote Rational Psychology (New York, 1849); A System of Moral Science (1853); Empirical Psy­chology (1854); Rational Cosmology (1858); Crea­tor and Crection (1872); Humanity Immortal (1872); and Logic of Reason (1875).

HICKS, ELIAS: Friend; b. at Hempstead, L. I., Mar, 19, 1748; d. at Jericho, L. I., Feb. 27, 1830.

He was a mechanic in the early part of his life, but

later devoted himself to agriculture. When he

was twenty seven he began to have " openings lead­

ing to the ministry," and subsequently became a

noted preacher, traveling extensively among the

Yearly Meetings of American Friends. When the

more liberal element of the Society broke off from

the more conservative wing in 1827 they were

called Hicksites, and this separation extended to

New York, Baltimore, Ohio, and Indiana. (See

FRIENDS, SOCIETY OF, I., § 6.) Many were Unitari­

ans, and some of Hicks's statements undoubtedly

tend in this direction. His philanthropic activities

were varied and effective. He published Observa­



tions on Slavery (New York, 1811); Extemporane­

ous Discourses (Philadelphia, 1825) ; Journal o f

Religious Life and Labors (5th ed., New York,

1832). ISAAC SHARPLESS.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. 8. Turner, The Quakers PP 290 295 et passim, London, 1889; American Church History Series, xii. 248 284, New York. 1894.

HICKSITES. See Hlc", ELIAS; FItIENDs, So­cIETY OF, I., § 6. 



HIERACAS, HIERACITES: An early heretic and his followers, important for the early history of monasticism, and known principally from Epi­phanius (Hter., lxvii.). Arius, however, as quoted by Epiphanius (l.c.), condemns the Christology of Hieracas, Valentinus, Manes, and Sabellius, and there is no reason to suppose another Hieracas. If he lived to be over ninety (as Epiphanius asserts), his birth would have fallen not long after 275. According to Epiphanius, he lived at Leontopolis, and was a man of the greatest learning. He knew the Bible almost by heart, composed a series of commentaries in Greek and Egyptian (Coptic), and wrote a great work on the Creation, and some psalms. He made his living by his skill as a copy­ist. His manner of life was extremely ascetic, in­cluding celibacy, complete abstinence from wine, and the reduction of food to the barest necessaries. His influence on the like minded soon assembled round him an ascetic community, who went even beyond their teacher in severity. Hieracas saw in the teaching of physical purity and self denial the essential difference between the Old and New Tes­taments. He denied the resurrection of the body, making the risen life a wholly spiritual one. He doubted the salvation of those who died in infancy, even baptized, because without knowledge there could be no conflict, and without conflict no re­ward. Epiphanius admits his orthodoxy on the Trinity. His Scriptural tendencies and his theo­retical and speculative attitude toward renuncia­tion of the world may be traced to the influence of Origen. If his monks were also his scholars, this would be one of the earliest instances of an ascetic community devoted at the same time to learning. According to Macarius Egyptius, there were fol­lowers of his teaching, known as Hieracites, as late as the end of the fourth century.

(ADOLF HARNAC%.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. W. F. Welch, Histmie der Ketzereisn, i. 815 823, 11 vols., Leipsic, 1762 85; Moeller, Christian Church, i. 287, 355; Harnack Dogma iii. 29 98 sqq

112, 128, iv. 8; idem, Geschichte, i. 467 468, ii. 1, pp. 83 






275 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hickes

Hieronymites



84; DCB, iii. 24 25; Neander, Christian Church, i. 713­

716; KL, v. 2005 08.

HIERARCHY (from Gk. hieros, "sacred," and

archia, " rule "): The rule of sacred things; then

a body of rulers organized for such rule. The Ro­

man Church probably presents the most perfect

example of a hierarchy organized monarchically,

the whole power centering in the pope, and most

minutely graded, both with respect to orders­

bishops, priests, deacons (the ordines juris divini),

and subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, lectors, door­

keepers, etc. (the ordines juris ecclesiastici), and

with respect to jurisdiction archbishops, metro­

politans, exarchs, patriarchs, deans, vicars, cardi­

nals, legates, etc. In the Greek Church the hier­

archical organization is oligarchical: above the

several patriarchs there is no pope. In the Evan­

gelical Churches, where the State rules the Church,

more or less of the hierarchical apparatus may be

retained, as in the Church of England and the Prus­

sian Church; while, when the Church is established

on the principle of universal priesthood, and the con­

gregation rules itself, as in the American churches

and many free churches in Europe, all hierarchy

disappears. See CHURCH; CLERGY; JURISDICTION,

ECCLESIASTICAL; ORDERS, HOLY.

HIEROCLES: A persecutor and literary oppo­

nent of the early Christians; d. not before 306. He

is probably the Sossianus Hierocles of an inscription

from Palmyra between Mar. 1, 293, and May 1;

305, the governor of the province to which Palmyra

then belonged. The responsibility for the out­

break of the persecution of Diocletian is placed

chiefly upon him by Lactantius (De morte persecu­

torum, xvi. 4; De divinis institutionibus, V., ii. 12).

As governor of Bithynia, he was at Nicomedia, the

very center of the persecution and the place where

it first broke out, when the church there was des­

troyed on Feb. 23, 303, and the edict against the

Christians promulgated the next day. He was suc­

ceeded in the governorship of Bithynia by Priscil­

lianus, and became prefect of all Egypt. Here also

he persecuted the Christians, even confining Chris­

tian women and virgins dedicated to the ascetic

life in houses of debauchery. The Christian tFde­

sius went to Alexandria, accused him to his face of

overstepping the provisions of the law, and struck

him, but was tortured and thrown into the sea.

Hierocles was one of the two literary antagonists

of the Christians whom Laetantius describes (De



institutionibus, V., ii. 2) as coming forward in the

spring of 303. In the few extant fragments of his

work he appears as the upholder of a philosophic

monotheism, which, however, did not exclude a

polytheistic cult. Its line of attack is dependent

mainly upon Porphyry, especially in the attempt

to point out inconsistencies in the Scriptures. He

carries out in greater detail Porphyry's suggestion

of a comparison between Christ and Apollonius of

Tyana, in favor of the latter. With Hierocles the

Neoplatonic criticism, which had before been

merely theoretical, became practical and gained an

influence on the government. (K. J. NEUMANN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The tract of Eusebius, Contra Hierodem,



ad. Gaisford, was published Oxford, 1852. 1Y. Cave,

Scriptorum eccleaiasticorum hist. literaria, i. 131, ii. 90, London, 1688; C. Fleury, Hist. ecdkaiaatique, Il., viii. 30, 36 vole., Paris, 1704 38; T1llemont, M4moirea, xiii. 333; A. J. Mason, The Persecution of Diocletian, pp. 58 108, Cambridge, 1876; Neander, Christian Church, i. 173­174; DCB, iii. 26 27; KL, v. 2012 13.
HIEROGLYPHICS. See INSCRIPTIONS, I.
HIERONYMITES, hai"e ren'i maits (HERMITS OF ST. JEROME) : The name of four religious orders in Spain, Portugal, and Italy, which lived after the rule of the Augustinian canons or her­mits.

1. The Spanish Hieronymites were established in the diocese of Toledo about 1370 by Vasco, a Portuguese Franciscan tertiary, and Pedro Fer­nando Pecha of Guadalajara, chamberlain of Peter the Cruel. The order was confirmed by Gregory XI. in 1374, and spread rapidly through Spain and Portugal, extending even to America. Its chief monasteries in Spain were Santa Maria de Guade­lupe, San Yuste, San Isidor in Seville, and the Es­coriaI near Madrid. In Portugal it possessed the monastery of Belem, near Lisbon. The habit of the order, whose members were favorite confessors of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchs, is a coarse white cassock with a small black cowl and a black scapular. An order of Hieronymite nuns was founded in 1375 by Maria Garcias of Toledo, but did not take solemn vows until the time of Pope Julius II. Their habit was a white cassock and brown scapular. Their last convents fell in the Carlist struggles of 1835.

2. The Observantine Hieronymites were founded by Lupus Olivetus (Lope d'Olmedo), third general of the Spanish Hieronymites (d. 1433), and were confirmed by Martin V. in 1426. In Spain the order was united with the other Hieronymites in 1595, but in Italy, where it was known as the Con­gregation of St. Jerome of Lombardy, it possessed monasteries up to the middle of the nineteenth century.

S. The Poor Hermits of St. Jerome were estab­lished near Montebello in Italy in 1377 by Pietro Gambacorti or Petrus de Pisis (d. 1435), who formed his community from converted robbers. The rule was exceedingly strict, but was mitigated in 1444 and exchanged for that of St. Augustine in 1568. In the seventeenth century several com­munities of hermits in Bavaria and the Tyrol joined this order, but it now has only a few monasteries, especially one in Viterbo and one in Rome.

4. The Congregatio Fesulana or Clerici apostolici

Sancti Hieronymi Jesuati was established in 1406

at Fiesole by Carlo de Montegranelli. The order

was suppressed in 1668 by Clement IX., and most

of its members joined the Poor Hermits of St.

Jerome. (O. ZSCKLERt.)


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. P. de la Vega, Chronicon fratrum Hiero­

nymitani ordinie, Complutum, 1539; Helyot, Ordrea

monastiques, iii. 423 447; Heimbueher, Orden and Kon­

gregationen, ii. 235 237; KL, v. 2014 15; L. Holstenius,

Codex regularum monasticarum at canonicarum, ad. M.



Broeltie, vi., Additamenta, i. 10 87, Augsburg, 1759.

2. Eusebio Cremonense, O vero delta vita a progreasi de



monachi Gieronimiani, Cremona, 1645; Helyot, ut sup.,

iii. 447 456; KL, v. 2015 16; Heimbucher, ut sup., ii.

239; L. Holstenius, ut sup., iii., Additamenta, xxvi. 43

sqq. 3. P. Bonnacioli, Pisana Eremus, vita et pests






Hieronymus mus THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 276

High Paces



eremitarum llieronymi, Venice, 1692: A. M. Bonucci,

latoria della vita a miracoli del . . . Pietro Gambocorti,



Rome, 1716; Helyot, ut sup., iv. 1 17; Heimbucher, ut

sup., ii. 237 239; KL, v. 2016 17. 4. Helyot, iv. 18 25; .

Heimbucher, ut sup., ii. 239 240; KL, v. 2017.

HIERONYMUS. See JEROME.

HIGH CHURCH. See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF,

II., § 5.

HIGH PLACES.

Sacred Mountains in Ethnic Religions (§ 1).

west Semitic Worship on Mountains (§ 2).

Hebrew High Places (§ 3).

Their Number and Location ($ 4).

High Places in Codes and History (§ 5).

Opposing Interests and Ideas (§ 6).

In all primitive cults the jurisdiction of a deity

is regarded as restricted within limits comparatively

confined. Each spot may have its resident spirit

who is for that spot the god or, as the Semites say,

the baal, " lord." Early anthropomorphism con­

ceived such a baal as having a fixed residence in

that place, which was therefore a sanctuary from

which he seldom or never wandered.

i. Sacred It was in this way that Yahweh was

Mountains conceived to have taken up his abode

in Ethnic in the Temple of Solomon (I Kings

Religions. viii. 13; Ps. xxiv. 7 10). It was a

long step in advance of this stage in

religious thought when, e.g., the Assyrians could

think of Asshur going forth with his hosts to foreign

conquests, or the Hebrews of Yahweh as coming

from " Seir " to do battle for his people (Judges

v. 4 5). The earlier condition is illustrated fre­

quently in the Old Testament, where baal is the

first (or second) element of a compound place name.

This Semitic principle is illustrated further by the

fact that " Melcarth is Baal of Tyre, Astarte the

Baalath of Byblus; there was a Baal of Lebanon,

of Mt. Hermon, of Mt. Peor, and so forth " (Smith,

Rel. of Sem., 1st ed., p. 93). Among the spots

which deity inhabits are the crests of hill and moun­

tain. This is abundantly exemplified in both

primitive and advanced cults. In early Cretan

worship a notable place was the sanctuary of the

Cretan mountain mother (A. Evans, in Annual of

the British School at Athens, vii. 29, 1900 01, cited

in J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to . . . Greek Re­

ligion, p. 498, Cambridge, 1903). In the developed

Greek religion the cult of Zeus shows many sanc­

tuaries on the mountain tops, such as Mt. Laphys­

tos in Beotia, Mt. Pelion, Olympus in Thessaly

(Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, i. 50 52, Oxford,

1896). The Acropolis at Athens was the site of

the most famous temples of the region. The Per­

sians had their Alburz, the people of India their

Meru. The Javanese placed their paradise, the

home of spirits and gods, on the crests of their high­

est mountain (E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, p. 60,

Boston, 1874). In the Semitic sphere the baalim

were generally connected with fertility, and con­

sequently their sanctuaries were probably early

located at the springs and watery bottoms whence

fertility seemed to have its source. But according

to Semitic notions there were two great reservoirs

whence fertilizing waters issued; one below the

earth, from which springs and rivers sprang; and

one above the firmament or sky, whence came the rains (Gen. i. 6 7; in Gen. vii. 1 both sources are represented as contributing to the flood). Fre­quently the clouds gathered about a mountain top and thence spread to deposit their moisture; hence the summits whence the rain seemed to come were regarded as homes of baals and their appropriate sanctuaries. A second cause of the selection of hilltops as places of worship was the conception of heaven gods who were most appropriately wor­shiped on the hills (Smith, ut sup., pp. 470 471). The notion of mountain deities and of consequent worship on the hills is especially dominant in the Semitic realm. Arameans attributed Israelitic victory to the supposed fact that Yahweh was a god of the mountain (I Kings xx. 23, 28). Assyrian deities were wont to gather on the heights (Isa. xiv. 13). Mt. Sinai was a sacred spot before the Hebrews left Egypt, took its name from the Baby­lonian Himyaric moon god Sin (see BABYLONIA, VIL, 2, § 5); Horeb Sinai was during Hebrew his­tory the sacred mountain (Deut. xxxiii. 2; Hab. iii. 1), with which Yahweh is connected in Judges (v. 4 5), whither Elijah returned for communion with him (I Kings xix.), while it was the goal of pilgrimages during the early Christian centuries. Reminiscences of earlier worship on the hills are seen in the ziggurats of Babylonia, elevated some­times to seven or eight stories.

That the branch of Semites to which the Hebrews belonged used heights as places of worship is abun­dantly attested in Scripture. The Moabites had altars on Mt. Pisgah (Num. xxiii. 14), Mt. Peor (xxiii. 28 30), other unnamed places (xxii. 41­xxiii. 1), and other Moabitio high

2. West  places were Bajith, Dibon, and Nebo

Semitic (Isa. xv. 2; cf. Jer. xlviii. 35), and

Worship possibly Bamoth baal and Beth baal­

on meon (Josh. xiii. 17), while one of their

Mountains. deities was Baal peor. A high place

has been discovered at Petra (cf.



Biblical World, xvii. 2, xxi. 170, xxvii. 386; Ben­

zinger, Archdologie, p. 320, ed. of 1907). Further

illustrations of this are the frequent notice in

the Old Testament of high places used by the

Canaanites (Num. xxxiii. 52; Deut. xii. 2). Zeus

oreios, " Zeus of the mountain," is named on a

post Christian inscription found near Saida, and

Jacob of Sarug knew of idolatrous high places in

the early sixth century. Among the ancestors and

leaders of the Hebrews it is recorded of Abraham

that the site of the intended sacrifice of Isaac was

on a mountain (Gen. xxii. 2); of Jacob that he

" ° offered sacrifice upon the mount " (Gen. xxxi.

54), in this case possibly an artificial mound; Moses

built an altar on the hill from which he had viewed

the battle between Amalek and Israel (Ex. xvii.

15); Joshua built an altar on Mt. Ebal (Josh. viii.

30; of. Deut. xxvii. 4 5, in which Moses commands

the erection of an altar there). The case is strength­

ened by the fact that for events having sacred or

solemn significance heights were frequently chosen.

The death of Aaron took place on Mt. Hor (Num.

xx. 22 29), and of Moses on Nebo (Deut. xxxiv.

1 5). Moabites (Isa. xv. 2) and Hebrews alike

went to the hills to mourn (cf. the mourning for the




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