Herod and His Family THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 248
had been given recognition as a sort of procurator over Judea, and had been awarded Roman citizenship. From his marriage with the Arabian Cypros there were four sons, Phasael, Herod, Joseph, and Phreroras, and a daughter Salome. For Herod an Essene named Menahem prophesied the kingship. When Herod was only twenty five years of age his father had him made governor of Galilee, where he showed his energy by capturing a brigand and executing him. During a contest with the sanhedrin over prerogatives, Sextus Caesar appointed him governor of Ccele Syria (q.v.), while the kingship was also promised to him.
Herod's standing with the people was very insecure, and after the withdrawal of Cassius a revolt
resulted in which Antigonus Mattaa. The thias, son of Aristobulus, assisted by
Winning Marion of Tyre, attempted to assert of His his rights to the throne. Herod's Kingdom.energy was too great, however, and
Marion was compelled to retreat, while Antigonus was defeated. To improve his status Herod divorced his wife Doris and sent away her son Antipater, betrothing himself to Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus, thus entering the family of the Hasmoneans. It seemed as if his plans were defeated when the Republicans, with whose party he had been affiliated, were beaten by Antony and Octavian at Philippi. But Antony was favorably inclined toward Herod on account of earlier hospitable relationship with Antipater. A crisis was precipitated through an attack of the Parthians during which Phasael, who had been made king of Jerusalem, committed suicide and another brother of Herod was taken prisoner by the Parthians, while Antigonus was placed on the throne. Herod fled to Rome, gained the help of Antony and Augustus, and was declared by the Senate king of Judea a kingdom which had yet to be won. He landed in Ptolemais, speedily collected a considerable army of Jews and foreigners, and gradually gained the mastery. A decisive victory over Antigonus at Isana in Samaria opened the way to Jerusalem. While the preparations for the siege were under way Herod celebrated his marriage with Mariamne; this done, he returned, and with the help of the Romans took the city within three months. After the withdrawal of his allies he began his reign, which falls into three periods.
The first period was one of contest with dangers without and within. He excited mistrust by getting
rid of forty five of the adherents of 3. First Antigonus. The aged Hyrcanus caused Period ofhim anxiety, so he had him brought His Reign, to the court where he could keep him 37 27 B.C. under observation. Through the in
trigues of his mother in law Alexandra with Antony and Cleopatra, he was compelled to set aside a Babylonian Jew whom he had made high priest in favor of Aristobulus, then seventeen years old, consequently his mistrust of them was strengthened and grew, especially after their unsuccessful attempt at flight. The favor of the people for Aristobulus openly manifested led Herod to have him drowned in a bath (35 B.c.). He was summoned to answer for this before Antony, but escaped with
out punishment. During this journey he left Mariamnein care of his uncle Joseph with instructions to kill Mariamne in case the trial went against him. She learned this and her love for him turned to hate. Joseph had married his sister Salome, who charged him before Herod with misconduct with Mariamne, and Joseph was executed. Cleopatra, drawn into these family difficulties, desired to have possession of Palestine; Antony, therefore, compelled Herod to cede to her the rich district around Jericho and pay her tribute for it. She also brought it about that Herod was commanded by Antony to assail a king of the Arabs who had not paid the tribute due to her. This, however, he turned to advantage. His troops, dispirited by an earthquake, he encouraged to the attack and won a notable victory. This campaign kept him from participation in the defeat of Antony and won him the favor of Augustus. After putting Hyrcanus out of the way, he went to pay court to Augustus at Rhodes, and the latter assured to him his kingdom. Services rendered to Augustus during his march to Egypt resulted in the material enlargement of that kingdom. But during his absence at Rhodes he had given Mariamne into the charge of a certain Iturean named Soemus with the same command as he had given to Joseph, with the result that Mariamne learned also of this second offense against her. Again Salome instilled into Herod's mind suspicions against his wife, Soemus was put to death, Mariamne was tried and also condemned to death. During excesses, in which he sought to drown recollection of the wife he had so passionately loved that he could not endure the thought of another's possessing her, reports came of intrigues of Alexandra to supplant him, and he had her put to death as well as Costobar, the second husband of Salome. Thus his dangerous foes were removed, and political as well as domestic difficulties vanished from his path (27 n.c.).
The second period was marked by great building operations and by displays of wealth and magnificence. He erected a theater in Jeru
¢. Second salem in which, and in the amphi
Period, theater constructed in the valley, a7 r4 B.C. were celebrated every fourth year the deeds of Caesar. All this so offended the Jews that ten Arameans conspired to kill the king in the amphitheater, but the plot was discovered and the plotters executed. His policy then was to prevent rebellion. His palace overawed the upper city, and the fortress of Antonia menaced the temple and its district. Samaria he named Sebaste, intending to fortify it, and built Caesarea on the site of Straton's Tower. After he had intimidated the people with these and other fortifications, a famine gave him opportunity to attempt to win the people over by liberality and practical measures of relief with the purpose of taking up again his works of display. Before his marriage with a second Mariamne, daughter of a priest, he built a beautiful palace for himself in the upper city and also the castle named after himself the Herodium. He also extended the works at Csesarea. Herod gave assistance to lElius Gallus, proconsul of Egypt, in an Arabian campaign, sent his sons by
Herod and His Family the first Mariamne to Rome where Caesar received them at court, and shortly after granted to Herod Trachonitis, Batanea, and Auranitis. Herod visited Agrippa in Mytilene and waited upon Augustus on the latter's visit to Syria, receiving such favor that Josephus has left it on record that, after Agrippa, Augustus regarded no one so highly as Herod, and after Augustus Agrippa regarded no one as highly as Herod. Augustus added to Herod's dominions the territory from Ulatha on the sea to Panias at the source of the Jordan, and made his brother Phreroras . tetrarch, in acknowledgment of which Herod built a temple dedicated to the emperor at Panias. A system of espionage was established, meetings were forbidden, meeting for converse in the street became unlawful. Even his final attempt to gain the good will of the Jews by the restoration of the temple was new ground for suspicion, only allayed after the progress had been well advanced. These and like deeds embittered the Jews against him, and this hatred he vainly attempted to remove by remission of taxes. Yet his favor with the Romans he used to gain advantages for the nation and when he obtained further remission of taxes he finally won the applause of the people. He then was at the summit of his fame.
The third period of Herod's reign is marked by the decline of his good fortune. His two sons by
the Maccabean Mariamne, Aristobulus
g. Third and Alexander, were two descendants
Period, of the extirpated family who aroused
z4 q, B.C. anew his earlier distrust and enmity.
He had attempted to obliterate all
causes of trouble by marrying Aristobulus to his
sister's daughter Berenice, and Alexander to Gla
phyra, daughter of the king of Cappadocia. During
his journey to Agrippa (14 B.c.) the two princes had
treated Salome and Phreroras with haughtiness and
had given utterance to imprudent remarks about
the murder of their mother. To intimidate them
from possible revenge Herod recalled to the court
his son Antipater by his first wife Doris. This son
at once began to intrigue against his half brother
with such effect that Herod took them both to Rome
celebrations, not excluding largess for the Olympic
games. While this brought him celebrity of a
pleasant sort from the outside world, it excited the
hatred of the Jews. The atmosphere of his own
court was unwholesome, where resided not only
Nicolas of Damascus and his brother Ptolemy, but
the numerous wives of the king and a host of
eunuchs and disreputable persons. Intrigue was
in the air, and the palace inmates became involved.
Herod trusted no one. By the device of Antipater
suspicion was directed against Alexander, whose
adherents were put to torture. Alexander himself
was thrown into prison, from which his father in
law was just able to save him. But Salome renewed
her intrigues, aided by Eurycles, a worthless Lacediemonian, and both sons by Mariamne were executed, 7 B.c. Meanwhile an attempt of Herod's against a band of brigands had incensed the emperor, who sent a sharp rebuke to Herod. The latter succeeded in placating the emperor through Nicolas of Damascus, and was given a free hand in dealing with his sons, with the result stated above. Herod named Antipater as his successor, and sent him with the will to Rome. Hardly had this been done when it came out through the death of Phreroras that Antipater had planned to poison Herod. Herod revoked his will; he named AntipaA, son of Malthace, his successor, and caused the execution of Antipater. In the joy of the prospect of speedy release from Herod's tyranny through the fatal disease from which he was then suffering, the people were easily induced to tear down from the temple gate the eagle which crowned it. But Herod was sufficiently well to have the instigators of the deed burned alive. His death occurred soon afterward, in the year 4 B.c. He had given orders that the noblest in the land should be slain at his death in order that sincere mourning should take place when he died. His final will directed that his son Archelaus should be king, Antipas was to have the tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea, and Philip that of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, and Panias.
Herod was possessed of a powerful physique, uncommon strength of intellect and will, keen powers of observation, quickness in seizing the points of a
situation, presence of mind, cleverness 6. Personal in choosing his means for his purposes,
Character undaunted courage, and unfailing en
istics. ergy a union of qualities which fitted
him for action in a manner seldom
attained. With Josephus one must also credit him
with good nature and magnanimity, and conse
quently must not attribute all his actions to selfish
ness and ambition. This is evident even in his
interest in Greek culture and his efforts to further
its progress in Palestine. On the other hand, he
was entirely lacking in a sense of duty from the
standpoint of ethics. Thus no regard for the situa
tion of the Jews and for their hopes deterred him
from maintaining a friendship with the power most
hostile to those hopes, and he was only a heartless,
tyrannical, and suspicious savage. So all the accom
plishments of his reign, his extension of his kingdom
so as to equal that of David, his display of wealth
and magnificence, his rebuilding of the temple, his
beneficence to heathen which elevated the Jewish
name outside Palestine= all which seemed to realize
Messianic prophecy was after all only a caricature
of it. (F. SnomT.)
II. His Family: Archelaus (4 B.C. 8 A.D.), the son of Herod by Malthace, was by the will of his father
to receive the title and Judea, Samaria,
i. Arche and Idumea. But, inasmuch as that
leas. Will was not valid until confirmed by
Augustus, he declined to assume the
title of king, though hailed as such by the courtiers.
To the people he promised, from a throne erected
in the temple enclosure, fair and equitable dealing.
The Jews at once made demand for a reduction of
some taxes and abolition of others, release of prix.
Herod and His Family THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 248
oners, deposition of the high priest Josar, and expulsion of the Gentiles. A further demand was punishment of those who had urged the death of the persons who had led in the destruction of the eagle over the gate of the temple. To some of these demands Archelaus could not make definite answer, and by temporizing exhausted the patience of the population, at the time augmented by the Passover pilgrims. Some of his guards were attacked, and a m6lde was precipitated in which some 3,000 people fell in the streets. He went to Rome with Nicolas of Damascus as his advocate, where he, Antipas, Philip, and deputations of Jews who asked for direct Roman rule as against the Herods pleaded their causes before Augustus. The emperor sustained the will, except in some small particulars and in withholding the title of king and substituting that of ethnarch until Archelaus should prove his fitness for it. While Archelaus was away the spirit of discontent spread throughout the land, and a succession of fanatics, brigands, would be messiahs, and aspirants for the kingship involved nearly the whole country with the Romans, who plundered the temple treasury. Archelaus inherited from his father a love for beautiful buildings, and the wars had destroyed so much that he had ample scope for restoration. He rebuilt the palace at Jericho and built a new city which he called Archelais (12 m. n. of Jericho), after himself. His conduct was violent, arbitrary, and capricious, especially in his frequent removal of the high priests. He outraged public opinion seriously by marrying Glaphyra, the widow of his half brother Alexander, to whom she had borne children, while at her marriage with Archelaus her first husband was still living. After nine years of the rule of Archelaus the Jews exposed the barbarousness and tyranny of his dealings to Augustus, who, in 6 A.D., banished him to Vienne in Gaul, sequestrated his property, and annexed his dominions to the province of Syria.
Herod Antipas (4 s.c. 39 A.D.), also a son of Herod by Malthace, was given Galilee and Peraea and the title of ethnarch by his
a. Herod father's will. He is improperly called
Antipas. king in Mark vi. 14, possibly as a
reflection of the popular terminology,
and correctly ethnarch in Matt. xiv. 1, Luke iii. 19.
He preserved the peace in his dominions, was toler
ated by Augustus, and was a favorite with Tiberius.
Inheriting with his brothers a fondness for display,
the capital of Galilee, and built Tiberias near the
hot springs of Emmaus and erected there a palace.
As part of the site was on a burial ground it was
unclean for the Jews, w1yo refused to settle there.
It was therefore largely settled by foreigners and
Hellenized. He rebuilt Livias, afterward Julias,
on the site of Beth haram, and adorned Machaerus,
east of the Dead Sea. Excessively cunning (cf.
Luke xiii. 32), shrewd and astute, a pagan at heart,
he was superstitious and sensitive. In 27 A.D. he
went to Rome, saw there the beautiful and ambitious
Herodias, his own niece and already the wife of his
half brother. Herod Philip, and although he had
a wife living, he proposed marriage to her. By
divorcing his wife, the daughter of Aretas, and marrying Herodias he aroused the anger and caused the denunciation of John the Baptist and inflamed with anger Aretas, by whom some years afterward he was disastrously defeated (36 A.D.). When Jesus was brought before him for judgment, according to Luke xxiii. 7 15, he avoided pronouncing decision, probably having in mind his own mental suffering after his execution of the Baptist. On the advice of the ambitious Herodias, Antipas went to Rome to sue for the title of king. Agrippa anticipated his arrival there with charges of disloyalty to Caesar in that he had provided equipment for 70,000 men in Galilee. This was really intended for a war of revenge on Aretas; but Caligula would hear no explanation, banished him to Lyons, and gave his territory to Agrippa (39 A.D.).
Herod Philip (4 B.c. 34 A.D.), son of Herod by Cleopatra, received Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis,
the worthiest of the sons of Herod and the man for a
difficult place. For his people he did the best pos
sible economically and administratively. The result
was an age of peace and prosperity during the
thirty seven years of his rule altogether new to his
people. Like all the Herods, he was un Jewish in
his tastes, he employed images on his coins, and
built shrines for Greek deities. He made his capital
at Panics, where he built Caesarea Philippi, enlarged
Bethsaida and called it Julian after the daughter of
Augustus. He was only once married, to Salome,
daughter of Herodias. At his death his territories
were included in the province of Syria, and in 37
given to Agrippa.
Herod Agrippa I. (37 A.D. 44 A.D.), son of Aristobulus by Bernice, Herod's niece and daughter of
Salome, and grandson of Herod the 4, Agrippa I. Great and Mariamne the Maccabee,
lived in Rome till 37 A.D., when Caligula came to the imperial throne. He had married Cypros, who bore to him Agrippa II., Drusus, Bernice, Mariamne, and Drusilla, had had a checkered careerf been dissipated, exhausted his means, borrowed recklessly, become an adventurer, but had the good fortune to become the friend of Caligula. The imprudently expressed wish thatTiberius might be succeeded by Caligula was reported to Tiberius, who thereupon threw him into prison. Six months later (37 A.D.) Caligula succeeded Tiberius, and to Agrippa were given the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias (cf. J. H. A. Ebrard, Gospel History, Edinburgh, 1869, pp.143 146). In 40 A.D. by his astuteness and influence he induced the mad Caligula, just then bent on setting his statue in the temple at Jerusalem, by force if necessary, to forego his design, and thus a collision between Jews and Romans was avoided. On the assassination of Caligula in 41 Agrippa was able to render timely and valuable aid to Claudius and was rewarded by the addition of Judea and Samaria to his dominions, when he became the ruler of a domain as large as his grandfather's. His reign lasted but three years
longer, but was a happy one for his subjects. When at Jerusalem he observed scrupulously the ceremonial law and became beloved even by the Pharisees, though he patronized Greek culture and games outside the distinctively Jewish part of his realm. The persecution of Christians (Acts xii.1 3) was doubtless a part of his general policy of placating the Jews. At his death the Romans regarded his son Agrippa, then only seventeen years of age, as yet too young to be entrusted with the control of so difficult an aggregation of peoples as then inhabited the kingdom which had been his father's. Accordingly Palestine passed over wholly into Roman control until five years later, when it was given to Agrippa II.
Herod of Chalcis, own brother of Agrippa I., was made king of Chalcis by Claudius on the latter's
accession because of his friendship for 5. Herod Agrippa. His son, Aristobulus, was
of Chalcis, made king of Chalcis in 52, of Armenia
Aristobulus, Minor in 55, and of Armenia Major in
and 61. His wife was Salome, daughter of
Agrippa II. Herodias. Agrippa II. (50 100 A.D.),
son of Agrippa I., was appointed by Claudius king of Chalcis after his uncle Herod, and had control of the temple and the appointment of the high priest. He served the Jews by having Ananias the high priest and Ananus, the commander of Jerusalem, acquitted of a charge of rebellion brought by the Roman Cumanus. In 53 A.D. he gave up Chalcis and took the tetrarchy which had belonged to Philip, and later was given by Nero parts of Perma and Galilee. He was adroit and diplomatic, gained and kept favor with Jewish leader, in spite of arbitrary action as to the highpriesthood, yet in the Jewish war fought on the Roman side.
Herod Philip, son of Herod the Great by the second Mariamne (of Jerusalem), was left out of the
succession owing to his mother's ins. Herod fluence against him, lived a private life Philip, in Rome, was the husband of Herodias
Herodias, before Antipas married her, and father
Salome, by her of Salome who pleased Antipas
Bernice, and asked the head of John the Bap
Drusilla. tilt. This is his one claim to distinc
tion. The women of the family who
figured in history were Herodias (see above, II., § 2);
her daughter Salome, who married, first, Herod
Philip the tetrarch, and then Aristobulus, son of
Herod Of Chalcis, to the latter of whom she bore
three children, Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus;
Bernice, oldest daughter of Agrippa I., who married
the Herod who became king of Chalcis in 44 A.D.,
and later Polemon, king of Cilicia (she is the Bernice
relations with her brotherAgrippa I. and with Titus ,
the conqueror of Jerusalem); and Drusilla, young
est daughter of Agrippa I. She married Azizus,
king of Emesa, deserted her husband, and married
the Gentile Felix the Procurator, and had a son
by him. Agrippa (cf. Acts xxiv. 24). The other
members of the family are mentioned in the gen
ealogical table. GEO. W. GILMORE.
BIHLIOORAPHY: The principal sources are Josephus, Ant.,
XIV. XX.. War, i. 10 30: and the fragments of Nioolae
Herod and 81s Family of Damascus, in C. Muller, Frapmenta hiatoricorum Grcorum, iii. 343 464, iv. 661 664, Paris, 1849 51. Of later works there is nothing to compare with Schdrer Geechichte, i. 380 800, 707 725 Eng. tranal., I., i.400 ii. 206, 325 344 (contains very full lists of literature, especially in the foot notes, where sources and later discussions are named). In general the subject is treated in the works on the history of the Jews, particularly those by Ewald, Grits, Hitzig, and Renan. Consult further: T. Lewin, Faati sacri, pp. 62 167, London 1865; J. Derenbourg, Easai sur l'hiat. . de to Palestine, Paris, 1867; F. de Saulcy, Hid. d'Hirode, Paris, 1867; idea, Ettude ehronolopique de to vie et des monna%es des . Agrippa 1. et 1l., ib. 1869; A. Hauerath, Neuteatamentliche Zeitgewhichte, vol. i., Heidelberg, 1868; Brann, Die t;ohne des Herodes, in Monatasehrift fur Gesch. . des Judenthums, xxi. 1873; idem, Agrippa IL, ib. xix (1870), 433444, 529 548, xx (1871), 13 28; C. T. Kema, Geschichte Jeau von Nazara, vol. i., Zurich, 1875, Eng. tranel., London, 1876; F. W. Madden, Calm of the Jews, ib. 1881; J. Destinon Die Quellen des Josephua, vol. i., Kiel, 1882; J. Vickers, The Hist. of Herod, London, 1885 (a vindication); A. Reville, Herodee der Grosse, in Deutsche Revue, 1893; F. W. Farrar, The Heroda, London 1897; DB, ii. 353 362; ED, ii. 2023 42; JE, vi. 356 360.