161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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Parts of his works are in MGH, Script., vii (1846), 134 sqq., and xv (1888), 599 eqq., and in MPL, cxxmix. For his life consult: Sigebertue Gemblacends, De saiptoribue eccieaiaeticie, chap. a:axvii., in MPL, alx.; Hiataire litt&aire de la France, vii. 194 eqq., 472 eqq.; Wattenbach, DGt2, f. 382 383, 385; Hauck, KD, iii. 319, 326, 485, 486; K. Werner, Gerbert von Aurillac, Vienna, 1881.


HERING, HERMANN JULIUS: German Lu­theran; b. at Dallmin (a village of Brandenburg) Feb. 26, 1838. He was educated at the University of Halle (1858 62), and was then deacon at Weis­sensee, Thuringia (1863 69), archdeacon at Weissen­fels on the Saale (1869 74), chief pastor at Ltltzen (1874 75), and superintendent there (1875 78). From 1878 until his retirement in 1908 he was professor of practical theology at Halle, being also consistorial councilor after 1894 and university preacher after 1902. He has likewise been presi­dent of the society for the care of released convicts in the Prussian province of Saxony and the duchy of Anbalt since 1893, and in theology adheres to the orthodox school. He has written: Die Myatik Luthers im Zusammenhang seiner Theologie and in ihrem Verhdltnis zur tiheren Mystik (Leipaie, 1879); Doctor Pomeranua, Johannes Bugenhagen (Halls, 1888); Hilfsbuch zur Einfuhrung in daa liturgische Studium (Wittenberg, 1888); Heinrich Hofmann, sein Leben, sein Wirken and seine Predigt (in col­laboration with M. KShler, Halle, 1900); and Der akademische Gottesdienst in Halle von seiner Grand­ung bis zu seiner Erneuerung urea der Kampf um die Schulkirche (Halls, 1908). He has also edited selected sermons of Berthold of Regensburg and A. Tholuek for Die Predigt der Kirche (xxi., xxviii., Leipaic, 1893 95), and since 1894 has been the editor of the Sammlung von Lehrbiichern der praktiachen Theologie, to which he himself contributed Lehre von der Predigt (2 vols., Berlin, 1905).

HERKENNNE, HEINRICH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Cologne July 5, 1871. He studied at Bonn and Miinater 1890 95, and since 1898 has been lecturer at the Collegium Albertinum, Bonn, also privat docent for Old Testament exegesis at the university in the same city since 1903. He has

He maaa o! Wied THE NEW .SCHAF'F HERZOG 1;88

written De vvterfa Latince Ecclesiastics capitxbus i. xliii., una cum nods ex eiusdem libri translatio­nibus Xthiopiea, Armeniaca, Copticis, Latina alters, Syro Hexaplari depromptis (Leipsic, 1897); and Die Briefs zu Beginn des zweiten Maccabderbuches (Freiburg, 1903).

HERKLESS, JOHN: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Glasgow Aug. 9, 1855. He was educated at the udiversities of Glasgow (187281) and Jena (1880); was tutor in English literature in Queen Margaret

College, Glasgow (1880 83); assistant, minister in St. Matthew's Parish Church, Glasgow (1881  83), and minister of the parish of Tannadice (1883 94). Since 1894 he has been regius professor of ecclesi­astical history in St. Andrew's University. He has written Cardinal Beaton, Priest and Politician (Edinburgh, 1891); Richard Cameron (1896); The Church o f Scotland (London, 1897); Francis and Dominic (Edinburgh, 1901); The Early Christian Martyrs (London, 1904); The College of St. Leonard (Edinburgh, 1905); and The Archbishops of St. Andrews, i. (1907), in addition to editing Hebrews in The Temple Bible (London, 1902).

HERLE, CHARLES: English Puritan; b. at

Prideaux Herle, Cornwall, 1598; d. at Winwick,

Lancashire, Sept., 1659. He entered Exeter College,

Oxford, in 1612, and took his master's degree in

1618. He settled as a minister, at first in Devon­

shire, but soon after became rector of Winwick in

Lancashire, where he remained until his death.

He was appointed one of the Westminster Assembly

of Divines in 1643, and, after the death of Dr.

Twisse, as prolocutor of the same; in which position

he continued to the close. He was a generous­

minded Puritan and Presbyterian, with an irenic

spirit, and took an active part in the organization

of the Provincial Assembly of Lancashire, in pro­

viding a learned and faithful ministry for the

churches, and in excluding the scandalous and igno­

rant, for which he received much ill deserved re­

proach. His principal works are of a practical

character: Contemplations and Devotions (pp. 546,

London, 1631); Independency on Scriptures of the

Independency of the Churches (4to, pp. 44, London,

1643), irenic toward the Independents; and Wis­

dom's Tripos (London, 1655), in which he shows the

excellency of Christian wisdom above that of

worldly policy and moral prudence. He also deliv­

ered several sermons before Parliament, of which

may be mentioned A Pair of Compasses for Church

and State (Nov., 1642) and David's Song (June,

1643). For further information see Wood, Athence

Oxonimses, iii. 477; and Reid, Memoirs o f West­

minster Divines (Paisley, 1811). C. A. BRiGGs.

HERMAN (HERIMAN) CONTRACTUS ("the Lame "): One of the most learned men of the eleventh century and one of the best German chron­iclers; b. July 18, 1013; d. in the monastery of Reichenau (on an island of the Untersee of the Lake of Constance, 4 m. n.w. of Constance) Sept. 21, 1054. When Herman was only seven years old he entered the monastery of Reichenau which, under Abbot Berno (q.v.), was renowned for its scientific achievements. In his thirtieth year he took the vows. Though early lamed by gout, he

was very gifted, and distinguished himself especially

in mathematics, astronomy, and music. His schol­

arship attracted numerous pupils. He composed

poems, but his principal work is a chronicle from

the birth of Christ, and is the first world chronicle

of the Middle Ages. Its chief merit lies in its strict

chronological arrangement. From 1040 to 1054, the

year of Herman's death, he relates from his own

recollections and the reports of contemporaries, and

his chronicle is a valuable source for the time of


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Herman's Chronicon, ed. G. H. Pert, is in MGH Script, v (1844), 67 133, cf. J. May, in NA, xii (1887), 226 231; a German tranel. by K. Nobbe, ad. W. Wattenbach, was published Leipsic, 1883. An early Vita is in MPL, cxliii. 24 30. Consult ASB, July, iv. 580; H. Hansjaoob, Herimann der Lahme, Mainz, 1875; H. Bress­lau, in NA, ii (1877), 566 576; W. Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1894), 41 eqq.; W. Gundlach Heldenlieder der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, ii. 122 sqq., Innsbruck, 1896; J. R. Die­terich, Die Geaehicladaquellen lee Kloaters $eidumu Gies­sen, 1897, cf. NA, xxiii (1898), 268; further literature is in Potthast, Wegweiaer, pp. 587 588.

HERMAN OF FRITZLAR: The putative author or collector of a life of the saints which, ac­cording to its own statement, was written in the years 1343 49. It consists of a preface followed by a number of sermons on the lives of the saints, written in the dialect of central Germany and val­uable for the descriptions they contain of contem­porary life in Germany and the Romance countries. Mingled with the legendary material are specula­tions of a mystic character bearing the imprint of the later Eckhartian thought. The author must have traveled extensively in southern Europe, but it is now known that it is incorrect to attribute to Herman an important part in the compilation, which was largely the work of the writer of the manuscript. The collection goes back to an earlier aggregation of sermons collected by the Dominican Gisiler of Slatheim (Schlotheim, n.w. of Erfurt), in which, with still earlier sermons, the compiler in­cluded some of his own delivered at Erfurt before 1337. Probably Gisiler was the composer of both oollmtions, the latter being made at the suggestion of Herman, some of whose experiences were added to the contents of the first work.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Pfeiffer, Deutsche Myatiker des roiarzehn­ten Jahrhunderta, i., pp. xiu. xxii., 1 258, 408 472, 570­574, Leipsio, 1845; W. Preger, Geechirhu der deutaden Myatik im Mittelalter, ii. 91 eqq., 160 sqq., 426 sqq., 447 sqq., Leipsic, 1881; ADB, viii. 118 119.


HERMAN OF RYSWICg: Heretic; burned at the stake in The Hague Dec. 14, 1512. His name and the place of his condemnation indicate that he was a Netherlander. In 1502 he was condemned to life imprisonment on charges of heresy by the inquis­itor Johannes van Ommaten, and perhaps would have come to the stake at that time, had he not expressed repentance for his views. It is not known how long or where he was imprisoned. But he escaped, and began again to teach his heresies and promulgate them in writing. In 1512 he was tried, and after his admission that he had written the numerous heretical books laid before him, he was


Herman of Wied

condemned and burned. It is said that his books

were burned with him.

Among the heresies of Herman were the asser­

tions that the world exists from eternity; there are

neither good nor bad angels; there is no hell and

no personal continuance after this life; Aristotle

and his commentator, Averroes, approached truth

most closely; Jesus was a fool and miserable

dreamer, a seducer of simple men; he spoiled the

whole world and saved nobody, and it is lamentable

that so many have been murdered for his sake and

for the sake of his foolish Gospel; everything he did

is in contradiction with human nature and pure

reason; he is not the son of almighty God.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bernhard of Lutzenburg, Catalogue hereti­

corum, book if., Cologne, 1529; P. Fredericq, Corpus docu­

mentarum inquisitionis . . . Neeriandica•, i. 494, 501 503,

Ghent, 1889; W. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland,

ii. 3, pp. 104 108, 375, 378, Arnheim, 1864 71.

HERMAN OF SCHEDA: Jewish proselyte; b. at

Cologne 1108; d. about 1198. He came of a well­

to do Jewish family and received the name Judah.

In 1127 he lent Bishop Ekbert of Monster a con­

siderable sum of money,' and shortly afterward,

incited by his father, went to Munster to collect

the same. During a stay of twenty weeks there he

heard sermons, and became well disposed toward

Christians. On his return to Cologne in 1128 he

married, and owing to the opposition of his people

to his association with Christians, determined to

change his religion and fled to Mainz and Worms.

He found refuge in the cloister of Rabengresburg and

received Christian baptism at Cologne near the end

of 1128. Herman then entered the Premonatra­

tensian cloister of Kappenberg, and shortly before

1150 became abbot of the neighboring cloister of

Scheda. He gave an account of his conversion in

an autobiography written about 1136. It was first

edited by J. B. Carpzov as an appendix to his edition

of R. Martini's Pugio fulei (Leipsic, 1687; reprinted

in MPL, clxx. 803 aqq.). This text was edited by

J. D. von Steinen, on the basis of another manu­

script, in Kurze Beschrexbung der hochadeligen

Gotteshduser Kappenberg and Seheda (Dortmund,

1741). (R. SEEBERG.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. 6eeberg, Hermann von Scheda, tin iiadi­

acher Proadyt des 18. Jahrhunderta, Leipsic, 1891; J. M.

8chrtiekh, Christliche Kirdengeachichte, xxv. 384 sqq., 35

parts, Leipsic, 1772 1827; H. F. Reuter, Geachichte der

religi6sen Autkldrung im Mittelalter, i. 158 sqq., Bonder­



Herman of Westphalia): Augustinian; b. at Schil­

desche, near Bielefeld, Westphalia, toward the

close of the thirteenth century; d. at W(irz­

burg July 8, 1357. He entered the order of

the Augustinian Eremites and visited the Uni­

versity of Paris about 1320. In 1337 he was

provincial of the Augustinian province of Thuringia

and Saxony. In 1338, by appointment of the Ger­

man episcopate, he negotiated with Pope Benedict

XII. in the cause of the reconciliation of the curia

with Louis the Bavarian. From 1342 he made his

residence at Wtirzburg, where he officiated tempo­

rarily as vicar general and first penitentiary of the

resident bishop. Of his numerous writings, only

the Speculum manuale sacerdotum, a brief introduc­

tion to the conduct of the spiritual office, is extant

in print. Among his theological writings may be

mentioned the polemical tract Contra heretwos

negantes immunitatem et jurisdictionem etxlesim,

which was inspired by John XXII., about 1330,

against the doctrines of Marsilius of Padua; and his

controversial tracts Contra jlagellatores, and Contra

hereticos (Leonistas live Pauperes de Lugduno) di­

centes miesm comparationem ease speciem symonim.

Besides philosophical writings, Herman also wrote

an Introductorium pro studio sacrorum canonum,

which became the basis of a series of similar popular

canonical works of the fourteenth and fifteenth

centuries. HERMAN HAUPT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The latest and authoritative description of Herman's life and writings is in E. Seckel, Beitrdge Sur Geschichte beider Rechte im AfitteWter, i. 129 eqq., Til­bingen, 1898. Consult: H. Fineke, in Zeitachrilt for vater­undiache (westfAlieehe) Geechichte, xlv. 1 (1889), 124, xlvi. 1 (1888), 201 sqq., xlvii. 1 (1889), 220 eqq., and in Hiatoriachea Jahrbuch, x (1889), 568 sqq.

HERMAN OF WIED: Archbishop (Herman V.) of Cologne; b. Jan. 14, 1477, fourth son of Count Frederick of Wied (32 m. s.e. of Cologne); d. at

Vied Aug.15, 1552. At the age of six he was given a benefice in the cathedral chapter of Cologne. In 1493 he was immatriculated under the  law faculty in Cologne. In 1515 he was elected archbishop of Cologne. His intellectual attainments were not high, and, upon his own admission, he was more interested in his position as prince than as bishop. Originally he opposed Luther, but through the in­fluence of Erasmus, Butzer, and Melanchthon, he became favorable to the Reformation and undertook certain ecclesiastical reforms in his archdiocese, thereby coming into conflict with the Curia and Popes Clement VII. and Paul III. After the recess of the Diet of Regensburg he called Butzer to his court and had him prepare a scheme for a reforma­tion. This was accepted by the civil authorities, and by a part of the clergy; and the following Easter the communion was administered according to an Evangelical rite. Subsequently Herman summoned to his aid other Protestant theologians, including even Melanchthon. However, on the peti­tion of the majority of the clergy, Charles V. inter­fered. The archbishop was cited to appear in Brussels and Rome, and a suit was brought against his adherents in the cathedral chapter. Herman turned to the Schmalkald League for support, but in vain. In April, 1546, he was excommunicated by the pope; and in Jan., 1547, the secular estates of Cologne were compelled by imperial commissioners to pay homage to Count Adolf of Schaumburg, hitherto the coadjutor, as their new master. By his unwillingness to agree to the Interim, Herman came into many a difficult position; but all threats and dangers were unable to shake his faith.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources and older literature are indi­cated in C. Varrentram, Hermann von Wied und rein se. formationavdsuch in KSln, Leipeic, 1878, and in ZKG xx (1899), 37 sqq.; A. Hasenclever, Die Politik der schmmY kaldener vor Ausbruch des sdtmalkoidiwhen Kriaga, vaL


Hermeneutics 1340

xaiv. of E. Ebering's Hietoriede Studien, Berlin, 1901; idem, id Zeitechrdft des Berg. Geeekickteoereine, vol. xxv.; G. Wolf, Aue Kurkoln im 16. Jahrhundert, pp. 28 eqq., Berlin, 1906.
HERMANN, NIgOLAUS: German Evangelical hymn writer and bomposer; b. at Altdorf (13 m. e.s.e. of Nuremberg) near the end of the fifteenth century; d. at Joachimathal (14 m. n.n.e. of EI­bogen inBohemia)May 3,1561. Shortly after 1516 he became a teacher in the Latin school of the mi­ning town of Joachimsthal. Upon his inquiring whether he should leave his place on account of religious differences, Luther encouraged him to stay. He soon found a strong supporter and friend in the rector of the school, later pastor of the town, Johann Mathesius. Troubled with gout, he was compelled to resign his office, and enjoyed his freedom, which he spent in composing hymns. These, his main work, are found in two probably incomplete collections: Sonntags Evangelien (Wittenberg, 1560) and Historien won der Sind fludt, etc. (1562). For the matter of his hymns he is dependent on Mathesius, but surpasses him in the form. Judged not by a general standard but with due re­gard to his uncultivated sense  of beauty and the imperfect poetical development of the pe­riod, Hermann deserves a place of honor among religious singers. Many of his hymns seem dry rimed prose, as mere mechanical counting of syllables, unpleasantly rude. But his thorough de­votion to God, in the spirit of the Bible and the Reformers, his touching simplicity and fervor, his simple sweetness, his deep feeling, his rustic natural­ness, not without a touch of humor all these things compensate in large measure for his defects. He closes the first period of Evangelical religious poetry, whose characteristic expression is the hymn of faith and confession; he paves the way for the didactic and personal, in which he found many followers inferior to himself. His Christmas hymn, " Lobt Gott, ihr Christen, alle gleich" (" Let all to­gether praise our God "), strikes so happily the true note that it remains the purest and heartiest expression of the Christmas joy. Very popular is also his funeral hymn " Wenn mein Stundlein vorhanden ist" (" When my last hour is close at hand "). The bridal song, "Hiefiir, hiefiir, vor eines frommen Breutgams Thar". ("Come forth, come forth, unto a happy bridegroom's door "), is not yet forgotten in the Erzgebirge. He is most happy in his rimes for children. Intimately con­nected with his duty of precentor is his Latin metrical work for liturgical use. In the Joachims­thal, Latin had been retained as the language of public worship, together with the accentus ecck­aiaatici, the musical arrangement for the recital of the lessons. The most remarkable thing in the Joachimsthal liturgy, though not unprecedented, is the retention of the very ancient form of the " prose " in harmony with the contents of the litur­gical gospels. These " proses " alone afford an opportunity to know Hermann as Latin rimer, and give evidence also of his skill in. calligraphy. Like many people in those days, Hermann was at once a poet and composer. He also gave a new importance to the chorale, based on the Gregorian

plain chant sung in unison, and composed in .this

line himself. It is true that he had no training in

technique he tries nothing more than unpretend­

ing two part songs and was only a simple leader

of popular melody. But his tunes have a childlike,

joyous, lovely, always elegant expression, and are

easily intelligible. Some may be reckoned among

the best of their class, and are still in use, such as

" Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag " (" The day hath

dawned the day of days "). Five of his other

hymns have been translated and sung in English;

and the melody known as " St. George's, old " is

by him. GEORG LoEBCHE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. Wetsel, HymnopoWraphia, i. 413,

Nuremberg, 1719; J. Mfltsell,.Geiatliche Lieder der eoangeli­

eehen Kirche, pp. 401 449 Berlin, 1855; P. Wackernagel,

Bibliopraphie our Geschwhte des deutacken Kirchenliedea,

pp. 303 308, 322 324 Frankfort, 1855; G. Loesche, Zur

Agenda won Joachimatha4 pp. 183 170, "Sion&," 1892;

idem. Nikolaua Hermann. Rini Mandat, O Jeeu Christi,

1908; ADB, xii. 188; Julian, Hymnology, 513 514.


HERMAS: The name assigned by tradition to the author of a book highly regarded in the early Church and frequently included in the New

" The Testament, commonly known as " The Shepherd." Shepherd," no doubt from the appear 

Manu  ance and title assumed by the angel scripts and who communicates a part of the rev 

Versions. elations contained in it. According to

the received division, the work includes

five " Visions,'' twelve " Mandates," and ten " Simil=

itudes." The complete work is not now extant

in the original Greek, but the manuscript material

has been notably increased in recent years. There

are three defective manuscripts of the Greek: the

" Shepherd " stood originally at the end of the

Codex Sinaitieus (see BmLE TExT, Il., 1, § 2),

where all beyond Mand. IV., iii. 6 has been

lost; of the Codex Athova Lipsiensis a Greek,

Constantine Simonides, stole three leaves (5, 6,

9) from Mount Athos and sold them in Leipsic

with a forged copy of the rest in 1855, and leaves

1 4, 7, 9 were afterward found at Athos extending

only to Sim. ix. 30; a papyrus from the Fay­

y1am, now in Berlin, contains two small and

much mutilated sections, Sim. ii. 7 9 and iv.

2 5. Of translations, the Latin Vulgata exists in

numerous manuscripts (first published by Faber

Stapulensis, Paris, 1513). Another, Latin one,

the Palatina, is found in one manuscript. There

is also an Ethiopic version discovered by D'Abbadie

and published in 1860, based on a text akin to the

Sinaiticua. The older editions, relying wholly on

the Vulgata, are worthless. Hilgenfeld was the first

to publish a really critical edition.

The book is a series of visions, with their interpre­tation, all intended to call Hermas, and through him the Church, to repentance. The time for this is limited, and will end with the completion of the building of " the Tower " (the Church). God has caused the work to cease for a time, that men may come to repentance; but the pause will not last


long new severe persecutions and the end of the world are near. Logically the book falls into two

parts, the first including Vis. i. iv., Contents of two visions calling to repentance and the Book. two giving reasons for its necessity.

Via. v. is an introduction to the sec­ond part, which contains the twelve " Mandates " or commandments revealed to Hermas. They cover (1) faith in the one God; (2) simplicity and love of one's neighbor; (3) truth; (4) chastity; (5) patience and mercy; (6) good and evil angels; (7) the fear of God; (8) self restraint; (9) trust in God; (10) sadness and joy; (11) false prophets; (12) combat with evil desires. The first eight " Similitudes " are also visions, proclaiming the approaching completion of the Church and the call to repentance. Sim. ix. is a sort of recapitulation, with some modifications, and Sim. x. is an epilogue to the whole work.

There is no agreement as to the identity of the author or the date of composition. On the one

hand, the Muratorian fragment asserts Author explicitly that the work was written and Date. in the time of Pius I. (i.e., about 140)

by his brother; on the other, the book contains indications of an earlier date, such as the mention of Clement in Via., II., iv. 3, which would throw it back into the first century. There are difficulties in the acceptance of either of these theories. There is much in the book which does not fit the end of the first century. The Church has already lost its first fervor; traitors, hypocrites, and seekers of pleasure have crept in; and the beginnings of Gnosticism are already visible.

If, however, the view of the majority (Ewald, Ritschl, Dorner, Heyne, Hilgenfeld, Harnack, etc.) be adopted and a date near the middle of the second century be assigned, other difficulties arise. The author knows nothing of a monarchical episcopate in Rome; the heads of the Gnostic party do not come in; there is no trace even of Marcion, who came to Rome in 138 or 139. The mention of Clement has not been satisfactorily explained away. And it is difficult to see how the book could have attained such universal prominence in the Church if it was so late a product. Irenaeus cites it as Scrip­ture, and so does the Pseudo Cyprian (Adv. alea­tares).  Clement of Alexandria makes considerable use of it, and Origen holds it to be inspired.

Under these circumstances increasing regard has naturally been paid to the theory that it was not all composed at one time. The first attempts to di­vide the authorship those of Thierech (1858), De Champagny, (1863) and Gueranger (1874) were not very successful. A more adequate hypothesis was offered by Hilgenfeld in 1881, assuming three authors, the Hermes postoralis who produced the

nucleus (Via. v. ,Sim. vii.); the HerWs Theories dpocalypticus who wrote Via. i. iv.;

of and the Hermes $ecuus, who re­Composite cast the whole into its present form. Authorship. This view did not find many followers.

Link (1888) and Baumg&rtner (1889) firmly opposed any division of authorship, and may be considered to have proved their point. The latest view of Harnack assigns the whole work V. 16


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