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HERODIANS: A Jewish party in the time of Christ. They are mentioned in the Gospels in con­nection with the Pharisees as enemies of Jesus (Matt. xxii, 16; Mark iii. 6, xii. 13). Those who hold with some of the Fathers (Tertullian, Philas­tirus, Epiphanius) that they were a separate Jewish sect are certainly wrong. They were probably a political party, " the adherents of Herod," as Josephus called them (Ant. XIV., xv. 10). They were opposed to Christ, since they misunderstood the nature and purpose of his kingdom.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. T. Keim, Jaaw of Nazara, iii. 157 sqq., 6 vols., London, 1873 82; F:. Renan, Life of Jesus, chap xxi., London, n.d.; DB, ii. 362; EB, ii. 2043; JE, vi 360; and, in general, works on the life of Christ.

HERRICK, GEORGE FREDERICK: Congrega­tional missionary; b. at Milton, Vt., Apr. 13, 1834 He was graduated at the University of Vermont (1856) and Andover Theological Seminary (1859

Since that year he has been a missionary of the American Board, and was likewise a professor in the Mission Theological Seminary in 1870 93, president of Anatolia College in 1890 93, and joint superintendent of the publications of the Turkish branch of his society in 1893 1903. He was also a member of the committee for the translation and revision of the Bible in Turkish in 1873 78 and 1883 85, and sole responsible editor of the same undertaking in 1898 1902. Theologically he is a conservative liberal. He has written in English Life of Rev. A. T. Pratt, MD. (Chicago, 1890), and in Turkish and Armenian worb on tt Church History " (Constantinople, 1873; also in ~reco­Turkish, 1891); " Natural Theology " (1886); " Belief and Worship " (1886) °~ Introduction to Old Testament History and Prophecy " (1896; both Turkish and Armenian); Sunday school notes cov 

ering the most of the books of the Bible (1895­1907).

HERRMANN, JOHANN GEORG WILHELM: Geh man Protestant; b. at Melkow, near Magdeburg, Dec. 6 1846. He studied at the University of Halle 1866 70, and four years later, after serving in



the Franco Prussian war, became privet docent at Marburg. Since 1879 he has been professor of systematic theology in the same university, and has written Gregorii Nysseni sententite de salute adipis­cenda (Halls, 1874); Die Religion im Verhdltnia zum Welterkennen and zur Sittlichkeit (1879); Der Verkehr der Christen mit Gott, im Anschluss an Luther dargestellt (Stuttgart, 1886); Ethik (Tiibin­gen, 1901); and Die sittliehen Weissagungen Jesu (Gbttingen, 1904).

HERSFELD (HEROLVESFELD): A town of Hesse Nassau, Germany, about twenty three miles north of Fulda, the site of a celebrated abbey founded about 770 by Archbishop Lullus of Mainz. Charles the Great placed the monastery under royal protection and conferred upon the monks freedom of choice in the election of their abbot. He also bestowed upon it extensive territorial possessions. During the lifetime of its founder the monastery included 150 monks, who were active in propagating Christianity among the Saxons. Literary labor began in the ninth century, the most important pro­duction being the Hersfeld chronicles, now lost, but drawn upon by the compilers of the chronicles of Hildesheim, Quedlinburg, and Weissenburg.

At Herafeld, in the eleventh century, wrote Lam­bert (q.v.) and the author of the Liber de unitate ec­clesite conservanda, according to some Walram, later bishop of Raumburg. Beginning with the thirteenth century, the town gradually freed itself from the jurisdiction of the abbey, and about 1371 placed it­self under the protection of the landgrave of Hesse, which was conceded by the abbot in 1432. The prosperity of the abbey declined; and on the resig­nation of Abbot Wolpert in 1513 it was placed under the abbot of Fulda for a time. Abbot Krato (1517 56) was inclined to Lutheran ideas, but the abbey maintained a feeble existence until the death of the last abbot, Joachim 8511, in 1606. The landgrave of Hesse kept the administration in his family until at the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the territory of the abbey, as a fief of the empire, was formally incorporated with Hesse.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lampertus, De institutions Heroeldensis eccleaim, in his Opera, Hanover, 1894; idem, Vita Lulli, in MGH, Script., xv. 1 (1887), 132; Miracula Wigberti, in MGH, Script., iv (1841), 224; Rettberg, KD, i. 602; Hauck, KD, ii. 58.

HERTZLER, CHARLES WILLIAM: Methodist Episcopal; b. at Burlington, Ia., Feb. 22, 1867. He studied at German Wallace College, Berea, O. (B.A.,1889) and the University of Berlin (1892 93), and held pastorates  at Peoria, Ill. (1889 91), and St. Louis, Mo. (1891 92). After his return from Germany he was pastor at Jordan, Minn., from 1893 to 1895, when he was appointed president of St. Paul's College, St. Paul, Minn., a position which he occupied for five years. Since 1900 he has been pro­fessor of practical theology at Nast Theological Seminary, Berea, O.
HERVAUS BRITO (HERV.&US NATALIS; 0Herv6 de N6dellee): Thomist philosopher and theo 

logian; b. at Nddellec, Brittany; d. at Narbonne Aug., 1323. He studied at Paris, entered the Dominican order, became provincial for France in 1309 and general of his order in 1318.

For many years he taught scholastic theology and philosophy. As a moderate Thomist, he dis­tinguished himself by his opposition to the views of Duns Scotus. In opposition to the univocal. being of the Scotists he maintained that the reality of individual objects depends upon that background of being which is common to them. On the other hand, he seemed to incline toward nominalism in his view that universals, though they have their basis in the nature of things, are subjective. In particular Hervaeus devoted his attention to the famous question of individuation, which the Sco­tists had explained by the doctrine of haecceity. He showed that liaecceity itself is only a universal concept, which becomes a principle of individuation only when applied to an individual thing, and that such a principle might just as well be applied to matter or form. His own view is that essence is the inner principle of individuation. In theology Hervaeus held that the existence of God can be deduced on rational grounds, but that positive knowledge of God is won only through faith. He treated the doctrines concerning God, the Trinity, and Christ in the traditional scheme of distinctions. His importance lies in the insight which he gives into the sphere of interests of Thomistic philosophy and theology after Scotus. His chief. works are: In quatuor Petri Lombardi sentegit,volumina scripta subtilissima (Venice, 1505); Quodlibeta un­decim cum octo profundissimis tractahWus (1513); and De intentionibus secundis (Paris, 1544). ; A list of unpublished writings by Hervaeus will be found in Qudtif and Itchard's Seriptores ordinis prwdiica­torum (vol. i., p. 533, Paris, 1719).


BIBLIoaRAPRY: J. C. F. Hoefer, Nouvelle biopraphie pEn€­rale, xxiv. 532 533, 46 vols., Paris, 1852 1866; K. Werner, Der heilipe Thomas won Aquino, iii. 104 eqq., Regensburg, 1859; B. Haurdsu, Hist. de la philoeophie scolaatique, ii. 2, pp. 327 eqq.. Paris, 1880; KL, v. 1916 17.

HERVAUS BURGIDOLENSIS (Hervi de Bourg­Dieu) : Medieval French exegete; b. at Le Mans (130 m. s.w. of Paris) in the latter part of the eleventh century; d. at Ddols (72 m. s.e. of Tours) about 1150. About 1100 he entered the Benedic­tine monastery at Ddols, where he spent the re­mainder of his life, devoting himself to the study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. His chief works were his commentaries on Isaiah and the Pauline Epistles (MPL, Icxxxi.). Whether his in­terpretations of the pericopes of the Gospels may be recovered from the homilies ascribed to Anselm of Canterbury is a moot question, but the com­mentaries on Matthew and Revelation assigned to him were actually written by Anselm of Laon.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hiatoire litt6raire de Ia France, vol. xii.; M. Ziegelbauer, Hiatoria rei literari ordinia S. Bene­dicti, vol. iii., Regensburg, 1739; J. C. F. Hoefer, Nou­velle biographie pbn6rale, xxiv. 532, 46 vols., Paris, 1855­1866; F. H. R. Frank, Die Theologie der Coneordienfor­mel, ii. 54 eqq., 4 vole., Erlangen. 1868 8b.



land bishop of Bath and Wells; b. at London

Aug. 20, 1808; d. near Basingstoke (45 m. w.s.w.

of London), Hampshire, June 9, 1894. He was of

noble birth, being the fourth son of Frederick Will­

iam, first marquis and fifth earl of Bristol, and was

educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A.,1830),

and was ordered deacon and ordained priest in 1832.

He was rector of Ick*orth cum Chedburgh, Suffolk

(1832 69), and was also curate of Horringer (1844­

1869), as well as archdeacon of Sudbury (1862 69).

In 1869 he was consecrated bishop of Bath and

Wells. He was one of the Company of Old Testa­

ment Revisers. In theology he inclined toward

Evangelicalism. He prepared portions of the

volumes on Ruth and Samuel for The Speaker's

Commentary (London, 1873), and on Judges, Ruth,

Acts, and the Pastoral Epistles for The Pulpit Com­

mentary (1881 87), and wrote: Sermons for the

Sundays and Principal Holy Days throughout the

Year (2 vole., London, 1850); The Genealogies o f Our

Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as Contained in the

Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Reconciled with Each

Other, and with the Genealogy o f the House o f David,

from Adam to the Close o f the Canon o f the Old Testa­

ment, and Shewn to be in Harmony with the true Chro­

nology of the Times (Cambridge, 1853); The Jews;

their Past History, their Present Condition, their Fu­

ture Prospects (London, 1854); The Inspiration of

Holy Scripture (1856); The Authenticity of the

Gospel of St. Luke (London, 1892); The Book of

Chronicles in Relation to the Pentateuch and the

" Higher Criticism " (1892); and The Pentateuch

(in collaboration with C. Hole; 1895).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, Supplement, ii. 415.
HERVEY, JAMES: Popular religious writer and

clergyman of the Church of England; b. at Harding­

atone (1 m. s. of Northampton) Feb. 26,1714; d. at

Weston Favell (1 m. n. of Northampton) Dec. 25,

1758. He was educated at the free grammar school

at Northampton, and at Lincoln College, Oxford

(B.A., 1736). At Oxford he came under the in­

fluence of John Wesley, then fellow and tutor at

Lincoln, but finally adopted a strongly Calvinistic

creed and determined to remain in the Established

Church. After holding curacies in Hampshire and

Devonshire, where he was also chaplain to Paul

Orchard of Stoke Abbey, he became curate to his

father at Weston Favell in 1743, and succeeded to

the livings of Weston Favell and Collingtree in 1752.

His death was brought about by overwork, both in

his parish and in his study. He was the author of

several books which, though of no great literary or,

theological value, once enjoyed wide popularity,

occupying a position in the family library side by

side with the Pilgrim's Progress and the Whole Duty

of Man. The more important of them are: Medi­

tations and Contemplations (2 vols., London, 1746­

1747; 25th ed.,1791), containing among other things

the Meditations among the Tombs; and Theron and

Aspasio, or a Series o f Dialogues and Letters (3 vols.,

1755), which drew replies from John Wesley, Robert

Sandeman (qq.v.), and others; and the posthumous

Eleven Letters . . . to . . John Wesley (1765), an

answer to Wesley's objections. His Works were pub 

lished .at Edinburgh (6 vols., 1769) and also in London (7 vols., 1797).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Life, by Dr. Birch, was prefixed to the Letters, with a supplement by his curate, A. Maddock; a Life by T. W. was prefixed also to the Meditations; and still other editions of his works have had sketches of his life by different hands. Consult DNB, xxvi. 282 284; D. A. Hareha, Life of Rev. James Heresy, Albany, 1885.

HERZOG, har'tadg, EDUARD: Old Catholic bishop; b. at Schongau (a village near Hochdorf, 11 m. n. of Lucerne), Switzerland, Aug. 1, 1841. He was educated at Tubingen, Freiburg, and Bonn (1865 68), and from 1868 to 1872 was teacher of religion in the normal school of the Canton of Lucerne and of exegesis in the Roman Catholic theological seminary in Lucerne. In 1872 he left the Roman Catholic Church for the " Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland," a branch of the Old Catholic movement. He was then pastor of churches of this sect at Orefeld, Prussia (1872 73), Olten (1873 76), and Bern (1876  84). In 1876 he was consecrated bishop of the Old Catholic Church, and since 1874 has been professor of New Testament exegesis, catechetics, and homiletics in the Catholic theological faculty of the University of Bern. He has written Ueber die Abfassungszeit der Pastoral­briefe (Lucerne, 1870); Christkatholisches Gebetbuch (Bern, 1879); Gemeinschaft mit der anglo amerikc­nischen Kirche (1881); Ueber Religions freiheit in der helvetischen Republik (1884); Synodalpredigten and Hirtenbriefe (2 series, 1886 1901); Gegen Rom, Yor­trag zur Aufkldrung iiber den Montanismvs (in col­laboration with F. Wrubel and Weibel; Zurich, 1890); Beitrdge zur Vorgeschichte der christkatholi­schen Kirche der Schweiz (Bern, 1896); " Predige das Wort " (sermons, 1897); Die kirchliche Siinden­vergebung each der Lehre des heiligen Augustins (1902); and Stiftspropst Josef Burkard Leu and das Dogma von 1864 (1904).

HERZOG JOHANN JAKOB: German Reformed theologian; b. at Basel Sept. 12, 1805; d. at Er­langen Sept. 30, 1882. He was educated at the PEedagogium in Basel and the University of Basel where he studied theology for three years. He then attended the University of Berlin, where he had first Schleiermacher and then NeanAer for teachers. He then returned to Basel, where he passed his first theological examination and became a docent in the university. In 1835 he was called to Lausanne, where in 1838 he became professor of historical theology. At Lausanne he lived on most friendly terms with both colleagues and students, cultivating with them pleasant social relations. At the same time he was very active in a literary way; besides several smaller essays, such as one on the teachings of Zwingli, and his Johann" Calvin, eine biographische Skizze (Basel, 1843), he composed a longer work: Das Leben (Ecolampadius and die Re­formation. der Kirehe zu Basel (2vols., Basel, 1843). In 1840 and 1841 he contributed a series of articles to the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung on the conflict be­tween the national church of the Canton of Vaud and the State, which at that time was trying to render it dependent. In Feb., 1846, he resigned his professorship on account of conscientious scruples and after a year of private teaching was called in


the spring of 1847 to the chair of church history and

New Testament exegesis at the University of Halle.

While there he became much interested in the

Waldenses, two of his students being members of

that sect, and he devoted himself to a historical

investigation of their origin, making for that pur­

pose journeys to Geneva, Grenoble, Paris, and

Dublin that he might study ancient manuscripts

dealing with that subject. The results of these

researches he embodied both in his De origine et

pristino statu Waldensium (Halle, 1848) and in his

comprehensive Die romanischen Waldenser (1853).

His studies led him to quite different opinions on

the early history of the Waldenses from those usu­

ally entertained at the time, but his views are now

universally adopted. He believed the Waldenses

arose not earlier than the twelfth century, and

from the beginning were students of the Bible, but

deserted the paths of Roman Catholic piety only in

the sixteenth century under the influence of Huss

and the German Reformation. In 1854 he was

called to Erlangen as professor of Reformed theology.

Some time before this there had been planned in

Germany a comprehensive encyclopedic work on

theology, and Schneckenburger had been named as

editor, but the revolution of 1848 had caused it to

be abandoned for a time. With the advent of peace

it was again undertaken. Schneckenburger having

died in 1848, Tholuck, who was asked for advice,

suggested the name of Herzog. Herzog was well

fitted for the task by his many sided knowledge,

his ripe judgment, his mild and catholic views, his

strong faith in revelation, and especially by his

extended personal relations. He took great in­

terest in the undertaking, contributing from his own

pen no less than 529 articles. For the history

of the Real Encyklopddie see the preface to the first

volume of this work, p. ix. Besides the works

mentioned above, Herzog wrote an Abriss der

gesammten Kirchengeschichte (3 vols., Erlangen,

1876 H2). F.SIEFFERT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. 6ieffert, in the AUgemeirse Zeitung, 1883,

no. 31, Beilage.

HESS: The name of several ministers and theo­logians of Zurich, of whom the more noteworthy axe the following:

1. Johann Jakob Hess: B. at Zurich Oct. 21,1741; d. there May 29, 1828. He was the son of a watch­maker, and from 1748 was brought up by his mater­nal uncle, Heinrich Gossweiler, pastor at Affoltern, near Zurich, a man of great piety and wide culture. From 1755 to 1760 he studied in Zurich. As a youth he showed considerable poetical talent; and, encour­aged by Mopstock and Wieland, both of whom he had met in Zurich, he thought seriously of abandon­ing theology for poetry, but in 1760 he became as­sistant to his paternal uncle Kaspar Hess, pastor at Neftenbach. In 1767, having inherited considerable property from his father, he was able to retire to pri­vate life and devote himself entirely to study. For several years he worked upon his life of Christ. In 1777 he was called to the Liebfrauenkirche, Zurich. Despite the fact that Zurich had at that time several famous preachers, Hess attracted crowded congregations. His sermons, which he soon began to publish, were transcribed and circulated widely

in manuscript, and thus his influence extended beyond his congregation, and his sermons came to serve as models for hundreds of ministers in Swit­zerland and even in other countries.

In 1795, quite unexpectedly and against his will, Hess was elected superintendent (antistes) of the churches of the Canton of Zurich. It was with a heavy heart that he entered upon the duties of this responsible office, now made doubly diffi­cult by the political conditions of the time. However, Hess proved the right man, and his wisdom and strength of character safely piloted the Church through the tempestuous weather of the succeeding years. His leadership in the conflict with the enemies of the Church was recog­nized in other cantons, and his methods were adopted there. A thorn in the eye of the civil authorities, he was even threatened with deposition and deportation. In 1815 he wished to retire to pri­vate life, but the ministerium declined to consider his resignation. The Reformation Jubilee in 1817 brought him honorary doctorates from Tubingen, Jena, and Copenhagen. He was a prominent figure at the secular celebration of the Reformation held in Zurich in Jan., 1819, when he received a large gold Zwingli medal from the government, and an­other large gold medal from the king of Prussia. Shortly after the celebration he was taken ill, and henceforth had to entrust the duties of his office to his official representatives. He made his last public appearance in 1820, at a meeting of the Zu­rich Bible Society, of which he was the founder and president.

In the history of Protestantism in Zurich Hess occupies a very important position. He avoided fruitless speculation, and made himself the cham­pion of historical and Scriptural Christianity. His favorite idea was that of the" inner union,"or"the inner community of Christ," which with him repre­sented not merely an ideal, but an actuality. All followers of Christ, he held, are year by year being gradually united in spirit into a single great brother­hood. He himself did much toward the realization of such a brotherhood. He was held in universal reverence; and it was largely because of this fact that he was able to make his influence so potent. In the world of theological scholarship Hess has exerted his greatest influence by his studies in the life of Christ. In this field he was a pioneer. His principal works are Geschichte der drei letzten Lebens­jahre Jesu (6 vols., Zurich, 1768 73; 8th ed., 3 vols., 1822 23), which was translated into Dutch and Da­nish, and also adapted to the use of Roman Catho­lies; Jugendgeschichte Jesu (Zurich, 1773); Von dem Reich Gottes(2vols., 1774); GeschichteundSchriften der Apostel Jesu (2 vols., 1775); Geschichte der Israeliten vor den Zeiten Jesu (12 vols., Zurich, 1776 91); Ueber die Lehren, Thaten and Schicksale unseres Hewn (2 vols.,1782; 3d ed., enlarged, 1817); Bibliothek der heiligen Geschichte (2 vols., 1791 92); Der Christ bei Ge/ahren des Vaterlandes (3 vols., 1799 1800), a collection of sermons; and Kern der Lehre vom Reich Gottes (1819). Before kis death Hess published a collected edition of his works under the title, Biblische Geschichte (23 vols., 1826).


2. Felix Hess: B. in Zurich 1742; d. there 1768. He studied in Zurich and entered the Protestant ministry, was an intimate friend of J. K. Lavater and J. J. Hess, and a theologian of great promise. His early death was generally deplored. He wrote Priifung der philosophischen and moralischen Pre­digten (Berlin, 1767), and made a translation of John Taylor's Scheme o f Scripture Divinity, which was edited by J. J. Hess, J. Taylor's Entwurf der Schrifttheologie (Zurich, 1777).

3. Salomo Hess: B. in Zurich 1763; d. there 1837. He was a nephew of Johann Jakob Hess. He be­came a deacon at St. Peter's in 1792, where J. K. Lavater was pastor, and succeeded Lavater in 1801. His historical works are lacking in exactness, and should be used with caution. The more important are Erasmus von Rotterdam (2 parts, Zurich, 1790); Lebensgeschichte Dr. J. (Ekolampads (1791); Ge­sehichte der Pfarrkirche St. Peter (1793); Geschichte des Ziircher Katechismus (1811); Das Reformations­/est (1819); Anna Reinhart, Gattin and Wittwe von Ulrich Zwingli (1819); and Lebensgeschichte M. H. Bullingers (2 vols., 1828 29).

4. Hans Caspar Hess: B. 1772; d. 1847. He

received his theological training in Zurich and

entered the Protestant ministry there. As in f orma­

tor in Geneva he wrote La Vie d'Ulrich Zwingli

(Paris and Geneva, 1810; Germ. transl., Zurich,

1811; Eng. transl., London, 1813).

(P. D. HEss.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. L. Meister, Berfihmte Ztlrcher, ii.146 147,

Basel, 1782; G. Gessner, Blicke auf das Leben and Wesen des . . . J. J. Hess, Zurich, 1829; H. Fechet, Johann Jacob Hess . . Skizze seines Lebens, ib. 1837 (reliable); Am dem Briefwechael zwiachen Antiatee Hess and Kaplan Franz Romer (of Pennsylvania), in Theo­lopi8chs Zeatachrift der Schweiz, 1899; P. D. Hess, Der Zurcher Vernunftprediper Kaspar David Hardmeyer,177.f!­183,2, in Zureher Taschenbuch, 1905. Consult further: Ziardaer Taschenbuch, 1850, 1895, 1901, 1907.

HESS (HESSE), JOHANN : German Reformer; b. at Nuremberg Sept. 23(7), 1490; d. at Breslau Jan. 5, 1547. He studied from 1505 to 1510 at Leipsic, and then spent two years at Wittenberg, where he was on terms of friendship with Luther, and especially with Luther's friends Jobs= Lange and Spalatin. In 1513, after a short stay atNurem­berg, his humanistic connections and the commenda­tion of Steurl gained him the position of secretary to the bishop of Breslau, Johann V. Turzo, a friend of the Renaissance and admirer of Erasmus. In 1515 he became private tutor of a son of Duke Charles of Munsterberg C)ls at Neisse, where he was appointed to a canonry in the same year. In 1517 he visited central Germany, and in 1518, Italy. On his return in 1519 he went to Wittenberg, where he lived two months in intimate association with Luther and Melanchthon. Then he went back to his bishop, who gave him additional canonries at Brieg and Breslau. At this time he was ordained priest. The prospects for an Evangelical reform were favorable, as the bishop showed no suspicion toward Hess and himself maintained relations with Luther and Melanchthon. Moreover, humanistic studies had found a ready welcome at Breslau even before the time of Hess. No* the new religious spirit entered, and some of Luther's smaller reform­ing writings were reprinted. But Bishop Turzo died

in 1520, and his successor, Jacob von Salza, adhered strictly to the Roman Church. Thus conditions became unbearable for Hess. He sought refuge with his ducal patron, and as court preacher he pro­claimed Evangelical doctrines. In 1523 we find him again at Nuremberg. During his absence the Reformation had made headway in Breslau. The Franciscans of the monastery of St. James took part in the movement, and the people had been stirred up by " Lutheran " sermons. Under these circumstances the magistrate of the city called Hess in 1523 as preacher to the Church of St. Mary Magdalene. In a disputation held in 1524 he openly declared for the Reformation. The town council ordered all preachers of the city to follow the example of Hess. The change of liturgy and the restoration of communion in both kinds seems to have been accomplished by Hess without disturb­ance. Hand in hand with the religious reform went the reform of the schools and charitable work. In 1525 Ambrosius Moiban, a friend of Hess, was called to the St. Elizabeth's Church, and that of the Cistercians was also placed under an Evangelical preacher.

The changes in the service were restricted to narrow limits, Hess showing himself here a man of moderation and caution. One of the chief peculiarities of the Reformation in Breslau was the connection of the new system with the old, at least in form. Hess and Moiban continued to acknowl­edge the bishops as their superiors, and the bishops themselves were not inclined to interfere with this state of affairs. By having the ordinations of its ministers performed elsewhere, especially at Witten­berg, the, city guarded itself against interference by the king of Bohemia, who was a strict Catholic; though in any case he was inclined to tolerate the Evangelical church of Breslau as a strong defense against the inroads of Schwenckfeldianism and Ana­baptism. Hess had no sympathy with these tenets, nor with the teachings of the Swiss Reformers on the Eucharist. Besides Johann Lange, Melanchthon, and Luther, he counted Veit Dietrich, Camerarius, and Brenz among his friends, and corresponded with influential men in the Prussian Church. In 1540 he visited his native city, and again in 1541 on the occasion of his father's death. Thence he went to Regensburg, where he and Veit Dietrich attended the diet which discussed the state of religion. His only publication was a reprint of the chapter De vitanda ebrietate from Pliny's "Natural History" together with some poems (Wittenberg, 1512).

(J. KbBTLINt.)

BmLIOOnAPBY: The best source of information is the Zeit 

achrift des Vereine ftir Geachichte and Altertum Schleaiens,

vole. v., vi., xviii., xxvi. Consult: C. A. J. Kolde, Jo­hann Hess, der achlesiscAe R4formator, Breslau, 1846; Schaff, Christian Church, vi. 573 aqq.; J. KSetlin, Martin Ink, passim, 2 vols., Berlin, 1903 (quite full).


Rise of Protestantism The Clergy (§ 3).

(§ 1). Recent Reforms (§ 4).

Church Organisation Roman Catholics (.§ 5).

(§ 2).

The grand duchy of Hesse is a state of the German empire, comprising two main portions and eleven small exclaves. The northern division, called Upper



Hesse, is surrounded by the Prussian province of

Hesse Nassau; the southern portion, consisting of

the provinces of Rhenish Hesse and Starkenburg,

is bounded by Prussia, Bavaria, and Baden. Heese

has an area of 2,965 square miles, and a population

(1905) of 1,210,104. About two thirds of the popu­

lation belong to the State Church, which compre­

hends all Evangelical parishes, whether Lutheran,

Reformed, or of a united confession. The major­

ity of persons outside of the Established Church

are Roman Catholics, who number about 30 per

cent of the population. The Jews number some

30,000. Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists, and

Quakers number all together only a few hun­


Under the influence of Philip the Magnanimous,

landgrave of Hesse 15097 (see PHILIF OF HEssE;


:. Rise of OF 1526), and his theological coun­

Protestant  selors, Melanchthon, Zwingli, Butzer,

ism. and Hyperius, the Evangelical Church

of Hesse in the sixteenth century rep­

resented a mediating tendency, though until 1566

it showed a curious union of Episcopal and Pres­

byterian tendencies. In the interest of uniformity

throughout the margravate, the Agenda of 1566 was

promulgated by the church authorities. It was Cal­

vinistic in character, represented a mediating tend­

ency in its treatment of the sacraments, and pro­

vided ordination by laying on of hands for bishops,

elders (preachers and laymen), and deacons. After

the death of Philip a new Agenda was published in

1574, showing a stronger bias toward Lutheranism.

This remained substantially in force till into the

nineteenth century. The frequent changes that have

taken place in the boundaries and political organi­

zation of Hesse render it impracticable to give here

the details of its ecclesiastical history. In general,

Lutheranism has gradually gained the ascendancy,

and usually changes in boundaries have broken the

confessional unity of the state only temporarily.

The present organization of the State Church

rests upon the edict of Jan. 6, 1874. The church

constitution is of the modern synodal

a. Church type and resembles most nearly that

Organiza  of Baden. The grand duke, a Protes­

tion. tant, is the head of the Church; and

the highest ecclesiastical authority is

vested in the consistory (Oberkonsistorium), which

is responsible directly to the grand duke. This is

composed of three clerical and three lay members,

the clerical members being at the same time the

heads of the Church in the three provinces of

Rhenish Hesse, Starkenburg, and Upper Hesse.

The State Church includes all Evangelical parishes,

though these are allowed to maintain their confes­

sional peculiarities, in that they have a right to

reject any ecclesiastical legislation affecting re­

ligious instruction. The individual parishes are

governed by local parochial boards, consisting of

the ministers and from four to twelve laymen,

who are elected for ten years, and by a popular

body of from twelve to seventy members. The

parishes are united into twenty three deaneries

(Dekdnate), each having its decanal synod, com­

posed of clerical and lay members in equal numbers,

with an executive committee. A general synod meets every five years. This body is composed of two representatives of each of the decanal synods, a clergyman and a layman, three clerical and four lay members named by the grand duke, and the prelate, who, like the Roman Catholic bishop, is a member of the upper chamber. The consistory is represebted in local affairs by the deans, who are elected by the decanal synods, and, as regards finances, by certain district officials. The executive committee of the general synod is an extension of the consistory.

Salaries of clergymen are paid from the general treasury of the Church. After the candidate for the ministry has spent at least seven

3. The semesters at some German university,

Clergy. he is examined in the first instance by

the theological faculty of the Uni­

versity of Giessen. He must then spend a year

in the seminary for ministers at Friedberg. He

then undergoes a final examination by a special

committee, composed of the clerical members of

the consistory and of the professors of the semi­

nary. The duties of ministers are regulated by

law; and pastorates are filled by the consistory

on petition of the parochial boards. Surplice fees

were abolished in 1891. The pastor must give

weekly, three or four hours' religious instruction in

the public elementary schools, basing his instruc­

tion on Biblical history and the catechism. In

Lutheran parishes he uses the Lutheran catechism,

in certain Reformed parishes the Heidelberg cate­

chism, and in united parishes the catechism of 1894,

which combines the Lutheran and Heidelberg cate­


There is no uniform liturgy for the whole state, though a movement having as its object the prep­aration of a liturgy acceptable to all

4. Recent parishes is now in progress. Similarly,

Reforms. an effort has been made to give

church music a uniform character;

and in many places church singing has been re­

formed in the interest of a lively popular rhythm.

To be mentioned here is the choral book edited by

J. G. Herzog, and also his book of preludes. In

recent years the interests of the State Church have

been furthered by the division of the larger parishes,

the erection of numerous new churches, by the

ordinance providing for the care of the poor, and

by regulations against such sects as the Irvingites,

Adventists, etc. Sunday schools are now common.

The Innere Mission maintains some thirty hospitals

and a large number of other charitable institutions

of an educational nature.

The Roman Catholic inhabitants are under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Mainz. The relation between the Roman curia and the

g. Roman Hessian government was established

Catholics. by the bulls Provida soleraque (1821)

and Ad dominici gregis custodian

(1827), and the edicts of 1829 and 1830 (changed

in 1853). An agreement made in 1854 between the

bishop and the Hessian government was repudiated

by the curia in 1866. Since then all ecclesiastical

relations have been arranged by secular legislation.

Both the Roman Catholic Church and the Evan 

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