HERODIANS: A Jewish party in the time of Christ. They are mentioned in the Gospels in connection with the Pharisees as enemies of Jesus (Matt. xxii, 16; Mark iii. 6, xii. 13). Those who hold with some of the Fathers (Tertullian, Philastirus, Epiphanius) that they were a separate Jewish sect are certainly wrong. They were probably a political party, " the adherents of Herod," as Josephus called them (Ant. XIV., xv. 10). They were opposed to Christ, since they misunderstood the nature and purpose of his kingdom.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. T. Keim, Jaaw of Nazara, iii. 157 sqq., 6 vols., London, 1873 82; F:. Renan, Life of Jesus, chap xxi., London, n.d.; DB, ii. 362; EB, ii. 2043; JE, vi 360; and, in general, works on the life of Christ.
HERRICK, GEORGE FREDERICK:Congregational missionary; b. at Milton, Vt., Apr. 13, 1834 He was graduated at the University of Vermont (1856) and Andover Theological Seminary (1859
Since that year he has been a missionary of the American Board, and was likewise a professor in the Mission Theological Seminary in 1870 93, president of Anatolia College in 1890 93, and joint superintendent of the publications of the Turkish branch of his society in 1893 1903. He was also a member of the committee for the translation and revision of the Bible in Turkish in 1873 78 and 1883 85, and sole responsible editor of the same undertaking in 1898 1902. Theologically he is a conservative liberal. He has written in English Life of Rev. A. T. Pratt, MD. (Chicago, 1890), and in Turkish and Armenian worb on tt Church History " (Constantinople, 1873; also in ~recoTurkish, 1891); " Natural Theology " (1886); " Belief and Worship " (1886) °~ Introduction to Old Testament History and Prophecy " (1896; both Turkish and Armenian); Sunday school notes cov
ering the most of the books of the Bible (18951907).
HERRMANN, JOHANN GEORG WILHELM: Geh man Protestant; b. at Melkow, near Magdeburg, Dec. 6 1846. He studied at the University of Halle 1866 70, and four years later, after serving in
Herzog THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 250
the Franco Prussian war, became privet docent at Marburg. Since 1879 he has been professor of systematic theology in the same university, and has written Gregorii Nysseni sententite de salute adipiscenda (Halls, 1874); Die Religion im Verhdltnia zum Welterkennen and zur Sittlichkeit (1879); Der Verkehr der Christen mit Gott, im Anschluss an Luther dargestellt (Stuttgart, 1886); Ethik (Tiibingen, 1901); and Die sittliehen Weissagungen Jesu (Gbttingen, 1904).
HER"=, HERRNHUI'ERS.See UNITY of THE BRETHREN; ZI1vZENDORF, NIHOLAUs LuDWIG.
HERSFELD (HEROLVESFELD): A town of Hesse Nassau, Germany, about twenty three miles north of Fulda, the site of a celebrated abbey founded about 770 by Archbishop Lullus of Mainz. Charles the Great placed the monastery under royal protection and conferred upon the monks freedom of choice in the election of their abbot. He also bestowed upon it extensive territorial possessions. During the lifetime of its founder the monastery included 150 monks, who were active in propagating Christianity among the Saxons. Literary labor began in the ninth century, the most important production being the Hersfeld chronicles, now lost, but drawn upon by the compilers of the chronicles of Hildesheim, Quedlinburg, and Weissenburg.
At Herafeld, in the eleventh century, wrote Lambert (q.v.) and the author of the Liber de unitate ecclesite conservanda, according to some Walram, later bishop of Raumburg. Beginning with the thirteenth century, the town gradually freed itself from the jurisdiction of the abbey, and about 1371 placed itself under the protection of the landgrave of Hesse, which was conceded by the abbot in 1432. The prosperity of the abbey declined; and on the resignation of Abbot Wolpert in 1513 it was placed under the abbot of Fulda for a time. Abbot Krato (1517 56) was inclined to Lutheran ideas, but the abbey maintained a feeble existence until the death of the last abbot, Joachim 8511, in 1606. The landgrave of Hesse kept the administration in his family until at the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the territory of the abbey, as a fief of the empire, was formally incorporated with Hesse.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lampertus, De institutions Heroeldensis eccleaim, in his Opera, Hanover, 1894; idem, Vita Lulli, in MGH, Script., xv. 1 (1887), 132; Miracula Wigberti, in MGH, Script., iv (1841), 224; Rettberg, KD, i. 602; Hauck, KD, ii. 58.
HERTZLER, CHARLES WILLIAM:Methodist Episcopal; b. at Burlington, Ia., Feb. 22, 1867. He studied at German Wallace College, Berea, O. (B.A.,1889) and the University of Berlin (1892 93), and held pastorates at Peoria, Ill. (1889 91), and St. Louis, Mo. (1891 92). After his return from Germany he was pastor at Jordan, Minn., from 1893 to 1895, when he was appointed president of St. Paul's College, St. Paul, Minn., a position which he occupied for five years. Since 1900 he has been professor of practical theology at Nast Theological Seminary, Berea, O.
HERVAUS BRITO (HERV.&US NATALIS; 0Herv6 de N6dellee):Thomist philosopher and theo
logian; b. at Nddellec, Brittany; d. at Narbonne Aug., 1323. He studied at Paris, entered the Dominican order, became provincial for France in 1309 and general of his order in 1318.
For many years he taught scholastic theology and philosophy. As a moderate Thomist, he distinguished himself by his opposition to the views of Duns Scotus. In opposition to the univocal. being of the Scotists he maintained that the reality of individual objects depends upon that background of being which is common to them. On the other hand, he seemed to incline toward nominalism in his view that universals, though they have their basis in the nature of things, are subjective. In particular Hervaeus devoted his attention to the famous question of individuation, which the Scotists had explained by the doctrine of haecceity. He showed that liaecceity itself is only a universal concept, which becomes a principle of individuation only when applied to an individual thing, and that such a principle might just as well be applied to matter or form. His own view is that essence is the inner principle of individuation. In theology Hervaeus held that the existence of God can be deduced on rational grounds, but that positive knowledge of God is won only through faith. He treated the doctrines concerning God, the Trinity, and Christ in the traditional scheme of distinctions. His importance lies in the insight which he gives into the sphere of interests of Thomistic philosophy and theology after Scotus. His chief. works are: In quatuor Petri Lombardi sentegit,volumina scripta subtilissima (Venice, 1505); Quodlibeta undecim cum octo profundissimis tractahWus (1513); and De intentionibus secundis (Paris, 1544). ; A list of unpublished writings by Hervaeus will be found in Qudtif and Itchard's Seriptores ordinis prwdiicatorum (vol. i., p. 533, Paris, 1719).
BIBLIoaRAPRY: J. C. F. Hoefer, Nouvelle biopraphie pEn€rale, xxiv. 532 533, 46 vols., Paris, 1852 1866; K. Werner, Der heilipe Thomas won Aquino, iii. 104 eqq., Regensburg, 1859; B. Haurdsu, Hist. de la philoeophie scolaatique, ii. 2, pp. 327 eqq.. Paris, 1880; KL, v. 1916 17.
HERVAUS BURGIDOLENSIS (Hervide BourgDieu) : Medieval French exegete; b. at Le Mans (130 m. s.w. of Paris) in the latter part of the eleventh century; d. at Ddols (72 m. s.e. of Tours) about 1150. About 1100 he entered the Benedictine monastery at Ddols, where he spent the remainder of his life, devoting himself to the study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. His chief works were his commentaries on Isaiah and the Pauline Epistles (MPL, Icxxxi.). Whether his interpretations of the pericopes of the Gospels may be recovered from the homilies ascribed to Anselm of Canterbury is a moot question, but the commentaries on Matthew and Revelation assigned to him were actually written by Anselm of Laon.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hiatoire litt6raire de Ia France, vol. xii.; M. Ziegelbauer, Hiatoria rei literari ordinia S. Benedicti, vol. iii., Regensburg, 1739; J. C. F. Hoefer, Nouvelle biographie pbn6rale, xxiv. 532, 46 vols., Paris, 18551866; F. H. R. Frank, Die Theologie der Coneordienformel, ii. 54 eqq., 4 vole., Erlangen. 1868 8b.
251 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIAgems nt
HERVEY, ARTHUR CHARLES: Church of Eng
occupying a position in the family library side by
side with the Pilgrim's Progress and the Whole Duty
of Man. The more important of them are: Medi
tations and Contemplations (2 vols., London, 1746
1747; 25th ed.,1791), containing among other things
the Meditations among the Tombs; and Theron and
Aspasio, or a Series o f Dialogues and Letters (3 vols.,
1755), which drew replies from John Wesley, Robert
Sandeman (qq.v.), and others; and the posthumous
Eleven Letters . . . to . . John Wesley (1765), an
answer to Wesley's objections. His Works were pub
lished .at Edinburgh (6 vols., 1769) and also in London (7 vols., 1797).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Life, by Dr. Birch, was prefixed to the Letters, with a supplement by his curate, A. Maddock; a Life by T. W. was prefixed also to the Meditations; and still other editions of his works have had sketches of his life by different hands. Consult DNB, xxvi. 282 284; D. A. Hareha, Life of Rev. James Heresy, Albany, 1885.
HERZOG, har'tadg, EDUARD: Old Catholic bishop; b. at Schongau (a village near Hochdorf, 11 m. n. of Lucerne), Switzerland, Aug. 1, 1841. He was educated at Tubingen, Freiburg, and Bonn (1865 68), and from 1868 to 1872 was teacher of religion in the normal school of the Canton of Lucerne and of exegesis in the Roman Catholic theological seminary in Lucerne. In 1872 he left the Roman Catholic Church for the " Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland," a branch of the Old Catholic movement. He was then pastor of churches of this sect at Orefeld, Prussia (1872 73), Olten (1873 76), and Bern (1876 84). In 1876 he was consecrated bishop of the Old Catholic Church, and since 1874 has been professor of New Testament exegesis, catechetics, and homiletics in the Catholic theological faculty of the University of Bern. He has written Ueber die Abfassungszeit der Pastoralbriefe (Lucerne, 1870); Christkatholisches Gebetbuch (Bern, 1879); Gemeinschaft mit der anglo amerikcnischen Kirche (1881); Ueber Religions freiheit in der helvetischen Republik (1884); Synodalpredigten and Hirtenbriefe (2 series, 1886 1901); Gegen Rom, Yortrag zur Aufkldrung iiber den Montanismvs (in collaboration with F. Wrubel and Weibel; Zurich, 1890); Beitrdge zur Vorgeschichte der christkatholischen Kirche der Schweiz (Bern, 1896); " Predige das Wort " (sermons, 1897); Die kirchliche Siindenvergebung each der Lehre des heiligen Augustins (1902); and Stiftspropst Josef Burkard Leu and das Dogma von 1864 (1904).
HERZOG JOHANN JAKOB: German Reformed theologian; b. at Basel Sept. 12, 1805; d. at Erlangen Sept. 30, 1882. He was educated at the PEedagogium in Basel and the University of Basel where he studied theology for three years. He then attended the University of Berlin, where he had first Schleiermacher and then NeanAer for teachers. He then returned to Basel, where he passed his first theological examination and became a docent in the university. In 1835 he was called to Lausanne, where in 1838 he became professor of historical theology. At Lausanne he lived on most friendly terms with both colleagues and students, cultivating with them pleasant social relations. At the same time he was very active in a literary way; besides several smaller essays, such as one on the teachings of Zwingli, and his Johann" Calvin, eine biographische Skizze (Basel, 1843), he composed a longer work: Das Leben (Ecolampadius and die Reformation. der Kirehe zu Basel (2vols., Basel, 1843). In 1840 and 1841 he contributed a series of articles to the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung on the conflict between the national church of the Canton of Vaud and the State, which at that time was trying to render it dependent. In Feb., 1846, he resigned his professorship on account of conscientious scruples and after a year of private teaching was called in
HesseHerzog THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 252
the spring of 1847 to the chair of church history and
New Testament exegesis at the University of Halle.
While there he became much interested in the
Waldenses, two of his students being members of
that sect, and he devoted himself to a historical
investigation of their origin, making for that pur
pose journeys to Geneva, Grenoble, Paris, and
Dublin that he might study ancient manuscripts
dealing with that subject. The results of these
researches he embodied both in his De origine et
pristino statu Waldensium (Halle, 1848) and in his
comprehensive Die romanischen Waldenser (1853).
His studies led him to quite different opinions on
the early history of the Waldenses from those usu
ally entertained at the time, but his views are now
universally adopted. He believed the Waldenses
arose not earlier than the twelfth century, and
from the beginning were students of the Bible, but
deserted the paths of Roman Catholic piety only in
the sixteenth century under the influence of Huss
and the German Reformation. In 1854 he was
called to Erlangen as professor of Reformed theology.
Some time before this there had been planned in
Germany a comprehensive encyclopedic work on
theology, and Schneckenburger had been named as
editor, but the revolution of 1848 had caused it to
be abandoned for a time. With the advent of peace
it was again undertaken. Schneckenburger having
died in 1848, Tholuck, who was asked for advice,
suggested the name of Herzog. Herzog was well
fitted for the task by his many sided knowledge,
his ripe judgment, his mild and catholic views, his
strong faith in revelation, and especially by his
extended personal relations. He took great in
terest in the undertaking, contributing from his own
of the Real Encyklopddie see the preface to the first
volume of this work, p. ix. Besides the works
mentioned above, Herzog wrote an Abriss der
gesammten Kirchengeschichte (3 vols., Erlangen,
1876 H2). F.SIEFFERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. 6ieffert, in theAUgemeirse Zeitung, 1883,
no. 31, Beilage.
HESS: The name of several ministers and theologians of Zurich, of whom the more noteworthy axe the following:
1. Johann Jakob Hess: B. at Zurich Oct. 21,1741; d. there May 29, 1828. He was the son of a watchmaker, and from 1748 was brought up by his maternal uncle, Heinrich Gossweiler, pastor at Affoltern, near Zurich, a man of great piety and wide culture. From 1755 to 1760 he studied in Zurich. As a youth he showed considerable poetical talent; and, encouraged by Mopstock and Wieland, both of whom he had met in Zurich, he thought seriously of abandoning theology for poetry, but in 1760 he became assistant to his paternal uncle Kaspar Hess, pastor at Neftenbach. In 1767, having inherited considerable property from his father, he was able to retire to private life and devote himself entirely to study. For several years he worked upon his life of Christ. In 1777 he was called to the Liebfrauenkirche, Zurich. Despite the fact that Zurich had at that time several famous preachers, Hess attracted crowded congregations. His sermons, which he soon began to publish, were transcribed and circulated widely
in manuscript, and thus his influence extended beyond his congregation, and his sermons came to serve as models for hundreds of ministers in Switzerland and even in other countries.
In 1795, quite unexpectedly and against his will, Hess was elected superintendent (antistes) of the churches of the Canton of Zurich. It was with a heavy heart that he entered upon the duties of this responsible office, now made doubly difficult by the political conditions of the time. However, Hess proved the right man, and his wisdom and strength of character safely piloted the Church through the tempestuous weather of the succeeding years. His leadership in the conflict with the enemies of the Church was recognized in other cantons, and his methods were adopted there. A thorn in the eye of the civil authorities, he was even threatened with deposition and deportation. In 1815 he wished to retire to private life, but the ministerium declined to consider his resignation. The Reformation Jubilee in 1817 brought him honorary doctorates from Tubingen, Jena, and Copenhagen. He was a prominent figure at the secular celebration of the Reformation held in Zurich in Jan., 1819, when he received a large gold Zwingli medal from the government, and another large gold medal from the king of Prussia. Shortly after the celebration he was taken ill, and henceforth had to entrust the duties of his office to his official representatives. He made his last public appearance in 1820, at a meeting of the Zurich Bible Society, of which he was the founder and president.
In the history of Protestantism in Zurich Hess occupies a very important position. He avoided fruitless speculation, and made himself the champion of historical and Scriptural Christianity. His favorite idea was that of the" inner union,"or"the inner community of Christ," which with him represented not merely an ideal, but an actuality. All followers of Christ, he held, are year by year being gradually united in spirit into a single great brotherhood. He himself did much toward the realization of such a brotherhood. He was held in universal reverence; and it was largely because of this fact that he was able to make his influence so potent. In the world of theological scholarship Hess has exerted his greatest influence by his studies in the life of Christ. In this field he was a pioneer. His principal works are Geschichte der drei letzten Lebensjahre Jesu (6 vols., Zurich, 1768 73; 8th ed., 3 vols., 1822 23), which was translated into Dutch and Danish, and also adapted to the use of Roman Catholies; Jugendgeschichte Jesu (Zurich, 1773); Von dem Reich Gottes(2vols., 1774); GeschichteundSchriften der Apostel Jesu (2 vols., 1775); Geschichte der Israeliten vor den Zeiten Jesu (12 vols., Zurich, 1776 91); Ueber die Lehren, Thaten and Schicksale unseres Hewn (2 vols.,1782; 3d ed., enlarged, 1817); Bibliothek der heiligen Geschichte (2 vols., 1791 92); Der Christ bei Ge/ahren des Vaterlandes (3 vols., 1799 1800), a collection of sermons; and Kern der Lehre vom Reich Gottes (1819). Before kis death Hess published a collected edition of his works under the title, Biblische Geschichte (23 vols., 1826).
253 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA 2. Felix Hess: B. in Zurich 1742; d. there 1768. He studied in Zurich and entered the Protestant ministry, was an intimate friend of J. K. Lavater and J. J. Hess, and a theologian of great promise. His early death was generally deplored. He wrote Priifung der philosophischen and moralischen Predigten (Berlin, 1767), and made a translation of John Taylor's Scheme o f Scripture Divinity, which was edited by J. J. Hess, J. Taylor's Entwurf der Schrifttheologie (Zurich, 1777).
3. Salomo Hess: B. in Zurich 1763; d. there 1837. He was a nephew of Johann Jakob Hess. He became a deacon at St. Peter's in 1792, where J. K. Lavater was pastor, and succeeded Lavater in 1801. His historical works are lacking in exactness, and should be used with caution. The more important are Erasmus von Rotterdam (2 parts, Zurich, 1790); Lebensgeschichte Dr. J. (Ekolampads (1791); Gesehichte der Pfarrkirche St. Peter (1793); Geschichte des Ziircher Katechismus (1811); Das Reformations/est (1819); Anna Reinhart, Gattin and Wittwe von Ulrich Zwingli (1819); and Lebensgeschichte M. H. Bullingers (2 vols., 1828 29).
4. Hans Caspar Hess: B. 1772; d. 1847. He
received his theological training in Zurich and
entered the Protestant ministry there. As in f orma
tor in Geneva he wrote La Vie d'Ulrich Zwingli
(Paris and Geneva, 1810; Germ. transl., Zurich,
1811; Eng. transl., London, 1813).
(P. D. HEss.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. L. Meister, Berfihmte Ztlrcher, ii.146 147,
Basel, 1782; G. Gessner, Blicke auf das Leben and Wesen des . . . J. J. Hess, Zurich, 1829; H. Fechet, Johann Jacob Hess . . Skizze seines Lebens, ib. 1837 (reliable); Am dem Briefwechael zwiachen Antiatee Hess and Kaplan Franz Romer (of Pennsylvania), in Theolopi8chs Zeatachrift der Schweiz, 1899; P. D. Hess, Der Zurcher Vernunftprediper Kaspar David Hardmeyer,177.f!183,2, in Zureher Taschenbuch, 1905. Consult further: Ziardaer Taschenbuch, 1850, 1895, 1901, 1907.
HESS (HESSE), JOHANN : German Reformer; b. at Nuremberg Sept. 23(7), 1490; d. at Breslau Jan. 5, 1547. He studied from 1505 to 1510 at Leipsic, and then spent two years at Wittenberg, where he was on terms of friendship with Luther, and especially with Luther's friends Jobs= Lange and Spalatin. In 1513, after a short stay atNuremberg, his humanistic connections and the commendation of Steurl gained him the position of secretary to the bishop of Breslau, Johann V. Turzo, a friend of the Renaissance and admirer of Erasmus. In 1515 he became private tutor of a son of Duke Charles of Munsterberg C)ls at Neisse, where he was appointed to a canonry in the same year. In 1517 he visited central Germany, and in 1518, Italy. On his return in 1519 he went to Wittenberg, where he lived two months in intimate association with Luther and Melanchthon. Then he went back to his bishop, who gave him additional canonries at Brieg and Breslau. At this time he was ordained priest. The prospects for an Evangelical reform were favorable, as the bishop showed no suspicion toward Hess and himself maintained relations with Luther and Melanchthon. Moreover, humanistic studies had found a ready welcome at Breslau even before the time of Hess. No* the new religious spirit entered, and some of Luther's smaller reforming writings were reprinted. But Bishop Turzo died
in 1520, and his successor, Jacob von Salza, adhered strictly to the Roman Church. Thus conditions became unbearable for Hess. He sought refuge with his ducal patron, and as court preacher he proclaimed Evangelical doctrines. In 1523 we find him again at Nuremberg. During his absence the Reformation had made headway in Breslau. The Franciscans of the monastery of St. James took part in the movement, and the people had been stirred up by " Lutheran " sermons. Under these circumstances the magistrate of the city called Hess in 1523 as preacher to the Church of St. Mary Magdalene. In a disputation held in 1524 he openly declared for the Reformation. The town council ordered all preachers of the city to follow the example of Hess. The change of liturgy and the restoration of communion in both kinds seems to have been accomplished by Hess without disturbance. Hand in hand with the religious reform went the reform of the schools and charitable work. In 1525 Ambrosius Moiban, a friend of Hess, was called to the St. Elizabeth's Church, and that of the Cistercians was also placed under an Evangelical preacher.
The changes in the service were restricted to narrow limits, Hess showing himself here a man of moderation and caution. One of the chief peculiarities of the Reformation in Breslau was the connection of the new system with the old, at least in form. Hess and Moiban continued to acknowledge the bishops as their superiors, and the bishops themselves were not inclined to interfere with this state of affairs. By having the ordinations of its ministers performed elsewhere, especially at Wittenberg, the, city guarded itself against interference by the king of Bohemia, who was a strict Catholic; though in any case he was inclined to tolerate the Evangelical church of Breslau as a strong defense against the inroads of Schwenckfeldianism and Anabaptism. Hess had no sympathy with these tenets, nor with the teachings of the Swiss Reformers on the Eucharist. Besides Johann Lange, Melanchthon, and Luther, he counted Veit Dietrich, Camerarius, and Brenz among his friends, and corresponded with influential men in the Prussian Church. In 1540 he visited his native city, and again in 1541 on the occasion of his father's death. Thence he went to Regensburg, where he and Veit Dietrich attended the diet which discussed the state of religion. His only publication was a reprint of the chapter De vitanda ebrietate from Pliny's "Natural History" together with some poems (Wittenberg, 1512).
BmLIOOnAPBY: The best source of information is the Zeit
achrift des Vereine ftir Geachichte and Altertum Schleaiens,
vole. v., vi., xviii., xxvi. Consult: C. A. J. Kolde, Johann Hess, der achlesiscAe R4formator, Breslau, 1846; Schaff, Christian Church, vi. 573 aqq.; J. KSetlin, Martin Ink, passim, 2 vols., Berlin, 1903 (quite full).
Rise of Protestantism The Clergy (§ 3).
(§ 1). Recent Reforms (§ 4).
Church Organisation Roman Catholics (.§ 5).
The grand duchy of Hesse is a state of the German empire, comprising two main portions and eleven small exclaves. The northern division, called Upper
Hesse THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 854
Hesse, is surrounded by the Prussian province of
Hesse Nassau; the southern portion, consisting of
the provinces of Rhenish Hesse and Starkenburg,
is bounded by Prussia, Bavaria, and Baden. Heese
has an area of 2,965 square miles, and a population
(1905) of 1,210,104. About two thirds of the popu
with an executive committee. A general synod meets every five years. This body is composed of two representatives of each of the decanal synods, a clergyman and a layman, three clerical and four lay members named by the grand duke, and the prelate, who, like the Roman Catholic bishop, is a member of the upper chamber. The consistory is represebted in local affairs by the deans, who are elected by the decanal synods, and, as regards finances, by certain district officials. The executive committee of the general synod is an extension of the consistory.
Salaries of clergymen are paid from the general treasury of the Church. After the candidate for the ministry has spent at least seven
3. The semesters at some German university,
Clergy. he is examined in the first instance by
the theological faculty of the Uni
versity of Giessen. He must then spend a year
in the seminary for ministers at Friedberg. He
then undergoes a final examination by a special
committee, composed of the clerical members of
the consistory and of the professors of the semi
nary. The duties of ministers are regulated by
law; and pastorates are filled by the consistory
on petition of the parochial boards. Surplice fees
were abolished in 1891. The pastor must give
weekly, three or four hours' religious instruction in
the public elementary schools, basing his instruc
tion on Biblical history and the catechism. In
Lutheran parishes he uses the Lutheran catechism,
in certain Reformed parishes the Heidelberg cate
chism, and in united parishes the catechism of 1894,
which combines the Lutheran and Heidelberg cate
There is no uniform liturgy for the whole state, though a movement having as its object the preparation of a liturgy acceptable to all
4. Recent parishes is now in progress. Similarly,
Reforms. an effort has been made to give
church music a uniform character;
and in many places church singing has been re
formed in the interest of a lively popular rhythm.
To be mentioned here is the choral book edited by
J. G. Herzog, and also his book of preludes. In
recent years the interests of the State Church have
been furthered by the division of the larger parishes,
the erection of numerous new churches, by the
ordinance providing for the care of the poor, and
by regulations against such sects as the Irvingites,
Adventists, etc. Sunday schools are now common.
The Innere Mission maintains some thirty hospitals
and a large number of other charitable institutions
of an educational nature.
The Roman Catholic inhabitants are under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Mainz. The relation between the Roman curia and the
g. Roman Hessian government was established
Catholics. by the bulls Provida soleraque (1821)
and Ad dominici gregis custodian
(1827), and the edicts of 1829 and 1830 (changed
in 1853). An agreement made in 1854 between the
bishop and the Hessian government was repudiated
by the curia in 1866. Since then all ecclesiastical
relations have been arranged by secular legislation.