Hermenentios to the same author, but regards it as having been a gradual growth, through successive revisions and additions, from a small beginning not later than 110 to about 140. External evidence is wholly lacking for such a purpose; but it solves some of the most difficult internal troubles.
The doctrinal standpoint of the book is not
Judeo Christian; to the author, Christianity is the
one absolute and universal religion.
Doctrinal Nor is he Pauline in his views. He
Standpoint. is much more representative of the popular Roman Christianity of his epoch, still lacking sharp dogmatic precision. The conception of pardoning grace as a thing which dominates the whole life has retired into the background; sin is forgiven at baptism, but the baptized are bound to sin no more, and, if they do sin, forgiveness is to be hoped for only under exceptional circumstances. It is hard to define the christology of the book; Harnack considers it adoptioniat, but his view that it identifies the Son with the Holy Ghost (hardly possible in view of the baptismal formula) is probably based on a misinterpretation of the phrase " Spirit of God " applied to Christ, in the sense of a holy spiritual being. The whole teaching on this point is vague, but not really different from that of the New Testament. It is noticeable that the religious element is already secondary to the ethical; and that the doctrine of works of supererogation makes its appearance.
BIBLIOOHAPHY: Rich Gate of literature are to be found in ANF, Bibliography, pp. 30 33; in O. Gebhardt and A. Harnack, Patrum apostolicorum opera, iii., pp. al. sqq.; and in Kriiger, History, pp. 38 40. Modern editions of the Greek text are: R. Anger and G. Dindorf, Leipsic, 1856; A.Y. C. Tischendorf, ib. 1856; A. R. M. Dread, ib. 1857, 1863; Gebhardt and Harnaak, ib. 1877; A. Hilgenfeld, ib. 1881, 1887; F. %. Funk, Tfibingen, 1887. Of the Latin text: A. Hilgenfeld, Leipeic, 1873 Gebhardt and Hamack, ut cup. Of the Ethiopic: A. d'Abbadie, in Abhandlungen der deutwhen morpenIkndiechen Geaellachaft, ii. 1, Leipeie, 1860. Eng. tranels. are: W. Hone, in his Apocryphal New Testament, London, 1820; C. K. J. Bunsen, in his Hippolytus, i. 185 208 ib. 1854; C. H. Hoole, ib. 1870; in ANF, ii. 1 58; and C. Taylor, ib. 1901; K. Lake, Facsimiles of the Adoa Frapmente of the Shepherd, New York, 1907.
Prolegomens and discussions of high value are to be found generally in the editions given above. Consult: J. Donaldson, Hint.of Christian Literature, i. 254 311, London, 1864; idem, Aywstolical Fathers, pp. 318 392; E. Gaab, Der Hirt den Herman, Basel, 1866; T. Zahn, Der Hirt den Hermaa untersucht, Gotha, 1868• G. Heyne, Quo temPore Herman Pastor acriptus. ;sit, K&nfgsberg, 1872; H. M. T. Behnr, Ueber den Ver/asser der Schrift melcAe den Titel ^ Hirt ' fiArt, Rostock, 1876; J. Nirechl Der Hirt den He , Passau, 1879; M. du Colombier, Le Pasteur d'Herraas, aris, 1880; A. Brfill Der Hirt den Herman, Freiburg, 1882; J Haussleiter, De vereionibus pastoris Herma; Latinie Erlangen, 1884; S. P. Lambros, A Collation of the Athoa Codes of the Shepherd of Herman, transl. and ed. by J. A. Robinson. London, 1888; A. Link, Die BinW den Pastor Hermm, Marburg, 1888; P. Baumghrtner, Dis Einheit den Hernias Buchea Freiburg, 1889 E. Hfieketfidt Der Lehrbeprif den Hirtm, Erlangen, 1889; Spitta, Zur Geachichte and Litteratur den Urchristentums, ii. 241437, G6ttrngen, 1896; Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 678692; Harnack Geschichte, i. 49 58 et passim, ii. 1, pp. 257 sqq., 437 438, ii. 2 passim; DCB, ii. 912 921; KL. Y. 1839 14.
HERMENEUTICS. See ExEGEsls oR HER11
Hermes THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 242
HERMES, her'mes, GEORG: German Roman
Catholic theologian; b. at Dreierwalde, near Teck
lenburg (20 m. n.n.e. of Munster),
Life. Westphalia, Apr. 22, 1775; d. at Bonn
May 26, 1831. He graduated in phi
losophy and theology at Miinater, was appointed
teacher in the gymnasium there in 1798, and ad
vanced to the priesthood the following year, al
though he continued teaching. In 1807 he began
lecturing on theology at the academy of Munster,
particularly on the introduction to theology, which
he considered of great importance, because its
object was to show the reasonableness and necessity
of Christianity. In 1819 he was called to the
University of Bonn as professor of dogmatic theol
ogy. His activity and success reached their climax
here, and he formed a school of his own. Toward
1830 his influence was dominant in the theological
faculty at Bonn, in the seminaries at Culm, Treves,
and Ermeland, and extended even to Breslau and
Braunsberg. He had followers in the other faculties,
too, e.g., P. J. Eivenich (1796 1886), in philosophy,
him the opportunity to raise the educational level
among the clergy, and to keep out of influential po
sitions men who did not share his views. D6l
linger's appointment as professor of church history
is said to have been prevented by him. The bishops
of the Rhine provinces favored his pupils, since
they made studious, earnest, and diligent priests.
Hermes developed his theological views in his
Untemuchungen ilber die innere Wahrheit des Chris
tentums (MUnster,1805), Philosophische
His Einleitung in die chrmtkatholisehe Theo
Theology. logie (1819; 2d ed., 2 vols., 1831
1834), and Christkatholische Dog
matik (ed. Achterfeld, 3 vols., 1834 36). He ac
cepts, without any question, every doctrine of the
Roman Catholic Church. " A man can believe,
however, only that which he has recognized as true
from evidence furnished by his reason." This evi
dence compels us to acknowledge the existence of
God, and of his attributes. From God man receives
the supernatural truths which make up the content
of Christianity; they are contained in the Bible
and in tradition; the Church, as teacher, explains
both correctly and infallibly.
This system seems to imply a full acknowledg
ment of revelation and of tradition. But reason
plays, nevertheless, an important part, not by be
coming the judge of the truths of revelation, but by
proving that they are true per se and historically;
as soon as this evidence is furnished, reason must,
of course, submit to their authority in matters per
taining to salvation. Suppose, however, that reason
doubts the truths of revelation and does not feel compelled to consider them as a higher authority. In that case the avenue to revelation is blocked, and the organ by which it is understood is lost. The system of Hermes is, thus, prejudicial to the principle of authority in the Catholic Church. It is, moreover, objectionable from another point of view. If a clearly thinking man must necessarily arrive at Christian faith, he can prove its truth to any one who is able to think logically. The process of reasoning would, consequently, suffice to make a Christian.
After his death the teaching of Hermes was
attacked by a number of men, and stanchly de
fended by his pupils, who were known
ism Con as Hermesians. In 1835 a papal brief
demned. appeared condemning as unorthodox
the teaching of Hermes concerning the
nature of faith, the Bible, tradition, revelation, the
proofs for the existence of God, the necessity of
grace, and original sin. His followers did not deny
that the sentences, mentioned by the brief, if taken
singly, were to be condemned, as indeed the scien
tific attitude as a whole. Their contention was,
however, that Hermes, if alive, would disown them
completely. They maintained in an article pub
lished in the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung (1835)
that the teaching of their master had been mis
represented at Rome, and that its condemnation
would be prejudicial to the best interests of the
Roman Catholic Church. In Apr., 1837, Braun and
Elvenich went to Rome to convince the pope that
the papal brief did not present the doctrines of
Hermes; but the attempt failed, since most of the
German theologians were now against Hermes'
teaching. They remained in Rome till Apr., 1838,
and wrote in defense of their position Meletemata
theologica (Hanover, 1838), which the pope refused
ers were debarred from ecclesiastical offices; Braun
and Elvenich were retired from their professorships,
although honorably and with full stipends. The
Prussian government, too, yielded in a number of
ways for the sake of peace; for instance, in the
matter of granting the bishops the right to take the
initiative in removing a theological professor with
the consent of the government. The archbishop
of Breslau, Forster, was the first to use this right
against Boltzer in 1860.
The explanation of the favorable reception of Hermes' works and their condemnation afterward lies in the change of attitude toward philosophyfrom the Wolff Kantian rationalism to Schelling's romanticism. Windischmann, the first man to attack Hermes, had made this change, and his following was increasing constantly in the Roman Catholic Church. Closely connected with this change in philosophy is the reactionary tendency which set in about that time against the liberal ecclesiastical policy of the bishops along the Rhine, particularly of the archbishop of Cologne, Spiegel, who had endeavored to give his clergy a better education. His successor, Droste Vischering (q.v.),
243 had disliked Hermes already while bishop at Munster, and had forbidden his theological students to pursue their studies anywhere but at Milnater. The Prussian government tried in vain to have him rescind this order, and had to suspend the seminary in 1820. The papal brief gave Droste Vischering an opportunity to combat the system of Hermes and liberalism at the same time; and the defeat which both suffered is an indication of the fact that reactionary tendencies had set in.
BIBLIOGRAPRY: W. Ewer, Denkechrift auf Georg Hermes, Cologne, 1832; A. von Sieger, Urphiloaophie and daa Nothwendigkeitasydem von G. Hermes, Daseeldorf, 1831; J. Host, Haupinomente der hermesischan Philosophie, Maneter, 1832; P. J. Elvenich, Acta Hermesiana, Gbttingen, 1838; idem, Pius IX., die Henneaianer and der Erzbi8chof von Geissel, Breslau, 1848; J. M. Meeker, Die hermeaiachen Lehren in Bezug auf die papatliche Verur theilung, Mainz, 1837; J. Braun and G. J. Elvenich, Meletemata theolopia, Leipsic, 1838; C. G. Niedner, Philoeophio: Hermesio: . . . explicatio et exietimatio, ib. 1838; Acts antihernuaiana, Regensburg, 1839; P. G. Perrone, Zur Geachiehte des Hermeeianismus, ib.1839; D. Bernhardi, Laokoon oder Hermes and Perrone, Cologne, 1842; F. X. Werner, Der Hermesianismus vorzugmeise von seiner dogmatischen Seite, Regeneburg, 1845; K. Werner, Geschichte der katholiachen Theologie, Munich, 1889.
HERNIAS, her'mi as: The unknown author of a
Christian tract of the second or third century. In
thirteen partly worthless manuscripts there is pre
served the apologetic and polemic treatise called
" A Satire on the heathen philosophers by the phi
losopher Hermias," the real author and the date of
which is disputed. According to most authorities,
the tract belongs to the age of the great apologists
(180 250); although Diels, Harnack, and others
believe it to be a forgery, belonging to the fifth or
sixth century. But the former view is sustained
by a detailed comparison with the pseudo Justin
Martyr's Cohortatio ad Grams (ANF, i. 273 289),
which used the "Satire" and perverted it. The
document castigates, not without a certain clever
ness, yet with cheap wit and an absence of deeper
understanding, the conflicting assertions of the
philosophers on the subject of the human soul, of
God and the world; and especially with reference to
the elements of matter. G. KRf1GER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Editions are by W. F. Wenzel, Leyden, 1840; J. C. T. Otto, Jena, 1872 (in Corpus apologetarum Christianorum); CC H. Diele Doxopraphi Grad, pp. 259263 849 658 Berlin, 1879. Consult: Harnaek, Geachichte, i. 782 783, ii. 2, pp. 198 197; idem, Dogma, u. 198; W. Gaul, Die Abfaseunpeverhaltniese der pseudojustini8chen Cohortatio ad Gracos, Berlin. 1903; A. F. di Pauli, Die Irrisio dea Hermias, Paderbom, 1907; Neander hristian Church i. 873; Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 741 742; Ceillier, Auteurs sacra, vi. 332 333; Krilger, History, pp. 137 138.
HERMINJARD, 13,r"man"zhal', AIMS LOUIS:
Swiss Reformed; b. at VSvey (11 m. ex.e. of Lausanne) Nov. 7, 1817; d. at Lausanne Dec. 11, 1900. He was educated at Lausanne, and, after being a teacher in Russia, France, and Germany for several years, resided first at Geneva and later at Lausanne, dividing his time between teaching and historical and bibliographical researches. After thirty years of labor he began to publish the correspondence of the French Reformers and carried it
down to 1544 under the title Correspondance des `slaps.
Hermogenes r6forntafzura daps lee pays de langvz franVaise recvzillie et publiEe avec d'autrea lettres relatives d la r6forme et des notes historiques et biograPhiques (9 vole., Geneva, 1866 97). Many of the letters are printed for the first time, and all of them are carefully collated and furnished with copious notes, which render the edition invaluable. It is one of the monumental works of French Protestant scholarship. That it could not have been carried at least down to the death of Calvin is a calamity.
HERMIT (late Lat. eremita, Gk. eremites, " an eremite, one living alone," from eremos, " desolate, solitary "): One who abandons society and lives alone, especially in a desert. In religious usage the word is applied to a Christian who, fleeing from persecution or seeking what was believed to be the more perfect life, retired to a lonely place and there led a life of contemplation and asceticism. Such hermits were especially common in the early time in the desert of Egypt. See MONASTICISM.
HERMIT ORDERS: A name given to religious orders whose members lived more or less isolated from one another, such as the Agonizants (q.v.), the Eremites of St. Augustine or Augustinian Hermits (see AUOUBTINIANa), the Camaldolites, the Carmelites, the Carthusians, the Celeatines, the Hieronymites, the Services (qq.v.), the Order of V&110mbr08& (see GUALBERTO, GIOVANNI), and the Williamites (q.v.).
HERMOGENES, hermej'e nfz: A teacher of Gnostic tendency at the end of the second century. Tertullian wrote two treatises against him the Adveraacs Hermogenem, which is still extant, and De causa anima;, which is lost. He mentions and quotes from him in several other places (Adv. Yalentinianos, xvi.; De lortescriptione hareticorum, xxx., xxxiii.; De monogamia, xvi.). According to Eusebiua (Hilt. eccl., IV., xxiv. 1), Theophilua of Antioch wrote against a heretical teacher named Hermogenea. He is also mentioned in Hippolytus (PhilosoPhuma, VIII., iv. 17), Theodoret (Har. fabttlarum compendium, i. 19), Philaatrius (titer., xliv.)., and Augustine (titer., xli). Mosheim and Walch have attempted to find in these references
two heretics of the same name; but this is unlikely. It is better to suppose with Tillemont and Harnack that the earlier life of Hermogenes was spent in the East, where Theophilua wrote against him between 181 and 191, and that then he migrated to Carthage,
where Tertullian wrote his treatises in 206 or 207 according to Uhlhorn (Hesaelberg gives 205; Noldechen, 202). He did not teach a thoroughgoing Gnostic system, but, probably in the belief that he was not contradicting the Church's faith, at
tempted to complete it by certain propositions taken from philosophy. He is thus not to be reck
oned among the Gnostics proper. He asserted the eternity of matter, and denied the creation of the
world out of nothing. The soul was material and thus mortal by nature, and obtained immortality only by the imparting of the divine spirit springing from the substance of God. What the Fathers tell of his christological errors is vague; Augustine
and Philastrius reckon him among the Patripas
Hermon THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 244
Herod and His Family BIBLIOGRAPHY: Harnack, GaacA%eltte, i. 152 155, 200, i. 1,
pp. 534 535, ii. 2, pp. 281 282; C. W. F. Walch, Hia
torie der Ketzereien, i. 552, Leipeic, 1782; J. L. von Mos
heim, Commentatio de rebus Christiania, p. 453. Helmetadt,
1753, Eng. tranel., Commentaries on she Affairs of the
Christians before the Time of Constantine eke Great. Lon
don, 1813 35; C. Heaseiberg, Tertulliana Lehre, Dorpat,
1848; A. Hauck, Tertulliana Leben and Schri/ten, pp.
259 aqq., Erlangen, 1877; C. P. Caepari, Kirchenhia
toriache Anecdota, pp. 225 aqq., Christiania, 1883; Kruger,
History, passim; DCB, iii. 1 3; KL, v. 1900 02.
HERMON: The Old Testament name for a moun
tain which bounded the Amorite kingdom of Og
on the north (Dent. iii. 8; iv. 48) and also the
territory of East Manasseh (Josh. xii. 1). It must
therefore be sought in the neighborhood of Dan and
the sources of the Jordan. The Targums on Dent.
iii. 9 and Cant. iv. 8 call it ,fur taiga, "Snow moun
tain," corresponding with Jabal al Talj, the modern
name of the mountain north of the Jordan sources
and east of the Wadi al Taim. According to
Dent. iii. 9 the Phenician name was Siryon and the
Amoritic name Senir, the latter corresponding with
the Assyrian Saniru where Shalmaneser II. defeated
Hazael of Damascus and denoting the Anti Lebanon
range, applied therefore to Hermon as connected
on the north with Anti Lebanon. The Siyan of
Deut. iv. 48 is suspected to be a mistake for Siryon.
The Hebrew name, Hermon, comes from a root
meaning to be forbidden, implying that the moun
tain in early times was a celebrated sanctuary or
The main body of the mountain runs north and
south, with the highest point very near the middle;
to the south it slopes to the Jordan sources, the
upper portion falling off to the Nahr Banias. It
therefore overlooks on the south the upper Jordan
valley and the table land of the Jaulan. On the
north its summit sinks to a highland 3,600 4,000
feet above sea level. The east and southeast sides
are abrupt, the western and northwestern sides
slope more gradually. On the summit is a small
table land 435 yards in diameter, from which rise
three peaks, two on the east and one on the west.
The one on the southeast still shows traces of ruins,
which from their character suggest that they are
the remains of a sanctuary, in all probability belong
ing to the sun god.
I. Herod the Great.
Ancestry and Youth (§ 1).
The Winning of His Kingdom (¢ 2). II. His Family.
First Period of His Reign, 37 27 B.C. Archelaus (§ 1).
(§ 3). Herod Antipae (lf 2).
The Herods were an Idumean family whose prom son of a temple slave of Ascalon. His real ancestry
inence began under Antipas, was enhanced under is given in the accompanying genealogical table.
his son Antipater, and reached its height under his His family had note among his own
son Herod, called the Great. This family succeeded r. Ancestry people, who had been Judaized under
the Hasmoneans in the temporal control of the and Youth. John Hyrcanus (see HASMONEANe).
Jews, and was in power during the life of Jesus His ambition and energy were legit
Christ and the period of the founding of the Chris imate heritages from his forbears. His grand
tian Church. father and his father had gained influence with the
I. Herod the Great; By his historian, Nicolas of government of the Jews before they had received
Damascus, Herod was declared to be of pure Jewish part in that government. Antipater had become
stock, while the story current in Jewish and Jewish the counselor of the weak Hyrcanus II., had aa
Christian circles was to the effect that he was the sisted Caesar in the latter's campaign against Egypt,
The formation of the mountain is limestone, with outbreaks of basalt both on the east and the west. At Mejdel al Shema the lower Syrian Jura rocks come to the surface. The upper part is either entirely bare and decomposed into rubble by atmospheric influences, or in places clothed with low shrubs. At an elevation of about 3,750 feet there is a thick growth of trees, partly firs, partly fruit trees, with stretches of tragacantha and shrubs. On the lower slopes vineyards are numerous, at least on the western and southern sides. The winter snow line begins at an elevation of 3,250 feet; but the summer sun melts all away except in the deep clefts. The upper portions are hollowed out into underground reservoirs which furnish the sources of the streams of the region, particularly of the Jordan. The region is noted for its refreshing dew (Ps. cxxxiii. 3) and for its wealth of animal life (Cant. iv. 8). The western elopes support great flocks of goats.
Only the western and southern slopes have his
toric significance. Peoples passed by its northern
aides to live at the south; so the early Amoritea
and Hivitea (Josh. xi. 3), the Itureana in the second
pre Christian century, and in the seventeenth cen
tury the Drusea, all of whom have left traces in the
present religions of the region. Baal hermon is to
be sought at the eastern or southeastern foot (I
Chron. v. 23), and denotes a sanctuary, perhaps the
Paneion of the Greeks, the modern Banias. Baal
gad, also a holy place, lay in the Lebanon valley
north or northwest of Hermon (Josh. xi. 17). Miz
pah is probably to be sought on the west slope
(Josh. xi. 3, 8). (H. GTrraE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Reland, Palaeatina, pp. 323 eqq.; J. L. Porter, Five Years in Damascus, i. 287 eqq., London, 1856; C. R. Conder, Tent Work in Palatine, chap. vin., New York, 1880; W. M. Thomson, The Laud and the Book, vol. ii., New York, 1882; Te Survey o/ Western Palestine, Jerusalem, published by the PEF, London, 1884; J. G. Wetzstein, Dos bafandiache Giebelpebirpe, pp. 9 13, Leipaie. 1884; F. Noetling, Der Jura am Hermon, Stuttgart. 1887; G. E. Poet, The Flora o/ Syria, Palestine and Sinai, Beirut, 1898; K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, New York, 1908. Robinson, Biblscal Researches, iii. 357; DB, ii. 3b2 353; EB, u. 2021 23; JE, vi. 3bb 358; and the literature under BAaHAN.
HEROD AND HIS FAMILY.
Second Period. 27 14 B.C. ($ 4). Third Period. 14 4 B.C. (¢ b). Personal Characteristics (¢ 8).
Herod Philip ($ 3). Agrippa I. (¢ 4). Herod of Chslcie, Aristobulue, and Agrippa II. (§ b). Herod Philip. Herodias, Salome. Bernice. DrusiIIs (¢ B).
d. 43 B.C.
m. (3) Cypros D.
d. 34 B.C.
m. (10) Salome.
GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE HERODIAN FAMILY.
In the table the numbers in parentheses preceding the names are mere indices to facilitate reference in t15e intermarriages and to differentiate members bearing the same name; numbers
in parentheses following the names denote the regnal period; m. is for married. The columns represent separate generations.
d. 40 B.c ....................... (21) Phasael . m. (25) $alampso