religious condition of the people became worse than
it had been under Hezekiah. For this reason even
in Hezekiah's time (cf. Jer. xxvi. 17 19) Micah
prophesied that the day would come when God
would deliver Jerusalem to destruction. Hezekiah's
intimate relation to his God is shown by the de
scription of the illness which brought him near to
death, when, after a fervent prayer of the sick king,
he was cured by a remedy employed by Isaiah.
isa. xxxviii. contains a song of thanksgiving ascribed
to Hezekiah after his illness, of the authenticity of
which there should be no doubt. It is certainly an
error on the part of later critics to undervalue the
title of the collection of proverbs, Prov. xxv. xxix.:
" These are also proverbs of Solomon which the
men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, copied out." This
is undeniable testimony that Hezekiah appointed
a commission to make a selection of the proverbs
of Solomon. That this commission had also other
literary duties, especially that of collecting psalms, is highly probable. Lastly, according to II Kings xx. 20; II Chron. xxxii. 30; Ecclus. xlviii. 17, Hezekiah built a subterranean canal from Gihon, the Virgin's Fountain of to day, on the eastern slope of the southern spurs of Zion, to a pool at the lower end of the Tyropaean valley. The Siloam Inscription (q.v.), found in this tunnel in 1880, is considered the oldest Hebrew inscription known, and to date from the time of Hezekiah. The Shiloah mentioned in Isa. viii. 6 was probably a watercourse which existed before Hezekiah's day. W. LoTz.
BIBLIOORAPRY: Besides the literature given under Ahab. consult: the sources in 11 Kings xviii. xx.; II Chron. xxix. xxxii.; and Isa. xxxvi xxxix; R. W. Rogers, Hint. op Babylonia and Assyria, 2 vole., New York, 1900; R. Sinker, Hezekiah and his Age, London, 1897; L. B. Paton, Early Hiat. of Syria and Palestine, ib. 1901; J. V. Prasek, Sanheribs Feldafge gegen Judo, in Mitteilunpen der vorderasialiachen Gesellechaft, viii. 4, Berlin, 1903; O. Weber, Sanherib, Konig yon Assyrien, in Der alts Orient, vi. 3, Leipeic, 1903; DB, ii. 376 379; EB, ii. 205 60; the commentaries on the Scriptural sours; and C. F. Kent, The Student'a Old Testament, ii. 499 502, New York, 1905. HIBBERT LECTURES: Next to the Bampton and the Boyle lectures perhaps the most noteworthy of the lectureships in Great Britain. The lectureship is named from Robert Hibbert (17701849), an English Unitarian, whose business interests were in Jamaica. In 1847 he executed a deed conveying to trustees after the death of his wife $90,000 in American railroad utocks, the income to be applied in a way " most conducive to the spread of Christianity in its most simple and intelligible form, and to the unfettered exercise of the right of private judgment in matters of religion." The income from the funds was used for some time in forwarding the independent research of students for the ministry whose attainments were regarded as especially brilliant. In 1878, however, a part of the funds was set apart for a limited series of years for the establishment of a lectureship to deal with the history of the religions of the world. The result is a series of volumes most of which have taken their place as classics in the subjects of which they treat. Many of the volumes have passed through several editions, and a new uniform edition has been issued, London, 1891 97. The following is a list of the lecturers and their subjects:
1878. F. Max Mfiller, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religions of India, Oxford, 1878.
1879. P. Le Page Renouf, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of Ancient Egypt, London, 1880.
1880. J. E. Renan, The Influence of the Institutions, Thought and Culture of Rome on Christianity and as Do. velopment of the Catholic Church, ib. 1880.
1881. T. W. Rhys Davids, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by some Paints in the History of Indian Buddhism, ib. 1882.
1882. A. Kuenen, National Religions and Universal Religions, ib. 1882.
1883. C. Beard, The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in its Relation to Modern Thought and Knowledge, ib. 1883.
1884. ,A. REville, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Native Religions of Mexico and Peru, ib. 1884.
1885. O. Pfleiderer, The Influence of the Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity, ib. 1885.
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
1888. J. Rhys, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by Celtic Heathendom, ib. 1887.
1887. A. H. 8ayee, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of
Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, ib. 1887.
1888. E. Hatch, The Infuenoe of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, edited by A. M. Fairbairn, ib. 1890.
1891. E. Goblet d'Alviella, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of the Conception of God, as Illustrated by Anthropology and History, ib. 1891.
1892. C. G. Montefiore, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Hebre", ib. 1893.
1893. C. B. Upton, The Bases of Religious Belief, ib. 1894.
1894. J. Drummond, via, veritas, vita: Lectures on Christianity in its most simple and intelligible Form, ib. 1895.
HICKES, GEORGE: English nonjuror; b. at Newsham, near Thirsk (20 m. n.w. of York), Yorkshire, June 20, 1642; d. in London Dec. 15, 1715. He studied at St. John's and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford (B.A., 1663; M.A., 1665; B.D., 1675), and became fellow at Lincoln 1664; was appointed chaplain to the duke of Lauderdale 1676, and accompanied him to Scotland; was made prebendary of Worcester and vicar of All Hallows, Barking, 1680, chaplain to the king 1681, and dean of Worcester 1683. Refusing the oath of allegiance after the revolution of 1688, he was deprived of his deanery 1690, and for the rest of his life lived chiefly in London in more or less close concealment. In 1694 he was consecrated bishop of Thetford by the nonjurors. He published many sermons and controversial tracts, wrote the preface for a " reformed " version of John Austin's Devotions (see AusTIN, JOHN), and edited Thomas A Kempis; his Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatieo criticus et archteologicus (Oxford, 17031705) is a work of much learning and industry.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Lathbury, A Hist. of the Nonjurors, London, 1862; DNB, xxvi. 35U 354 (gives full fist of his works); W. H. Hutton, English Church . . . Id85 171.¢, pp. 244, 316, 343, London, 1903.
HICKOCg, LAURENS PERSEUS: Presbyterian; b. at Bethel, Conn., Dec. 29, 1799; d. at Amherst, Mass., May 6, 1888. He was educated at Union College (B.A., 1820), and after studying theology privately was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1824. He held pastorates in that denomination at Kent, Conn. (1824 29), and Litchfield, Conn. (1829 36), and from 1836 to 1844 was professor of theology in Western Reserve College, O. He then accepted a call to the professorship of the same subject in Auburn Theological Seminary, a position which he held until 1852, resigning to become professor of mental and moral science and vice president of Union College. In 1862 he became acting president of the same institution, of which he was full president from 1866 to 1868. In the latter year he retired from active life. He wrote Rational Psychology (New York, 1849); A System of Moral Science (1853); Empirical Psychology (1854); Rational Cosmology (1858); Creator and Crection (1872); Humanity Immortal (1872); and Logic of Reason (1875).
HICKS, ELIAS: Friend; b. at Hempstead, L. I., Mar, 19, 1748; d. at Jericho, L. I., Feb. 27, 1830.
He was a mechanic in the early part of his life, but
later devoted himself to agriculture. When he
was twenty seven he began to have " openings lead
tend in this direction. His philanthropic activities
were varied and effective. He published Observa
tions on Slavery (New York, 1811); Extemporane
ous Discourses (Philadelphia, 1825) ; Journal o f
Religious Life and Labors (5th ed., New York,
1832). ISAAC SHARPLESS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. 8. Turner, The Quakers PP 290 295 et passim, London, 1889; American Church History Series, xii. 248 284, New York. 1894.
HICKSITES. See Hlc", ELIAS; FItIENDs, SocIETY OF, I., § 6.
HIERACAS, HIERACITES: An early heretic and his followers, important for the early history of monasticism, and known principally from Epiphanius (Hter., lxvii.). Arius, however, as quoted by Epiphanius (l.c.), condemns the Christology of Hieracas, Valentinus, Manes, and Sabellius, and there is no reason to suppose another Hieracas. If he lived to be over ninety (as Epiphanius asserts), his birth would have fallen not long after 275. According to Epiphanius, he lived at Leontopolis, and was a man of the greatest learning. He knew the Bible almost by heart, composed a series of commentaries in Greek and Egyptian (Coptic), and wrote a great work on the Creation, and some psalms. He made his living by his skill as a copyist. His manner of life was extremely ascetic, including celibacy, complete abstinence from wine, and the reduction of food to the barest necessaries. His influence on the like minded soon assembled round him an ascetic community, who went even beyond their teacher in severity. Hieracas saw in the teaching of physical purity and self denial the essential difference between the Old and New Testaments. He denied the resurrection of the body, making the risen life a wholly spiritual one. He doubted the salvation of those who died in infancy, even baptized, because without knowledge there could be no conflict, and without conflict no reward. Epiphanius admits his orthodoxy on the Trinity. His Scriptural tendencies and his theoretical and speculative attitude toward renunciation of the world may be traced to the influence of Origen. If his monks were also his scholars, this would be one of the earliest instances of an ascetic community devoted at the same time to learning. According to Macarius Egyptius, there were followers of his teaching, known as Hieracites, as late as the end of the fourth century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. W. F. Welch, Histmie der Ketzereisn, i. 815 823, 11 vols., Leipsic, 1762 85; Moeller, Christian Church, i. 287, 355; Harnack Dogma iii. 29 98 sqq
112, 128, iv. 8; idem, Geschichte, i. 467 468, ii. 1, pp. 83
275 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hickes
84; DCB, iii. 24 25; Neander, Christian Church, i. 713
716; KL, v. 2005 08.
HIERARCHY (from Gk. hieros, "sacred," and
archia, " rule "): The rule of sacred things; then
a body of rulers organized for such rule. The Ro
man Church probably presents the most perfect
example of a hierarchy organized monarchically,
the whole power centering in the pope, and most
minutely graded, both with respect to orders
bishops, priests, deacons (the ordines juris divini),
and subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, lectors, door
keepers, etc. (the ordines juris ecclesiastici), and
sius went to Alexandria, accused him to his face of
overstepping the provisions of the law, and struck
him, but was tortured and thrown into the sea.
Hierocles was one of the two literary antagonists
of the Christians whom Laetantius describes (De
institutionibus, V., ii. 2) as coming forward in the
spring of 303. In the few extant fragments of his
work he appears as the upholder of a philosophic
monotheism, which, however, did not exclude a
polytheistic cult. Its line of attack is dependent
mainly upon Porphyry, especially in the attempt
to point out inconsistencies in the Scriptures. He
carries out in greater detail Porphyry's suggestion
of a comparison between Christ and Apollonius of
Tyana, in favor of the latter. With Hierocles the
Neoplatonic criticism, which had before been
merely theoretical, became practical and gained an
influence on the government. (K. J. NEUMANN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The tract of Eusebius, Contra Hierodem,
ad. Gaisford, was published Oxford, 1852. 1Y. Cave,
Scriptorum eccleaiasticorum hist. literaria, i. 131, ii. 90, London, 1688; C. Fleury, Hist. ecdkaiaatique, Il., viii. 30, 36 vole., Paris, 1704 38; T1llemont, M4moirea, xiii. 333; A. J. Mason, The Persecution of Diocletian, pp. 58 108, Cambridge, 1876; Neander, Christian Church, i. 173174; DCB, iii. 26 27; KL, v. 2012 13. HIEROGLYPHICS. See INSCRIPTIONS, I.
HIERONYMITES, hai"e ren'i maits (HERMITS OF ST. JEROME) : The name of four religious orders in Spain, Portugal, and Italy, which lived after the rule of the Augustinian canons or hermits.
1. The Spanish Hieronymites were established in the diocese of Toledo about 1370 by Vasco, a Portuguese Franciscan tertiary, and Pedro Fernando Pecha of Guadalajara, chamberlain of Peter the Cruel. The order was confirmed by Gregory XI. in 1374, and spread rapidly through Spain and Portugal, extending even to America. Its chief monasteries in Spain were Santa Maria de Guadelupe, San Yuste, San Isidor in Seville, and the EscoriaI near Madrid. In Portugal it possessed the monastery of Belem, near Lisbon. The habit of the order, whose members were favorite confessors of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchs, is a coarse white cassock with a small black cowl and a black scapular. An order of Hieronymite nuns was founded in 1375 by Maria Garcias of Toledo, but did not take solemn vows until the time of Pope Julius II. Their habit was a white cassock and brown scapular. Their last convents fell in the Carlist struggles of 1835.
2. The Observantine Hieronymites were founded by Lupus Olivetus (Lope d'Olmedo), third general of the Spanish Hieronymites (d. 1433), and were confirmed by Martin V. in 1426. In Spain the order was united with the other Hieronymites in 1595, but in Italy, where it was known as the Congregation of St. Jerome of Lombardy, it possessed monasteries up to the middle of the nineteenth century.
S. The Poor Hermits of St. Jerome were established near Montebello in Italy in 1377 by Pietro Gambacorti or Petrus de Pisis (d. 1435), who formed his community from converted robbers. The rule was exceedingly strict, but was mitigated in 1444 and exchanged for that of St. Augustine in 1568. In the seventeenth century several communities of hermits in Bavaria and the Tyrol joined this order, but it now has only a few monasteries, especially one in Viterbo and one in Rome.
4. The Congregatio Fesulana or Clerici apostolici
Sancti Hieronymi Jesuati was established in 1406
at Fiesole by Carlo de Montegranelli. The order
was suppressed in 1668 by Clement IX., and most
of its members joined the Poor Hermits of St.
Jerome. (O. ZSCKLERt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. P. de la Vega, Chronicon fratrum Hiero
nymitani ordinie, Complutum, 1539; Helyot, Ordrea
monastiques, iii. 423 447; Heimbueher, Orden and Kon
gregationen, ii. 235 237; KL, v. 2014 15; L. Holstenius,
Codex regularum monasticarum at canonicarum, ad. M.
Broeltie, vi., Additamenta, i. 10 87, Augsburg, 1759.
2. Eusebio Cremonense, O vero delta vita a progreasi de
monachi Gieronimiani, Cremona, 1645; Helyot, ut sup.,
iii. 447 456; KL, v. 2015 16; Heimbucher, ut sup., ii.
239; L. Holstenius, ut sup., iii., Additamenta, xxvi. 43
sqq. 3. P. Bonnacioli, Pisana Eremus, vita et pests
Hieronymus mus THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 276
eremitarum llieronymi, Venice, 1692: A. M. Bonucci,
latoria della vita a miracoli del . . . Pietro Gambocorti,
Rome, 1716; Helyot, ut sup., iv. 1 17; Heimbucher, ut
sup., ii. 237 239; KL, v. 2016 17. 4. Helyot, iv. 18 25; .
Heimbucher, ut sup., ii. 239 240; KL, v. 2017.
HIERONYMUS. See JEROME.
HIGH CHURCH. See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF,
II., § 5.
Sacred Mountains in Ethnic Religions (§ 1).
west Semitic Worship on Mountains (§ 2).
Hebrew High Places (§ 3).
Their Number and Location ($ 4).
High Places in Codes and History (§ 5).
Opposing Interests and Ideas (§ 6).
In all primitive cults the jurisdiction of a deity
is regarded as restricted within limits comparatively
confined. Each spot may have its resident spirit
who is for that spot the god or, as the Semites say,
fertility seemed to have its source. But according
to Semitic notions there were two great reservoirs
whence fertilizing waters issued; one below the
earth, from which springs and rivers sprang; and
one above the firmament or sky, whence came the rains (Gen. i. 6 7; in Gen. vii. 1 both sources are represented as contributing to the flood). Frequently the clouds gathered about a mountain top and thence spread to deposit their moisture; hence the summits whence the rain seemed to come were regarded as homes of baals and their appropriate sanctuaries. A second cause of the selection of hilltops as places of worship was the conception of heaven gods who were most appropriately worshiped on the hills (Smith, ut sup., pp. 470 471). The notion of mountain deities and of consequent worship on the hills is especially dominant in the Semitic realm. Arameans attributed Israelitic victory to the supposed fact that Yahweh was a god of the mountain (I Kings xx. 23, 28). Assyrian deities were wont to gather on the heights (Isa. xiv. 13). Mt. Sinai was a sacred spot before the Hebrews left Egypt, took its name from the Babylonian Himyaric moon god Sin (see BABYLONIA, VIL, 2, § 5); Horeb Sinai was during Hebrew history the sacred mountain (Deut. xxxiii. 2; Hab. iii. 1), with which Yahweh is connected in Judges (v. 4 5), whither Elijah returned for communion with him (I Kings xix.), while it was the goal of pilgrimages during the early Christian centuries. Reminiscences of earlier worship on the hills are seen in the ziggurats of Babylonia, elevated sometimes to seven or eight stories.
That the branch of Semites to which the Hebrews belonged used heights as places of worship is abundantly attested in Scripture. The Moabites had altars on Mt. Pisgah (Num. xxiii. 14), Mt. Peor (xxiii. 28 30), other unnamed places (xxii. 41xxiii. 1), and other Moabitio high
2. West places were Bajith, Dibon, and Nebo
Semitic (Isa. xv. 2; cf. Jer. xlviii. 35), and
Worship possibly Bamoth baal and Beth baal
on meon (Josh. xiii. 17), while one of their
Mountains. deities was Baal peor. A high place
has been discovered at Petra (cf.
Biblical World, xvii. 2, xxi. 170, xxvii. 386; Ben
zinger, Archdologie, p. 320, ed. of 1907). Further
illustrations of this are the frequent notice in
the Old Testament of high places used by the
Canaanites (Num. xxxiii. 52; Deut. xii. 2). Zeus
oreios, " Zeus of the mountain," is named on a
post Christian inscription found near Saida, and
Jacob of Sarug knew of idolatrous high places in
the early sixth century. Among the ancestors and
leaders of the Hebrews it is recorded of Abraham
that the site of the intended sacrifice of Isaac was
on a mountain (Gen. xxii. 2); of Jacob that he
" ° offered sacrifice upon the mount " (Gen. xxxi.
54), in this case possibly an artificial mound; Moses
built an altar on the hill from which he had viewed
the battle between Amalek and Israel (Ex. xvii.
15); Joshua built an altar on Mt. Ebal (Josh. viii.
30; of. Deut. xxvii. 4 5, in which Moses commands
the erection of an altar there). The case is strength
ened by the fact that for events having sacred or
solemn significance heights were frequently chosen.
The death of Aaron took place on Mt. Hor (Num.
xx. 22 29), and of Moses on Nebo (Deut. xxxiv.
1 5). Moabites (Isa. xv. 2) and Hebrews alike
went to the hills to mourn (cf. the mourning for the