Parts of his works are in MGH, Script., vii (1846), 134 sqq., and xv (1888), 599 eqq., and in MPL, cxxmix. For his life consult: Sigebertue Gemblacends, De saiptoribue eccieaiaeticie, chap. a:axvii., in MPL, alx.; Hiataire litt&aire de la France, vii. 194 eqq., 472 eqq.; Wattenbach, DGt2, f. 382 383, 385; Hauck, KD, iii. 319, 326, 485, 486; K. Werner, Gerbert von Aurillac, Vienna, 1881.
HERIMANN CONTRACTUS.See HERMAN CorrTRACTU9.
HERING, HERMANN JULIUS: German Lutheran; b. at Dallmin (a village of Brandenburg) Feb. 26, 1838. He was educated at the University of Halle (1858 62), and was then deacon at Weissensee, Thuringia (1863 69), archdeacon at Weissenfels on the Saale (1869 74), chief pastor at Ltltzen (1874 75), and superintendent there (1875 78). From 1878 until his retirement in 1908 he was professor of practical theology at Halle, being also consistorial councilor after 1894 and university preacher after 1902. He has likewise been president of the society for the care of released convicts in the Prussian province of Saxony and the duchy of Anbalt since 1893, and in theology adheres to the orthodox school. He has written: Die Myatik Luthers im Zusammenhang seiner Theologie and in ihrem Verhdltnis zur tiheren Mystik (Leipaie, 1879); Doctor Pomeranua, Johannes Bugenhagen (Halls, 1888); Hilfsbuch zur Einfuhrung in daa liturgische Studium (Wittenberg, 1888); Heinrich Hofmann, sein Leben, sein Wirken and seine Predigt (in collaboration with M. KShler, Halle, 1900); and Der akademische Gottesdienst in Halle von seiner Grandung bis zu seiner Erneuerung urea der Kampf um die Schulkirche (Halls, 1908). He has also edited selected sermons of Berthold of Regensburg and A. Tholuek for Die Predigt der Kirche (xxi., xxviii., Leipaic, 1893 95), and since 1894 has been the editor of the Sammlung von Lehrbiichern der praktiachen Theologie, to which he himself contributed Lehre von der Predigt (2 vols., Berlin, 1905).
HERKENNNE, HEINRICH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Cologne July 5, 1871. He studied at Bonn and Miinater 1890 95, and since 1898 has been lecturer at the Collegium Albertinum, Bonn, also privat docent for Old Testament exegesis at the university in the same city since 1903. He has
He maaa o! Wied THE NEW .SCHAF'F HERZOG 1;88
written De vvterfa Latince Ecclesiastics capitxbus i. xliii., una cum nods ex eiusdem libri translationibus Xthiopiea, Armeniaca, Copticis, Latina alters, Syro Hexaplari depromptis (Leipsic, 1897); and Die Briefs zu Beginn des zweiten Maccabderbuches (Freiburg, 1903).
HERKLESS, JOHN: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Glasgow Aug. 9, 1855. He was educated at the udiversities of Glasgow (187281) and Jena (1880); was tutor in English literature in Queen Margaret
College, Glasgow (1880 83); assistant, minister in St. Matthew's Parish Church, Glasgow (1881 83), and minister of the parish of Tannadice (1883 94). Since 1894 he has been regius professor of ecclesiastical history in St. Andrew's University. He has written Cardinal Beaton, Priest and Politician (Edinburgh, 1891); Richard Cameron (1896); The Church o f Scotland (London, 1897); Francis and Dominic (Edinburgh, 1901); The Early Christian Martyrs (London, 1904); The College of St. Leonard (Edinburgh, 1905); and The Archbishops of St. Andrews, i. (1907), in addition to editing Hebrews in The Temple Bible (London, 1902).
HERLE, CHARLES: English Puritan; b. at
Prideaux Herle, Cornwall, 1598; d. at Winwick,
Lancashire, Sept., 1659. He entered Exeter College,
Oxford, in 1612, and took his master's degree in
1618. He settled as a minister, at first in Devon
shire, but soon after became rector of Winwick in
Lancashire, where he remained until his death.
He was appointed one of the Westminster Assembly
of Divines in 1643, and, after the death of Dr.
Twisse, as prolocutor of the same; in which position
he continued to the close. He was a generous
minded Puritan and Presbyterian, with an irenic
spirit, and took an active part in the organization
of the Provincial Assembly of Lancashire, in pro
viding a learned and faithful ministry for the
churches, and in excluding the scandalous and igno
rant, for which he received much ill deserved re
proach. His principal works are of a practical
character: Contemplations and Devotions (pp. 546,
London, 1631); Independency on Scriptures of the
Independency of the Churches (4to, pp. 44, London,
1643), irenic toward the Independents; and Wis
dom's Tripos (London, 1655), in which he shows the
excellency of Christian wisdom above that of
worldly policy and moral prudence. He also deliv
ered several sermons before Parliament, of which
may be mentioned A Pair of Compasses for Church
and State (Nov., 1642) and David's Song (June,
1643). For further information see Wood, Athence
Oxonimses, iii. 477; and Reid, Memoirs o f West
minster Divines (Paisley, 1811). C. A. BRiGGs.
HERMAN (HERIMAN) CONTRACTUS("the Lame "): One of the most learned men of the eleventh century and one of the best German chroniclers; b. July 18, 1013; d. in the monastery of Reichenau (on an island of the Untersee of the Lake of Constance, 4 m. n.w. of Constance) Sept. 21, 1054. When Herman was only seven years old he entered the monastery of Reichenau which, under Abbot Berno (q.v.), was renowned for its scientific achievements. In his thirtieth year he took the vows. Though early lamed by gout, he
was very gifted, and distinguished himself especially
in mathematics, astronomy, and music. His schol
arship attracted numerous pupils. He composed
poems, but his principal work is a chronicle from
the birth of Christ, and is the first world chronicle
of the Middle Ages. Its chief merit lies in its strict
chronological arrangement. From 1040 to 1054, the
year of Herman's death, he relates from his own
recollections and the reports of contemporaries, and
his chronicle is a valuable source for the time of
Henry III. (WILHELM ALTmANN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Herman's Chronicon, ed. G. H. Pert, is in MGH Script, v (1844), 67 133, cf. J. May, in NA, xii (1887), 226 231; a German tranel. by K. Nobbe, ad. W. Wattenbach, was published Leipsic, 1883. An early Vita is in MPL, cxliii. 24 30. Consult ASB, July, iv. 580; H. Hansjaoob, Herimann der Lahme, Mainz, 1875; H. Bresslau, in NA, ii (1877), 566 576; W. Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1894), 41 eqq.; W. Gundlach Heldenlieder der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, ii. 122 sqq., Innsbruck, 1896; J. R. Dieterich, Die Geaehicladaquellen lee Kloaters $eidumu Giessen, 1897, cf. NA, xxiii (1898), 268; further literature is in Potthast, Wegweiaer, pp. 587 588.
HERMAN OF FRITZLAR: The putative author or collector of a life of the saints which, according to its own statement, was written in the years 1343 49. It consists of a preface followed by a number of sermons on the lives of the saints, written in the dialect of central Germany and valuable for the descriptions they contain of contemporary life in Germany and the Romance countries. Mingled with the legendary material are speculations of a mystic character bearing the imprint of the later Eckhartian thought. The author must have traveled extensively in southern Europe, but it is now known that it is incorrect to attribute to Herman an important part in the compilation, which was largely the work of the writer of the manuscript. The collection goes back to an earlier aggregation of sermons collected by the Dominican Gisiler of Slatheim (Schlotheim, n.w. of Erfurt), in which, with still earlier sermons, the compiler included some of his own delivered at Erfurt before 1337. Probably Gisiler was the composer of both oollmtions, the latter being made at the suggestion of Herman, some of whose experiences were added to the contents of the first work.
(A. HEGLERt) K. HoLL.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Pfeiffer, Deutsche Myatiker des roiarzehnten Jahrhunderta, i., pp. xiu. xxii., 1 258, 408 472, 570574, Leipsio, 1845; W. Preger, Geechirhu der deutaden Myatik im Mittelalter, ii. 91 eqq., 160 sqq., 426 sqq., 447 sqq., Leipsic, 1881; ADB, viii. 118 119.
HERMAN OF LEHNIN.See LEA PROPHECY.
HERMAN OF RYSWICg: Heretic; burned at the stake in The Hague Dec. 14, 1512. His name and the place of his condemnation indicate that he was a Netherlander. In 1502 he was condemned to life imprisonment on charges of heresy by the inquisitor Johannes van Ommaten, and perhaps would have come to the stake at that time, had he not expressed repentance for his views. It is not known how long or where he was imprisoned. But he escaped, and began again to teach his heresies and promulgate them in writing. In 1512 he was tried, and after his admission that he had written the numerous heretical books laid before him, he was
$89 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Herklees
Herman of Wied
condemned and burned. It is said that his books
were burned with him.
Among the heresies of Herman were the asser
tions that the world exists from eternity; there are
neither good nor bad angels; there is no hell and
no personal continuance after this life; Aristotle
and his commentator, Averroes, approached truth
most closely; Jesus was a fool and miserable
dreamer, a seducer of simple men; he spoiled the
whole world and saved nobody, and it is lamentable
that so many have been murdered for his sake and
for the sake of his foolish Gospel; everything he did
is in contradiction with human nature and pure
reason; he is not the son of almighty God.
(S. D. VAN VEEN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bernhard of Lutzenburg, Catalogue hereti
corum, book if., Cologne, 1529; P. Fredericq, Corpus docu
mentarum inquisitionis . . . Neeriandica•, i. 494, 501 503,
Ghent, 1889; W. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland,
residence at Wtirzburg, where he officiated tempo
rarily as vicar general and first penitentiary of the
resident bishop. Of his numerous writings, only
the Speculum manuale sacerdotum, a brief introduc
tion to the conduct of the spiritual office, is extant
in print. Among his theological writings may be
mentioned the polemical tract Contra heretwos
negantes immunitatem et jurisdictionem etxlesim,
which was inspired by John XXII., about 1330,
against the doctrines of Marsilius of Padua; and his
controversial tracts Contra jlagellatores, and Contra
hereticos (Leonistas live Pauperes de Lugduno) di
centes miesm comparationem ease speciem symonim.
Besides philosophical writings, Herman also wrote
an Introductorium pro studio sacrorum canonum,
which became the basis of a series of similar popular
canonical works of the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries. HERMAN HAUPT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The latest and authoritative description of Herman's life and writings is in E. Seckel, Beitrdge Sur Geschichte beider Rechte im AfitteWter, i. 129 eqq., Tilbingen, 1898. Consult: H. Fineke, in Zeitachrilt for vaterundiache (westfAlieehe) Geechichte, xlv. 1 (1889), 124, xlvi. 1 (1888), 201 sqq., xlvii. 1 (1889), 220 eqq., and in Hiatoriachea Jahrbuch, x (1889), 568 sqq.
HERMAN OF WESTPHALIA.See HERMAN oh SCHILDESCHE.
HERMAN OF WIED: Archbishop (Herman V.) of Cologne; b. Jan. 14, 1477, fourth son of Count Frederick of Wied (32 m. s.e. of Cologne); d. at
Vied Aug.15, 1552. At the age of six he was given a benefice in the cathedral chapter of Cologne. In 1493 he was immatriculated under the law faculty in Cologne. In 1515 he was elected archbishop of Cologne. His intellectual attainments were not high, and, upon his own admission, he was more interested in his position as prince than as bishop. Originally he opposed Luther, but through the influence of Erasmus, Butzer, and Melanchthon, he became favorable to the Reformation and undertook certain ecclesiastical reforms in his archdiocese, thereby coming into conflict with the Curia and Popes Clement VII. and Paul III. After the recess of the Diet of Regensburg he called Butzer to his court and had him prepare a scheme for a reformation. This was accepted by the civil authorities, and by a part of the clergy; and the following Easter the communion was administered according to an Evangelical rite. Subsequently Herman summoned to his aid other Protestant theologians, including even Melanchthon. However, on the petition of the majority of the clergy, Charles V. interfered. The archbishop was cited to appear in Brussels and Rome, and a suit was brought against his adherents in the cathedral chapter. Herman turned to the Schmalkald League for support, but in vain. In April, 1546, he was excommunicated by the pope; and in Jan., 1547, the secular estates of Cologne were compelled by imperial commissioners to pay homage to Count Adolf of Schaumburg, hitherto the coadjutor, as their new master. By his unwillingness to agree to the Interim, Herman came into many a difficult position; but all threats and dangers were unable to shake his faith.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources and older literature are indicated in C. Varrentram, Hermann von Wied und rein se. formationavdsuch in KSln, Leipeic, 1878, and in ZKG xx (1899), 37 sqq.; A. Hasenclever, Die Politik der schmmY kaldener vor Ausbruch des sdtmalkoidiwhen Kriaga, vaL
Hermann THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
xaiv. of E. Ebering's Hietoriede Studien, Berlin, 1901; idem, id Zeitechrdft des Berg. Geeekickteoereine, vol. xxv.; G. Wolf, Aue Kurkoln im 16. Jahrhundert, pp. 28 eqq., Berlin, 1906.
HERMANN, NIgOLAUS: German Evangelical hymn writer and bomposer; b. at Altdorf (13 m. e.s.e. of Nuremberg) near the end of the fifteenth century; d. at Joachimathal (14 m. n.n.e. of EIbogen inBohemia)May 3,1561. Shortly after 1516 he became a teacher in the Latin school of the mining town of Joachimsthal. Upon his inquiring whether he should leave his place on account of religious differences, Luther encouraged him to stay. He soon found a strong supporter and friend in the rector of the school, later pastor of the town, Johann Mathesius. Troubled with gout, he was compelled to resign his office, and enjoyed his freedom, which he spent in composing hymns. These, his main work, are found in two probably incomplete collections: Sonntags Evangelien (Wittenberg, 1560) and Historien won der Sind fludt, etc. (1562). For the matter of his hymns he is dependent on Mathesius, but surpasses him in the form. Judged not by a general standard but with due regard to his uncultivated sense of beauty and the imperfect poetical development of the period, Hermann deserves a place of honor among religious singers. Many of his hymns seem dry rimed prose, as mere mechanical counting of syllables, unpleasantly rude. But his thorough devotion to God, in the spirit of the Bible and the Reformers, his touching simplicity and fervor, his simple sweetness, his deep feeling, his rustic naturalness, not without a touch of humor all these things compensate in large measure for his defects. He closes the first period of Evangelical religious poetry, whose characteristic expression is the hymn of faith and confession; he paves the way for the didactic and personal, in which he found many followers inferior to himself. His Christmas hymn, " Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, alle gleich" (" Let all together praise our God "), strikes so happily the true note that it remains the purest and heartiest expression of the Christmas joy. Very popular is also his funeral hymn " Wenn mein Stundlein vorhanden ist" (" When my last hour is close at hand "). The bridal song, "Hiefiir, hiefiir, vor eines frommen Breutgams Thar". ("Come forth, come forth, unto a happy bridegroom's door "), is not yet forgotten in the Erzgebirge. He is most happy in his rimes for children. Intimately connected with his duty of precentor is his Latin metrical work for liturgical use. In the Joachimsthal, Latin had been retained as the language of public worship, together with the accentus ecckaiaatici, the musical arrangement for the recital of the lessons. The most remarkable thing in the Joachimsthal liturgy, though not unprecedented, is the retention of the very ancient form of the " prose " in harmony with the contents of the liturgical gospels. These " proses " alone afford an opportunity to know Hermann as Latin rimer, and give evidence also of his skill in. calligraphy. Like many people in those days, Hermann was at once a poet and composer. He also gave a new importance to the chorale, based on the Gregorian
plain chant sung in unison, and composed in .this
line himself. It is true that he had no training in
technique he tries nothing more than unpretend
ing two part songs and was only a simple leader
of popular melody. But his tunes have a childlike,
joyous, lovely, always elegant expression, and are
easily intelligible. Some may be reckoned among
the best of their class, and are still in use, such as
" Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag " (" The day hath
dawned the day of days "). Five of his other
hymns have been translated and sung in English;
and the melody known as " St. George's, old " is
by him. GEORG LoEBCHE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. Wetsel, HymnopoWraphia, i. 413,
Nuremberg, 1719; J. Mfltsell,.Geiatliche Lieder der eoangeli
eehen Kirche, pp. 401 449 Berlin, 1855; P. Wackernagel,
Bibliopraphie our Geschwhte des deutacken Kirchenliedea,
pp. 303 308, 322 324 Frankfort, 1855; G. Loesche, Zur
Agenda won Joachimatha4 pp. 183 170, "Sion&," 1892;
idem. Nikolaua Hermann. Rini Mandat, O Jeeu Christi,
1908; ADB, xii. 188; Julian, Hymnology, 513 514.
HERMANN VON DER HARDY.See HARDY, HERMANN VON DER.
HERIL43NSBURG MISSION. See HARMS, GEORG, LUDWiG DETLEV THEODOR.
HERMAS: The name assigned by tradition to the author of a book highly regarded in the early Church and frequently included in the New
" The Testament, commonly known as " The Shepherd." Shepherd," no doubt from the appear
Manu ance and title assumed by the angel scripts and who communicates a part of the rev
five " Visions,'' twelve " Mandates," and ten " Simil=
itudes." The complete work is not now extant
in the original Greek, but the manuscript material
has been notably increased in recent years. There
are three defective manuscripts of the Greek: the
" Shepherd " stood originally at the end of the
Codex Sinaitieus (see BmLE TExT, Il., 1, § 2),
where all beyond Mand. IV., iii. 6 has been
lost; of the Codex Athova Lipsiensis a Greek,
Constantine Simonides, stole three leaves (5, 6,
9) from Mount Athos and sold them in Leipsic
with a forged copy of the rest in 1855, and leaves
1 4, 7, 9 were afterward found at Athos extending
only to Sim. ix. 30; a papyrus from the Fay
y1am, now in Berlin, contains two small and
much mutilated sections, Sim. ii. 7 9 and iv.
2 5. Of translations, the Latin Vulgata exists in
numerous manuscripts (first published by Faber
Stapulensis, Paris, 1513). Another, Latin one,
the Palatina, is found in one manuscript. There
is also an Ethiopic version discovered by D'Abbadie
and published in 1860, based on a text akin to the
Sinaiticua. The older editions, relying wholly on
the Vulgata, are worthless. Hilgenfeld was the first
to publish a really critical edition.
The book is a series of visions, with their interpretation, all intended to call Hermas, and through him the Church, to repentance. The time for this is limited, and will end with the completion of the building of " the Tower " (the Church). God has caused the work to cease for a time, that men may come to repentance; but the pause will not last
long new severe persecutions and the end of the world are near. Logically the book falls into two
parts, the first including Vis. i. iv., Contents of two visions calling to repentance and the Book. two giving reasons for its necessity.
Via. v. is an introduction to the second part, which contains the twelve " Mandates " or commandments revealed to Hermas. They cover (1) faith in the one God; (2) simplicity and love of one's neighbor; (3) truth; (4) chastity; (5) patience and mercy; (6) good and evil angels; (7) the fear of God; (8) self restraint; (9) trust in God; (10) sadness and joy; (11) false prophets; (12) combat with evil desires. The first eight " Similitudes " are also visions, proclaiming the approaching completion of the Church and the call to repentance. Sim. ix. is a sort of recapitulation, with some modifications, and Sim. x. is an epilogue to the whole work.
There is no agreement as to the identity of the author or the date of composition. On the one
hand, the Muratorian fragment asserts Author explicitly that the work was written and Date. in the time of Pius I. (i.e., about 140)
by his brother; on the other, the book contains indications of an earlier date, such as the mention of Clement in Via., II., iv. 3, which would throw it back into the first century. There are difficulties in the acceptance of either of these theories. There is much in the book which does not fit the end of the first century. The Church has already lost its first fervor; traitors, hypocrites, and seekers of pleasure have crept in; and the beginnings of Gnosticism are already visible.
If, however, the view of the majority (Ewald, Ritschl, Dorner, Heyne, Hilgenfeld, Harnack, etc.) be adopted and a date near the middle of the second century be assigned, other difficulties arise. The author knows nothing of a monarchical episcopate in Rome; the heads of the Gnostic party do not come in; there is no trace even of Marcion, who came to Rome in 138 or 139. The mention of Clement has not been satisfactorily explained away. And it is difficult to see how the book could have attained such universal prominence in the Church if it was so late a product. Irenaeus cites it as Scripture, and so does the Pseudo Cyprian (Adv. aleatares). Clement of Alexandria makes considerable use of it, and Origen holds it to be inspired.
Under these circumstances increasing regard has naturally been paid to the theory that it was not all composed at one time. The first attempts to divide the authorship those of Thierech (1858), De Champagny, (1863) and Gueranger (1874) were not very successful. A more adequate hypothesis was offered by Hilgenfeld in 1881, assuming three authors, the Hermes postoralis who produced the
nucleus (Via. v. ,Sim. vii.); the HerWs Theories dpocalypticus who wrote Via. i. iv.;
of and the Hermes $ecuus, who reComposite cast the whole into its present form. Authorship. This view did not find many followers.
Link (1888) and Baumg&rtner (1889) firmly opposed any division of authorship, and may be considered to have proved their point. The latest view of Harnack assigns the whole work V. 16