the theological faculty of that university in 1559.
He joined the Augustinian antischolastic party
which went back to the Church Fathers of the third,
fourth, and fifth centuries, but vigorously opposed
the Augustinism of the Protestants. With Bajus
and Cornelius Jansen he went, in 1563, to the
Council of Trent, where he seems to have taken part
in the preparatory work of the Catechismus Roma
nus. The last three years of his life were occupied
with polemical agitation against Protestantism and
Cassander. He wrote polemical treatises and com
mentaries on the Bible. His chief work in the
sphere of dogmatics is his Catechismus (Louvain,
1571, 2d ed., 1595). (O. Z&KLERt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. F. X. de Ram, Mbmoire Sur la part quB
le clerg6 de Belgique . . . ant prise au concile de Trento,
Brussels, 1841; F. X. Linsenmann, Bajus and die Grund
legung des Jansenismus, Tdbingen, 1867; H. Hurter,
Nomenclator literarius recentioris theologise catholicle, i.
30 31, Innsbruck, 1867; KL, v. 1930 31.
HESSEY, JAMES AUGUSTUS: Church of Eng
land; b. at London July 17, 1814; d. there Dec. 24,
1892. He was educated at St.. John's College, Ox
ford (B.A., 1836), and was ordained priest in 1838.
He was vicar of Helidon, Nortbants. (1839), and
lecturer in logic in his college (1839 12). He was
public examiner in the University of Oxford
(1842 14), and headmaster of Merchant Taylors'
School (1845 70). He became examining chaplain
to the bishop of London (1870), and from 1875 until
his death was archdeacon of Middlesex. He was
likewise select preacher at Oxford in 1849, and at
Cambridge in 1878 79, preacher of Gray's Inn,
London, in 1850 79, Bampton Lecturer at Oxford
in 1860, prebendary of Oxgate in St. Paul's Cathe
dral in 1860 75, Grinfeld Lecturer on the Septuagint
in Oxford in 1865 69, and Boyle Lecturer in 1871
1873. He was one of the three permanent chairmen
of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,
took an active part in the movement against legal
izing marriage with a deceased wife's sister, and in
theology was a moderate High churchman, with
deep sympathy with all that is earnest and true in
every school of his Church. In addition to editing
the Institutio Lingum Sanche of Victorinus Bythner
(2 parts, London, 1853), he wrote Schemata Rheto
rica: or, Tables explanatory o f the Nature o f the
Enthymeme, and the Various Modes of Classification
adopted by Aristotle in his Rhetoric and Prior Ana
lytics (Oxford, 1845); Sunday, its Origin, History,
and Present Obligation (Bamptonlectures; London,
1860); Biographies of the Kings of Judah (1865);
and Moral Difficulties Connected with the Bible
(Boyle lectures; 3 series, 1871 73).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, Supplement, ii. 415 416.
HESSHUSEN, TILEMANN: German Lutheran; b. at Nieder Wesel (32 m. n.w. of Diisseldorf), in the duchy of Cleves, Nov. 3, 1527; d. at Helmstedt (22 m. e. of Brunswick) Sept. 25, 1588. He studied at Wittenberg, where he became the pupil, friend, and guest of Melanchthon. During the Interim he went abroad, hearing lectures at Oxford and Paris. In 1550, after his return to Wittenberg, he lectured at the university. In 1553, at the recommendation of his teacher, he was appointed superintendent and Pastor primarius in Goslar; but his zeal for the reformation of the collegiate chapters and convents brought upon him the disfavor of the magistrates so that he was compelled to resign in 1556. He went to Magdeburg, where he collaborated on the " Magdeburg Centuries " and took an active part in attempts at mediating between Melanchthon and Flacius. After a few weeks he went to Rostock as professor at the university and pastor of the church of St. James. Here he joined Peter Eggerdes in preaching against the celebration of marriage ceremonies on Sundays and the carousals which usually followed them, against the participation of Evangelical Christians in Roman Catholic funerals and the employment of Roman Catholic sponsors. He excommunicated the two burgomasters who opposed him, but although many citizens and even Duke Ulrich were on his side and that of Eggerdes, they were both expelled on Oct. 9, 1557.
In the following month Elector Otto Heinrich called Hesshusen to Heidelberg as first professor of theology, preacher at the Church of the Holy Spirit, and general superintendent of the Palatinate. Here, too, he gained few friends, and his attacks on the Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper made him generally unpopular. Elector Frederick Ill., the successor of Otto Heinrich, demanded adherence to the Augustana variata. As Hesshusen did not submit, he was deposed in 1559. He had a still more vehement encounter on the question of the Lord's Supper with Albert Hardenberg, cathedral preacher in Bremen, who was an adherent of Philippism (see PHILIPPISTB). In 1560 he became
Hesshusen THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 258
Hesychasts pastor of the Church of St. John in Magde
burg, whence he continued his attacks on Hard
enberg. In 1561 his opponent was deposed as
a disturber of the common peace and expelled.
At a convention held in Lilneburg in 1561, Hess
husen achieved the victory of strict Lutheran
ism, but the synod of Lower Saxony accepted
its resolutions only under the condition that
preachers be forbidden to condemn one another.
In the mean time Johann Wigand, whom Strigel
had expelled from Jena, had come to Magdeburg.
Hesshusen intended to secure for him a position at
proved to teach that there were two divine beings,
both omnipotent. As Hesshusen did not retreat,
the duke deposed him from his office (1577).. With
the assistance of Chemnitz, he received a position
in the University of Helmstedt. He was finally
persuaded to sign the Formula of Concord, and every
obstacle to its introduction in Brunswick seemed
to be removed; but in comparing the printed copy
with the written text, Hesshusen found a considerable number of deviations, and was not satisfied with the explanations of Chemnitz. The duke of Brunswick also opposed the Formula, so that it was not accepted in his country, and thus lost much of its general authority.
Of his works may be mentioned: Von Amt and Gewalt der Pfarrherren (1561; ed. Friedrich August Schiitz, Leipsic, 1854), in which he developed his rigorous views on church discipline, and De servo arbitrdo (1562). Against the supposed adiaphorism of men like Andreii who tried to harmonize, he wrote Vom Bekenntnis des Namens Jesu (1571). Several treatises are directed against the Wittenberg catechism of 1570 and against the Consensus of Dresden. He wrote against Rome in his exposition of the nineteenth Psalm (1571) and in De 600 errorl7ws pontificis ecclesice (1572). Against Flacius he wrote Analysis argumentorum Flacii (1571), Gegenbericht von der Erbsiinde wider Flacius (1571). Clara et perapicua testimonia Augustini (1571), and Antidotum contra Flacii dogma (1572, 1576). He developed the thoughts of his Examen theologicum further in De vera ecclesia et ejvs auloritate libri ii. (1572). Against the Calvinistic doctrine of ubiquity he wrote Verce et sacrte Confessionis de prrTsentia eorporis Christi pia defensio (1583); Bekenntnis von der pers6nlichen Vereinigung beider Naturen (1586) and other works. Hesshusen also wrote commentaries on the Psalms and on the epistles of Paul, six books De justifccatione (1587), and several collections of sermons. (K. HACKEN8CHMIDT.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief source is J. G. Leuckfeld, Historia Heahusiana, Quedlinburg, 1716. Consult further: K. von Helmolt, Tilemann Heashusen and seine eieben exilia, Leipsic, 1859; C. A. Wilkens, Tilemann Hes.hmen, tin Streittheologe der Lutherkirche, ib. 1860; Schaff, Chrietian Church, vii. 671 sqq.; Moeller, Christian Church, iii. 185 et passim.
HESSHUSIUS.See HEssHusEN, T1r.EMANN.
HESYCHASTS: A community of Greek quiet
istic and mystic monks, especially on Mount Athos
in the fourteenth century. Since the
First elevation of the Palaeologi to the im
Appearance. perial throne, the Church had been
Barlaani. in a state of continuous unrest, the
policy of the government inclining al
ternately to union with the Roman Catholic Church
and to hostility to the Latin faith; while the first
half of the fourteenth century was a period of civil
war. This was the time at which the Hesychasts
originated, first on Mount Athos, under the leader
ship of Gregorius Palanlas (q.v.), later archbishop of
Thessalonica. They spoke of an eternal, uncreated,
and yet communicable divine light, which had
shone on Mount Tabor, the Mount of Transfigura
tion, and had passed to them. They were soon
assailed, however, by the monk Barlaam, a native
of Calabria, of Greek descent, but educated in the
Roman Catholic Church, and originally a member
of a Roman Catholic Basilian order. He had gone
to Greece at the beginning of the reign of Androni
cus, joined the Greek Church, and won prominence
by polemics against the Roman Church and as an
agent of Andronicus to Benedict XII. at Avignon,
ostensibly to procure the support of western Europe
against the Turks, but really to labor for a union
957 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Heaahnren
Hesyohasta between the Greek and Roman churches. After his
meditation, postulated a hidden light into which one
who was deemed worthy to see God might enter.
Similar concepts recur under different terminology
in Maximus, but the chief theologian to raise the
theory of the divine light to a cardinal doctrine in
the Greek system was Symeon Neotheologus (q.v.),
who flourished about the year 1000. He regarded
the vision of God and the consequent union with the
divine as the chief end of the Christian, and for the
attainment of this object required a systematic
education which was to be perfected by baptism, as
ceticism, penance, and the sacraments. This teach
ing formed the basis of the Hesychasts of Mount
Athos, although they devised an artificial mode of
obtaining these visions. The light was regarded as
superterrestrial and divine, but was not identified
with God, and a distinction was accordingly drawn
between essence and activity. The latter was
divided into an indefinite number of individual
energies of wisdom, power, counsel, illumination,
and life. These form the " divinities " which em
anate from God and are inseparably connected with
him. To them belongs the Tabor light, which is
superterrestrial, visible, eternal, and uncreated, yet
deifies that through which it passes and raises it
to the region of the uncreated. Against this the
followers of Barlaam, represented especially by
Nicephoraa Gregoras, argued that the uncreated light must be either a substance or a quality. In the former case, a fourth hypoatasis is assumed, and in the latter a quality, which is impossible without a subject. In either case, two Gods would be presupposed: one superior, and the other inferior and capable of being attained to by physical vision. On the other hand, the most necessary attributes of God are unity and goodness; but the former excludes all combination, and the latter is unthinkable, except in a union of essence and activity.
The problem presented to the synod was twofold: the distinction between essence and activity, and the Hesychaatic interpretation of The their uncreated energies as " divin
Points of ities, "which became the principle of a
Controversy. mysterious deification. On the basis
of the latter question the Hesychasta
could scarcely have been sustained, but the synod
gave prominence to the purely speculative problem
without regard to the peculiar point of view from
which it was deduced. The Greek Fathers had
always recognized the acme of the divine tran
scendency as the absolute, to which no name might
be given and which no eye, either of mind or body,
might behold. On the other hand, they admitted
life and activity proceeding from the absolute, and
these qualities could not fail unless the finite was
to be separated from all vital association with God.
For so fluctuating a differentiation, which formed,
moreover, a ready basis for mysticism, it was not
difficult to find proofs both from analogy and from
the earlier theologians; and the synod accorlingly
rendered its decision regardless of the philosophical
error contained in the mystical deductions of the
Hesychasts. The justice of their claims to the dis
covery of the Tabor light, the retainable portion of
their Gnosticizing description of the energies, and
the reconciliation of the contradiction of an un
created visibility were unexplained; nor was the
relation of essence and activity clearly defined.
Nevertheless, the Greek Church remained content
with this unsatisfactory result, partly because it
squared with the tendency of its theology. In its
turn, the Roman Catholic Church upheld Barlaam,
and even made the controversy one of the points of
essentially Greek dogma that the spirit o: God still
operates creatively in the Church as it did in the
Apostolic Age, and it was likewise a battle against
Occidental scholasticism, which was then rejected
forever by the Greek Church.
From this point of view it becomes clear why the doctrine of the sight of the divine light has been retained in Greek theology, and why it gained new power with the revival in that body in the nineteenth century. The chief representative of the Hesychasts in that period was Nikodemus Hagiorites (q.v.), a monk of Athos, in his " Manual of Symboliatics " (Venice [P],1801), who was followed by such dogmaticians as Eugenios Bulgaria in his "Theology " (ed. Leontopuloa, Venice, 1872) and Athanasioa Parios (q.v.) in his " Epitome " (Leipsic, 1808), while a work on the " spiritual prayer," which leads to the vision of fight, was
Sa~yahiw THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 968
published at Athens in 1854 under the title of " Spiritual Synopsis " by Sophronios, an archimandrate of a monastery on Athos.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are in John Cantaeusenos, Hint. Byaantina, in MPG, cliii (gives the case for the Hesychasts); Nicephoras Gregoras,Hist. Byzantina, MPG, eAviii (given the Barlsam side); review of the sources in Krumbacber, Geschichte. For history and discussion consult: lilgen, in ZHT, viii (1838), 48 sqq.; W. Gass, Goschidats der Athoe Klb6ter, Gieseen, 1865; J. H. Krause, Die Byaa"ner den Milklaltas, pp. 312 (on Barlsam),327 (on the Hesychasts), Halle, 1869; Stein, $tudien Uber As Hbaydhaaten des 14. Jahrhunderta, Vienna, 1874; J. Hergenrbther. Handbarh der allpemeinen Kirchen®aechiehte, 1860 sqq., Freiburg, 1885; K. Holl, D' nthuaiaa;nue and Buasgewalt bei den prierhiachen MSnchtum, Leipsic, 1808; A. H. Hore, Biphteen Centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church, pp. 457 4U, New York,1899; KL, i. 20122016 (Barlaam), v. 1960 8 (the Hesychasts).
HESYCHIUS, he sik'i us •. A name of frequent occurrence in the history of early ecclesiastical literature.
1. An Egyptian bishop of the third century who suffered martyrdom under Maximus about 311 A.D. (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., viii. 13). He is known chiefly as a Biblical, critic, A revision of the Septuagint prepared by him once occupied in Alexandria and Egypt a position of importance analogous to that held by the work of Lucian fmn Constantinople to Antioch (see BIBLE VERSIONS, A, I. 1, f 5). He also prepared an edition of the New Testament which found a few enthusiastic admirers, though it was rejected by Jerome (cf. Ad Ruftnum, ii. 26; De vir. ill., lxxvii.;' cf. Gelasius I., Decretum, vi. 14 15). None of his writings have been preserved, and nothing is now known of the nature of his critical work.
fd. Presbyter of Jerusalem; d. 430. He was the author of a work on church history, of which a portion was read before the Fifth General Council (Second Constantinople, 553; of. Mansi, Concilia, ix. 248 249). This work has been lost. A large amount of literary material (printed in part in MPG, xciii.), commonly ascribed to Hesychius, has been preserved, but further research is necessary before the authorship can be definitely determined. The Explanationes in Leroiticum (MPG, xeiii. 787790) are manifestly spurious, as they are based upon the Vulgate. W. Cave was of the opiniod that the author of these writings was a presbyter named Hesychius who lived at Jerusalem about 600 A.D.
For others of this name consult Fabricius Harles, Bx7bliotheea Gro;ca, vii. 544 (Hamburg, 1801).