161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. O. Bardenhewer, Pabrologia, pp. 163­164, Fveiburg, 1894; H. B. Swete, Introduction to the O. T. in Greek, London, 1900; SehOrer, Geechichte, iii. 314 sqq., Eng. tranal., II., iii. 165 166; Kreger, History, p. 219; DCB, iii. 7 8.

2. W. Cave, 8cripforum eccl. Kist. literaria, i. 570 sqq., Oxford, 1740; Fabricius Harles, Bibliothaa arms, vii. 548 bbl, Hamburg, 1801; O. Bardenhewer, Patrologia,

p' 351

p.  353, Freiburg, 1894; Krumbaeher, Gesehichte p.

147; DCB, iii. 11 12; Ceillier, Auteurs sacrla, xi. 654 M77.


HETHERINGTON, WILLIAM MAXWELL: Scot­tish poet and clergyman of the Free Church; b. near Dumfries June 4, 1803; d. at Glasgow May 23, 1865. He studied at the University of Edinburgh,

and became pastor at Torpichen, Linlithgow, in

1836. At the separation of 1843 he joined the Free

Church and received a charge in St. Andrews the

following year. In 1844 he established the Free

Church Magazine, which he edited for four years.

In 1848 he was called to Free St. Paul's, Edinburgh.

From 1857 till his death he was professor of apol­

ogetics and systematic theology at New College,

Glasgow. Aside from his poems, his more impor­

tant works are: The Minister's Family (Edinburgh,

1838; 12th ed., 1880), a popular Evangelical work;

History of the Church of Scotland (1842; 7th ed.,

2 vols., 1852), a good book, but biased; History o f

the Westminster Assembly of Divines (1843; ed.

R. Williamson, 1878), a useful work of reference;

and the posthumous Apologetics o f the Christian

Faith (1867), a course of lectures edited, with a

biographical sketch, by Alexander Duff.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hew Scott, Fas6i eudesias $coticante, i. 204,

London, 1871; DNB, xxvi. 300 301.

HETTINGER, FRANZ: German Roman Catholic scholar; b. at Aschaffenburg (23 m. e.s.e. of Frank­fort), Bavaria, Jan. 13, 1819; d. at W(irzburg Jan. 26, 1890. He studied at W ilrzburg and in the German College at Rome, where he was ordained priest in 1843. From 1847 nearly the whole of his life was spent at W (irzburg, either in the clerical seminary  or in the university, in which he was professor of theological encyclopedia and patrology (1856 67) and of apologetics and homiletics from 1867, besides being rector in 1862 and 1867. .In 1868 he was summoned to Rome to take part in the preparations for the Vatican Council, and in 1879 was made domestic prelate to Leo XIII. His works include Das Friesterthum der katholischen Kirche (Regensburg, 1851) ; Die Liturgie der Kirche and die ldteinische Sprache (W tirzburg, 1856) ; Das Becht and die Freiheit der Kirche (1860); Apologie des Christenthums (2 vols., Freiburg, 1862 67; Natural Religion, and Revealed Religion, 2 vols., London, 1895); Die kirchliche Vollgewalt des apos­tolischen Stuhles (1873; The Supremacy of the Apostolic See in the Church, London, 1889); D. F. Strauss (1875); Lehrbuch der Fundamentaltheologie oder Apologetik (2 vols., 1879); and a number of scholarly works on Dante, of which the most im­portant is Die gottliche Kom6die des Dante nach ihrem wesentlichen Inhalt and Charakter (1880; Dante's Divina Commedia: its Scope and Value, London, 1887).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Gedenhblatt was published at Wtirsburg, 1890. Consult: F. Kaufmann, Frans Hettinger, Frank­fort, 1891.


HEUBNER, heib'ner, HEINRICH LEONHARD: German Lutheran; b. at Lauterbach (in the Erzge­birge, 15 m. s.e. of Chemnitz) June 2, 1780; d. at Wittenberg Feb. 12, 1853. After. schooling at Schulpforta and studying at Wittenberg, where, in 1805, he qualified as lecturer, he became superin. tendent and first director of the Wittenberg theo­logical seminary, in 1832; and so served till his death. As theologian Heubner adopted the stand­point of F. V. Reinhard (q.v.) until about 1817; and since he was uninfluenced by newer theological, as well as philosophic, tendencies, his theology


bore somewhat of an antiquated stamp. Never­

theless his fervent piety elevated him to a sincerity

and warmth that far exceeded the forms of the

routine school system. Accordingly, his power lay

not in his academic activity, nor yet in his sermons,

but in the influence of his Christian personality.

Loyalty to the confession of the Lutheran Church

caused him to refuse acquiescence in the Act of

Union and acceptance of the new liturgy. Respect

for his personality, however, induced the authorities

to leave him undisturbed. His publications are

limited to minor treatises, two collections of ser­

mons, and the reissue of Reinhard's Plan Jesu

(Wittenberg, 1830; Eng. trend., including Heub­

ner's notes, Plan of the Founder of Christianity,

New York, 1831) and Biicbner's Handkonkordmiz

to the Bible (Halls, 1840). After his death there

appeared a practical exposition of the New Testa­

ment (4 vole., Potsdam, 1858), and Christliche

Topik oder Darstellung der christlichen Glmubenalehre

fur den homiletiachen Gebraueh (1863), based on his

lectures. GEonG R1xTScaxr..

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Schmieder, Eoarpelisdha Kirdhenceitunp, 1883, pp. 289 eqq.; Zurn Gedachtnise Dr. Heinrich Leon­hard HaubneWangemann, Die kireh­lick Cabinets Politik des KBriiga FWedrich WiMm 111., pp. 171 eqq., 182 eqq., Berlin, 1884; A. Koch, Dr. HeinrlcA Leonhard Heubner in wiaenberp, ib. 1885.
HEUMARR, hei'miin, CHRISTOPH AUGUST: German Protestant; b. at Alat#dt, Thuringia, Aug. 3, 1681; d. at Gottingen May 1, 1764. He received his education at the gymnasium at Saalfeld and at the University of Jena, where he became privet docent in philosophy in 1702. After travel­ing in Germany, Holland, and France, he became director of the seminary and gymnasium at Eisen­ach in 1709. Here he remained till 1717, when he accepted a similar position in the gymnasium at Gottingen. Here he had abundant opportunity to display his talents as administrator, teacher, and writer. In 1734 the premises of the gymnasium were required for the erection of the new university. Heumann expected an appointment as full professor of theology, since he had received the doctorate in theology at Helmstedt in 1728, and had declined several calls to universities. But he was appointed professor of the history of literature and associate professor of theology. At last he received a full professorship in theology in 1745. In 1758 he felt obliged to retire, since he disagreed with the Lutheran doctrine of the Lord's Supper. He de­voted the rest of his life to literary work. He was an indefatigable writer; the mere enumeration of his works occupies 134 pages in his biography by Cassius. He wrote on theology, criticism, philology, history of philosophy, biography, etc. Of his theological writings, the principal are his translation of the New Testament (Hanover, 1748), his com­mentary on the New Testament (12 vols., 1750 83), and the posthumous Erweias, doss die Lehre der reformierten Kirche vom Abendmahde die rechte sei (3 parts, 1764), which grievously offended the Lutherans and called forth numerous replies.

(PAUL TscaecmmT.)

BnwooHAPHy: G. A. Cassius, Ausjiahrlidle Lebenebsschreib. uno Hsumanne. Cassel. 1788; Zsit and Geechichdebo 

wAreibunp der Stadl Gsttinpen, iii. 128 300, GBttingen, 1738; C. G. Heyne, Memoria Heumanni, ib. 1784; ADB, si. 327 eqq.


MUSSER, heis'ser, META (SCHWEIZER): The best female hymnist in the German language; b. at Hirzel (13 m. s.s.e. of Zurich) Apr. 6,1797; d. there Jan. 2, 1876. She was the fourth daughter of Pastor Diethelm Schweizer, a relative and friend of Lavater, and spent her quiet life in Hirzel. She married Johann Jakob Heusser, an eminent physi­cian, and became the mother of a large family. She never dreamed that her lays would be given to the world; but her friends, after many vain efforts, obtained her consent to publish anonymously some of them in Albert Knapp's Christoterpe for 1834. They made a deep impression, and passed into many collections and German hymn books of Europe and America, especially the Easter hymn, Lamm das gelitten, and Li6eoe der siegreich gerungen, and O Jesus Christ, mein Leben. Later Knapp edited a volume of her poems, under the title Lieder einer Verbor­genen (Leipsic, 1858). It was followed by a second series (1867), under her real name. A selection from both volumes was translated into English by Miss Jane Borthwick under the.title Alpine Lyrics (Edinburgh and London, 1875). Mrs. Heusser was a woman of rare genius, piety, and loveliness of character. Her memory was stored with the choicest poetry, secular and religious.

(PaiwP ScaAFFt.) D. S. SCHAPrF.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. Koch, Geschichle des Xirchenliede and KircAengesanm vii. 877 381, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 1888­1877; P. Schaff, Christ in Song, New York, 1888; ADB, xtii.339 340; Julian, Hymnolopy, pp. 519 520.

HEWALD (HERWALD) : The name of two Anglo Saxon monks who toward the end of the seventh century undertook a mission to Saxony. According to Bede (Hist. ecci., v.10), they had lived a long time in Ireland, and were distinguished as the " dark " (niger) and the " fair " (albus), from the color of their hair. Their request to be presented to the Saxon chief was not granted, and the bar­barians slew them, torturing the dark Hewald cruelly, and throwing his limbs into the Rhine: The king punished the murderers, and the bodies of the martyrs at once began to work miracles. Pepin buried them in Cologne (which fixes their date before 714). The day of their suffering was Oct. 3. In 1074 Anno II., archbishop of Cologne, translated their relics to St. Cunibert's church; the church of St. Victor at Xanten, and the abbey of Gorze, near Metz, also claimed to possess portions of their relics.

BIHLIOaaAPH1: ASH, Oct., ii. 205 207; Bettberg, KD. ii.

397 399; Hsu* KD, ii. 388 389; NA, ii (1877). 293.

HEWIT, NATHANIEL AUGUSTUS (name in religion, Augustine Francis): Roman Catholic; b. at Fairfield, Conn., Nov. 27, 1820; d. in New York City July 3, 1897. He was graduated from Amherst (B.A., 1839) and from the Theological Institute of Connecticut, Windsor (1842). In the same year he was ordained to the Congregational ministry, within the year became a Protestant Epis­copalian and wag ordered deacon, but in 1846 he


became a convert to the Roman Catholic faith. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1847, and for two years was vice principal of the Cathedral Collegiate Institute, Charleston, S. C. From 1850, when he entered the Redemptorist Order, until 1858 he was a missioner, and in the latter year was dispensed from his vows to enable him to enter the newly established Congregation of St. Paul the Apostle. In 1865 he was appointed professor of philosophy, theology, and Holy Scripture in the Paulist Sem­inary, New York City. Besides editing the Catholic World from 1869 to 1874, he wrote Reasons for Submitting to the.Catholic Church (Charleston, S. C.,

Names (§ 1).

Contents (§ 2).

External Testimony to the Author­ship (§ 3).

Internal Testimony (§ 4).

Early Theories of Composition (§ 5).

Development of the Documentary Hypothesis (§ 8).

Analysis Illustrated and Justified

(§ 7).

[The symbols J, E, JE, PD, used in this article, repre­sent writers or schools of writers who, according to the critical hypothesis, produced the documents from which the Hexateuch was compiled. Thus J represents a docu­ment referred to the ninth century a.c.;• E, one referred to the eighth century; JE to their union in one strand in'the early part of the seventh century; D, to the product of a school working in the last half of the seventh and later, producing Deuteronomy and several of the historical books; P, a series of documents partly narrative, partly legal, as­signed to the fifth and fourth centuries. For fuller explana­tion see HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LrraeAruaa, II., § 5.1
The Hexateuch is the name ,given to the first six books of the Bible as a whole, the first five of which are called the Pentateuch. The Old

:. Names. Testament names for the Pentateuch

are Hattorah, " the instruction, the

law," Sepher hattorah, " the book of the law," Se­

pher toroth Yahweh, "book of the law of Yahweh,"

and Sepher toroth Elohim, " book of the law of God "

(with reference to its source), and Sepher torath

Moaheh, " book of the law of Moses," or, Sepher

Mosheh (Ezra vi. 18; Neh. xiii. 1; with reference

to its human mediator). In Talmudic times Sepher

hattorah served to designate the Pentateuch written

as one roll for use in divine service, while Vamis8hah

Humshey hattorah, " the five fifths of the law," was

applied to the Pentateuch written in five rolls or in

book form. The Aramaic designation was 'Oraita,

" instruction "; the Greek, Ho nomoa or Ho namos

Mauuseas, " the law " or " the law of Moses." The

term Pentateuch was first used, it is believed, by

the Valentinian Ptolemeeus (c. 160 A.D.) in a letter

to Flora (Epiphanius, Har., viii. 14), the Latin

Pentateuehus (liber) by Tertullian (Adro. Mdrcion.,

i. 10), taking later the form Pentateuchum in Isidore

of Seville. The individual books were called by

the Jews' by the first words occurring in them:

Bereshith, Shemoth or We'elleh Shemoth, Wayyitra,

Bemidhbar or Wayyedhabber, Debharim or Elleh

debharim (cf. Origen in Eusebius, Hist. eccl., VI.,

xxv.). The Greek names Genesis, Ezodos, Leuiti­

kon, Arithmoi, Deuteronomion appear in Hippolytus

(Hcer., vi. 15 16) as though used by Simon Magus.

1846); Life of Princess Borgheae (New York, 1856); Life of Dumoulin Boris (1857); Life of Rev. Francis

A. Baker (1865); Problems of the Age, with Studies

in St. Augustine on Kindred Topics (1868); Light

in Darkness: A Treatise on the Obscure Night o f

the Soul (1871); and The King's Highway: or, The

Catholic Church the Only Way of Salutation as re­

vealed in the Scriptures (1874). He also translated

A. Breseiani's Life of the Egyptian Aloyadus: or,

the Little Angel of the Copra (New York, 1865).


Modern Conservative Writers (§ 8).

General Positions of Advanced Criticism ($ 9).

Position of KSnig, Dilhnann, Well­hausen, A., Kuenen (¢ 10).

Kloetermann's Recent Work (§ ll).

Limitations of Literary Analysis

The Constitution and the Statutes

The Tabernacle (§ 14). The Manual for the Priests (§ lb). Legislation not in the Law Books U 16). The Legislation and Specific Needs
Deuteronomy (¢ 18). Legislation and the Age (§ 19). Literature on §§ 12 19 (¢ 20).

The division into five books is older than the Sep­

tuagint, but not original. It is also older than

Chronicles, since in I Chron. xvi. the psalm put

into the mouth of David on the occasion of bringing

the ark into Jerusalem contains the doxology at

the end of the fourth book of the Psalms; and the

division of Psalms into five books doubtless cor­

responds to the fivefold division of the Pentateuch.

The contents include the history of God's kingdom

on earth and in Israel from the creation till the

death of Moses, and the law of God's

s. Con  kingdom in Israel. (1) Genesis: i. xi.

tents is primitive history (creation, paradise,

the fall, the flood, the table of nations,

building of the tower at Babylon, genealogy from

Shem to Abram); xii. xxvi. deals with Abraham

and Isaac; xxvii. xxxvii. 1 deals with Jacob, and

xxxvii. 2 1. with Joseph. (2) Exodus: i. xv. 21

contains the oppression of Israel in Egypt, two

reports of the call of Moses (iii. vi. 1 and vi. 2­

vii. 7), the ten plagues of Egypt, the exodus and

crossing of the Red Sea (vii. 8 xv. 21); xv. 22­

xxiv. 11 describes the journey to Sinai and the

conclusion of the covenant there (xx. 2 17 con­

tains the decalogue; xx. 22 xxiii. is the Book of

the Covenant); axiv. 12 xxxi. contains direc­

tions concerning the building and equipment of

the Tabernacle and concerning the clothing and

consecration of the priests and the daily offer­

ing; aaxii. xaxiv. describes the breaking of the

covenant and its renewal; xxxv. xl, narrates

the erection of the Tabernacle, the making of the

priestly garments and the consecration of the sanc­

tuary. (3) Leviticus: i. vii. contains laws of offer­

ings, the kinds of offerings and the .duties and

privileges of the priests; viii. x. describes the con­

secration of the priests and their induction into

office; xi. xvi. contains directions regarding clean

and unclean and the day of atonement; xvii. xxvi.

is the Holiness Code, dealing with festivals and with

the Sabbatical and Jubilee years; xxvii. deals with

consecrations. (4) Numbers: i. x. 10 gives the


last directions and events at Sinai; x. 11 xxii. 1,

from Sinai to Moab (the spying out of the promised

land and the murmuring of the people, the insurrec­

tions of Korah and of Dathan and Abiram, the

gathering of the people in Kadesh, the death of

Miriam and Aaron, three pieces of poetry); xxii. 2­

xxxvi., occurrences and laws in Moab (Balsam,

numbering of the people, summary of halting­

places). (5) Deuteronomy: i. iv. 43, introductory

addresses of Moses; iv. 44 xxvi., the second ad­

dress (repetition of the decalogue, directions to fear,

love, and worship God alone, the central sanctuary,

unclean foods, judgment at the central sanctuary

and the law of the king, priests, levites and prophets,

prayers and tithes); xxvii: xxx., final address (di­

rection to write the words of the law in plaster on

great stones, blessings and cursings); xxxi ~xxxiv,

end of the life and work of Moses (command to

read the law every seventh year to the assemblies

of people at the feast of tabernacles, the Song of

Moses, the last words of Moms). (6) Joshua:

i. vi. recounts the crossing of the Jordan and the

capture of Jericho; vii. viii., the capture of Ai;

ix. x., the war in South Palestine; xi., the war

in North Palestine; xii., recapitulation; xiii. xxi.,

partition of the land among the tribes; xxii., dis­

missal of the trans Jordanic tribes; xxiii: xxiv.,

final exhortations of Joshua, his death and


In the time of Jesus and the Apostles the Penta­teuch was certainly regarded as the work of Moses

(Mark xii. 19; John viii. 5), and from 3. External this point of view the expressions of

Testimony the Lord and his disciples regarding to the "the law" are made (Jesus in Matt. Authorship. viii. 4; Mark xii. 26; Luke xvi. 29;

John v. 45; Peter in Acts iii. 22; Paul in Rom. ix. 15). For the view in the Apocrypha cf. II Mace. i. 29, vii. 26. For earlier times this same view is indicated as regnant in Ezra vi. 18; Neh. xiii. 1. In the prophetical writings the name of Moses as attached to the law occurs only Mal. iv. 4, and the expression there does not necessarily involve authorship. The passages in the books of Kings where occur the phrases " the law of Moses " and " the law book of Moses " relate only to Deuter­onomy, I Kings ii. 2 4; II Kings xiv. 6 (II Kings xviii. 6, 12, xxi. 8, xxiii. 25 designate the law as given by God through Moses). Moses' name ap­pears in Psalms lxxvii., xcix., cv., cvi., but in these passages is not associated with literary activity. Moses gives no testimony for his authorship of the whole, since Ex. xvii. 14, xxiv. 4, 7, xxxiv. 27, and Num. xxxiii. 2 concern only portions, while Deut. xxxi. refers only. to the law in Deuteronomy. Ex­ternal testimony is therefore inconclusive. Regard­ing the citations from the New Testament it is to be remarked that they testify simply to the current opinion of the times. Were they an essential part of the authoritative teaching of the New Testament they would be decisive in themselves, and any intro­duction of further proof would be a setting aside of the authority of the Lord and his disciples. But none of the advocates of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch who have made themselves so­quainted with the difficulties and development of

the question have gone so far as to assert that the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch is conclusively decided by the manner in which the books are referred to by the Lord and his apostles and that no further proof is required. A remarkable exception was the late William Henry Green of Princeton (q.v.).

From the contents, and especially from the com­position of the Pentateuch, reasons appear which show that the Pentateuch is neither

4. Internal by Moses nor by a contemporary, nor

Testimony. indeed the work of one hand. (1) Mo­ses would not have written concern­ing his own Egyptian name as the passage Ex. ii. 10 is worded; moreover, he would have called by their proper names both the king's daughter who rescued him and the Pharaoh of the oppression and of the exodus, while in the Pentateuch Pharaoh is used as though it were a proper name; he would have made known the identity of Reguel and Jethro, would not have mentioned the Cushite woman in the manner of Num. xii. 1; and he can not have written the conclusion of the genealogy found in Es. vi. 26 27. (2) Numerous geographical, arche­ological, and historical details indicate post Mosaic times. Such are the mention of Hormah, Num. xxi. 3; Dent. i. 44; and the villages of Jair, Deut. iii. 14 (cf. Num. xxxii. 41; Josh. xiii. 30; Judges x. 4). The passage which cites the Book of the Wars of Yahweh, Num. xxi. 14 15, must be post Mosaic, since the contemporaries of Moses who were led across the Arnon did not need a testimony that this river was in their time the northern border of Moab. The summary of stations in Num. xxxiii., even though with Ewald verses 36b 41 a are put after verse 30a, gives no clear picture of the journey through the wilderness; moreover, it is strange that Hadesh is mentioned only once, though elsewhere it is stated that the Israelites were there in the second and in the fortieth year. (3) That the Pentateuch is not by one hand, but a composite, follows from the fact that there is a lack of relationship between parts which, were they by the same author, would have been brought into express connection by cross­reference. How strongly the reader of Gen. xxvi. is reminded of Gen. xx. xxi., where the similar experiences of Abraham and Isaac are recorded I And yet the later narrative contains no reference to that containing the earlier event. With reference to Genesis, this objection may be answered by the supposition that Moses employed earlier sources, as Campegius Vitringa supposed regarding the rela­tion of Gen. ii. 4 sqq. to Gen. i. 1 ii. 3. But the same phenomenon is met in Exodus. There are two reports of the call of Moses; and while they are not contradictory, they in no way cross refer. Moses could be considered the author of two reports, but there would be needed a later hand to bring them together. And further examination shows that the second report belongs to P, while the first is a composite of the work of E and J. Difference of authorship here is indicated both by linguistic dif­ferences and by other peculiarities; and just this difference in presentation is, as will be shown, a weighty ground for holding to the compositeness of the Pentateuch.

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