161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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(Wratidaw, 1847); Tischendorf, Synopsis evtcn­

gelica (Leipsic, 1851, 7th ed., 1898).

A step in advance was made by W. G. Rushbrooke

in Synoptieon. An Exposition of the Common

Matter o f the Synoptic Gospels (London,

3. Rush  1880 82). In order to facilitate the

brooks criticism and analysis of the Synoptic

and Later Gospels, he presents the common

Httrmonists. material of the three Synoptists in

three columns and distinguishes by

types and colored print (1) the material common

to all three Evangelists; (2) the parts which each

of them has in common with another; (3) the text

peculiar to each one. Where John or Paul offer real

parallels to the synoptical tradition, their material

is also given. The text of Mark is used as the basis

without deviation from its order. Since in this way

the material common only to Matthew and Luke

and the singular tradition of the first and third

Synoptists are left out of consideration, there are

added three appendixes: (1) the double tradition

of Matthew and Luke; (2) the single tradition of

Matthew; (3) the single tradition of Luke. This

arrangement brings out (1) Mark as the source of

historical tradition; (2) the fact of a second body of

tradition, the collection of sayings. Moreover,

material peculiar to Matthew and Luke becomes

more prominent, and the points of agreement and

discrepancy of the traditional synoptic text is well

presented to the eye by differences in print. A

second English work by A. Wright, A Synopsis of

the Gospels in Greek (London, 1896, enlarged ed.,

1903), combines with the representation of the

material discussions of the sources. Rushbrooke's

method was followed by R. Heineke, Synopse der

drei eraten kanonischen Evangelim (3 parts, Giessen,

1898). Other works of the same kind are A. Huck,

Synopse der drei ersten Evangelien (Freiburg, 1892,

3d ed., Tiibingen, 1906), and K. Veit, Die synop­

tisehen Parallelen (Gilteraloh, 1897). A harmony,

to satisfy modern scientific needs, should present

the entire material of the Synoptics in an arrange­

ment like that of Rushbrooke or Heineke, and

should include full critical apparatus.


Besides the works mentioned in the text, a number of

others modeled on the same general principles have by their

usefulness merited mention here. Such are: J. Macknight,

A Harmony of the Four Gospels . . . with a Paraphrase and

Notes, 2 vols., London, 1756, and often; W. Newcome, An

Harmony of the Gospels, 2 parts, Dublin, 1778 (in Greek,

includes many of Wetstein's variant readings); M. R6diger,

Synopsis evangeliorum Matthod. Marci et Lucas cum Joannis

pericopis parallelis, Halle, 1829; E. Greswell, Harmonia

evangelica, sive quatuor evangelic Gram, Oxford, 1830, and

often; E. Robinson, Harmony of the Gospels in Greek .

with the Various Readings of Knapp, Andover, 1834, on the

basis of Hahn's text, Boston, 1845, and often (after Clericus

and Newoome); idem, Harmony of the Gospels in English,

new ed., ib. 1889; 1. Da Costa, The Four Witnesses, Being

a Harmony of the Gospels on a New Principle, London, 1851;

J. Strong, New Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels .

a Parallel and Combined Arrangement, according to the Au­

thorized Translation, New York, 1852; idem, Harmony of

the Gospels, in Greek, of the Received Text, ib. 1854; W.

Stroud, A New Greek Harmony of the Four Gospels, Compri­

sing a Synopsis and a Diatessaron, together with an Introduc­

tory True, Tables and Indexes and Diagrams, London,

1853; F. Gardiner, Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek

according to the Text of Tiachendorf, Andover, 1871, 1876;

idem, Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, idem, 1871;

G. Clark, New Harhwhy of the Four Gospels in English, New York, 1870, new ed., Philadelphia, 1892; J. A. Broadue, Harmony of the Gospels in The Revised Version, New York, 1893; w. A. Stevens and E. D. Burton, Harmony of the Gospels . . . in the Version of 1881, Boston, 1894, new ed. 1904.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Greswell. Dissertations upon the Princi­ples and Arrangement of an Harmony of the Gospels, 4 vols., Oxford, 1837; T. Zahn, Forechungen our Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, vols. i. iv., Erlangen, 1881 91; idem, Geschiehte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 2 vols., Leipsie, 189092; J. w. Burson, Last Twelve Verses of S. Mark, pp. 126 131, 295 312, London, 1871; G. Phillips, Doctrine of Addai, London, 1876; F. Baeth­gen, Evangelienfrapmente, pp. 62 eqq., Berlin, 1886; E. Sievers, Tatian, Paderborn, 1892; J. H. Hill, Dissertation on the Commentary of Ephraem the Syrian, Edinburgh, 1896; C. Holzhey, Neuentdeckte Syrus Sinaiticus, pp. 42 sqq., Munich, 1896; J. A. Schmeller, Am»wnii . . . har­monic Evangeliorum, Vienna, 1841; G. J. Meijer, Het Leven van Jesus, Groningen, 1838 (cf. A. Robinson, in Academy, Mar. 24, 1894); J. Gildemeieter, De evangeliis in Arabicum de aimplici Syriaw dranslatis, p. 35, Bonn, 1865; Magister de Hussinets (John Huss), Historic ges­torum Christi, ed. Lsndstroem, Upsala, 1898; C. A. Briggs,. New Light on the Life of Jesus, New York, 1904 (discusses the principles of a harmony). A full bibliog­raphy on the Diatesssron of Tatian will be found under TATIAx. The separate works on the subject usually dis­cuss the principles upon which a harmony is to be con­structed, and the same is often done in works on the life of Christ.

HARMONY SOCIETY. See ComnsuNlsm, II., 6.

HARMS, CLAUS: German Lutheran; b. at

Fahrstedt, near Marne (50 m. n.w. of Hamburg),

South Ditmarsh (Sleswick Holstein), May 25, 1778;

d. at Kiel Feb. 1, 1855. He received merely the

rudiments of an education in tile village school

and from the village pastor, and

Student worked in his father's mill till he was

Life. nineteen. Then, coming into posses­

sion of a little property by his

father's death, he entered the gymnasium of

Meldorf, and by extraordinary industry finished

the course in two years. In 1799 he went to

the University of Kiel to study theology. This

university was dominated at that time by ration­

alism, but Harms, studying the writings of Kant

and reading Schleiermacher, suddenly felt that all

rationalism and human science could not help him,

that his salvation must be sought elsewhere; the

study of Holy Scripture brought about his complete

conversion. In 1802 he finished his theological

studies and became private tutor in Probateier­

hagen in Holstein.

In 1806 the congregation of Lunden, in the dis­trict of North Ditmarsh, chose him deacon. He devoted himself with great energy to Pastor and the art of preaching, and extended his Preacher. care for his parishioners to all their spiritual and secular affairs. His ser­mons became very popular, even outside of his parish; and he was at times so fearless in denuncia­tions of existing shortcomings of the government that he was called to account. In 1816 he was appointed archdeacon of St. Nicolai in Kiel, where he was equally popular. Since, however, he be­came more and more convinced that his time had declined from the faith of the Reformation, and thus from the source of salvation„ he considered the year 1817, the three hundredth anniversary of the Reformation, as an opportune time to speak his



mind. Accordingly he published (Kiel, 1,817) the

ninety five theses of Luther with ninety five theses

of his own, needed in his opinion by

Harms's the nineteenth century, and directed

Ninety five against various supposed abuses in the

Theses. Lutheran Church; especially against ra­

tionalism; he declared his willingness

to defend and vindicate his theses and to avow his

errors if any should be proved. His first thesis was

aimed at the prevailing Pelagianism, while others

were: " We make reason the pope of our time in

regard to faith, conscience in regard to action, and

upon the latter has been placed a triple crown­

lawmaking, praise, and punishment " (ix.); " con­

science can not forgive, since forgiveness belongs to

God " (xi.); " if conscience ceases to read and begins

to write, the result will be as different as the hand­

writings of men " (xvii.); " forgiveness of sins at least

cost money in the sixteenth century, but in the

nineteenth century it costs nothing, since, people

help themselves " (xxi.); " according to the old

faith, God created man; according to the new faith,

man creates God" (xxvii.); "the'religionof reason'

is bare either of reason or of religion, or of both "

(xxxii.). The following theses asserted for religion

its independent sphere: " That anybody should

misconstrue the fixed word of the Bible is prevented

by our symbolical books " (1.); " the words of our

revealed religion we regard as sacred in their original

language, and do not consider them a dress which

may be taken off from religion, but as its body in

union with which it has its life. But a translation

into a living language must be revised every

hundred years in order to remain alive " (li., Iii.).

Harms then attacked the rationalistic Bible of Al­

tona (see BIBLE VERSIONS, VIL, § 4) and the laxity

of the church government. The last twenty theses

were directed against the Union.

Harms's theses naturally created a sensation and

called forth about two hundred pamphlets. The

rationalists were offended, but others recognized

the theses as a wholesome ferment and a bitter

medicine for the weak faith of the time. Court

preacher C. F. von Ammon (q.v.) in Dresden ap­

proved them and Schleiermacher also took the part

of Harms.

The position of Harms became more and more

important. His merits were more widely recognized,

and the number of his hearers in­

His creased. In the University of Kiel the

Influence. spirit of rationalism began to disap­

pear. In 1819 he declined a call to

St. Petersburg as Evangelical bishop, and in 1834

one to Trinity Church in Berlin as the successor of

Schleiermacher. After Fock's death in 1835 he was

promoted chief preacher at St. Nicolai and provost

of Kiel. In 1849 blindness compelled him to lay

down his offices.

Harms was before everything a powerful preacher.

Great crowds came to hear him; it was the content

of his sermons which attracted, in spite of their lack

of ornament and embellishment. Controversy deep­

ened his convictions, which he expressed decidedly

and sharolv in his writings. Among these must be

mentioned first his sermons, of which he published

sixteen collections between 1808 and 1858. He

wrote a number of catechisms and other books for

religious instruction (Das Chrfatentum in einem

kleinen Katechismu8, 1810; Die Religion der Christen

in einem Katechismm au/8 neue gelehrt, 1814; etc.).

His Pastoraltheologie (1830), the fruit of his informal

talks on practical theology, ap!leared in a third

edition as late as 1878. He also wrote hymns, a

few of which have passed into German hymn books.

(H. C. CARsTENst.)

Biswomnrar: Harms's autobiography (Lebenabeachreib 

ung) appeared Kiel, 1852; some of his letters are in
P. Petri, L. A. Petri Leben, Hanover, 1888. Consult: Dor, ner, B7.Uter der Erinnerung an das Jubil4um van C. Harms,

Kiel, 1842; K. Schneider C. Harms, der esangeliache Pre­

diger, Prieater and Pastor Bielefeld, 1861 idem Schleier­

macher and Harms, Berlin, 1865; J. Kaftan, C. Harms,

Basel, 187e, C. Liidemann, Erinnerung an Claus Harms

and seine Zeit, Kiel 1878; F. Volbehr, C. Harms an seirum

hundert§ehrigen Gieburtetag, ib. 1878. Further literature

is given in Hauck Herzog, RE, vii. 433.


(commonly known as Ludwig Harms): German

Lutheran and founder of the Her 

Early Life. mannsburg mission; b. at Walsrode

(45 m. s.w. of Luneburg), Hanover,

May 5,1808; d. at Hermannsburg (50 m. s. of Ham­

burg), Hanover, Nov. 5, 1865. He studied theology

at GSttingen from 1827 to 1830; but while at first

influenced by the prevailing rationalism, his trial

sermon of 1833 emphasized justification by faith.

Harms became private tutor at Lauenburg, in the

house of Chamberlain von Linstow, where he met

a small circle of Pietists. He shared at this time

their views of a living faith and of the gratuitous

justification of the sinner by faith, but also their

indifference toward confessional distinctions, their

other worldliness, and their lack of appreciation of

the Church and its ordinances. He soon became

the leading personality in this circle, and developed

especial interest in missions. In 1834 he founded a

missionary society in Lauenburg, which in 1836

became a branch of the newly organized North­

German Missionary Society. In 1839 Harms re­

turned to the home of his parents and assisted his

father during the winter. In 1840 he again became

private tutor at Luneburg, where an active Christian

life had developed under the influence of the Liine­

burg preacher Deichmann. Harms now became

the leading spirit of this circle. He preached often,

and was also active in the practical duties of the

ministerial office; but at the same time he did not

lose sight of the cause of missions, to which he at­

tributed the greatest importance for the develop­

ment of the Church in modern times.

In spite of his successful activity at Liirieburg, however, he longed for a position as preacher, but owing to the superabundance of candi 

Pastor in dates, it was impossible for him to

Ltineburg. realize his desire. He declined a call

as teacher at the missionary institution

at Hamburg and another as pastor in New York.

He wished to preach among his own Liineburg

people, and his longing was fulfilled in 1844 when

the consistory made him his father's assistant. His

great activity now began, and with it an awakening

such as has seldom been seen in North Germany.

His father had prepared the way, but Harms himself


worked unremittingly, not only by sermons and services which took up the whole Sunday, but also by his personal association with his congregation. A feature of his work was the meetings held in his house every Sunday afternoon. Harms always used the Low German dialect, the common speech of the peasants, and his gift of popular story telling aided him greatly in these social gatherings.

But after all his main power lay in his sermons. Harms understood, as few have done since Luther, how to preach to the people, especially

His to the peasants. Popularity formed Preaching. the fundamental trait of his manner of preaching, which was based upon sim­plicityand clearness. His sermons were not artistic from the homiletic point of view, the themes being in most cases mere headings, the different parts only loosely connected, and the structure simple, nor were his sermons above the average from the exeget­ical standpoint. The range of thought was narrow, the same ideas occurring again and again, often, even in the same words. The main theme was the neces­sity of a thorough conversion, justification by faith, and the proof of faith in Christian conduct. In bod­ily gifts Harms was sadly lacking. His voice was hollow and at times shrill, his manner in the pulpit somewhat stiff. But the result of his devoted labor soon showed itself in a real change of life in his congregation. Regular attendance at church, reg­ular devotions at home, and strict observance of Sunday became a fixed rule in his congregation. The charitable work of the congregation assumed large dimensions. People from other parishes poured into his, church, and Harms became their spiritual father, and even in their absence remained their faithful adviser by an .extensive oorre­spondence.

In this way Harms laid the basis for his mission­ary congregation; for that was his idea from the beginning: a parochial mission, a mis 

The sion of the State Church. In his earlier Hermanns  years he had been asked to found a burg missionary institution, but he declined Mission. until he became the official pastor of Hermannsburg in 1849, after his father's death. In his report to the consistory he stated his reasons for founding his own missionary establishment instead of joining one of the existing institutions. He cherished the idea of colonial missions, holding that missionaries should not be scattered, but form a Christian colony in heathen countries. In this way, he thought, it would be easier to gather a strong congregation. After its development a second colony should be founded in the vicinity of the first, and after the second a third, and so on, so that a connecting chain of con­gregations would come into existence. Harms thought that by virtue of the close connection of these colonies with the mother congregation, the solidarity of Lutheran confessionalism would be guarded against the disintegrating influences of other denominations. But the consistory did not agree with him; and he was compelled to follow substantially the plan of other missionary societies. He lived long enough to see the growth of his mis­sionary enterprise, but he might have lived longer

if he had not undermined his health by excessive

work, without even temporary recreations. His

publications were sermons and devotional writings,

which achieved an extraordinary popularity in

Germany. (G. UHLaoRNt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Harms, Lebenabeschrsibung des Pastors Louis Harms, Hermanmsburg, 1874 (by his brother); H. Kpaut, Louis Harms, Gottingen, 1899.
EARNACg, (KARL GUSTAV) ADOLF: German Lutheran; b. at Dorpat, Livonia, May 7, 1851. He was educated at Dorpat (1869 72), and two years later became privat docent at Leipsic, where he was appointed associate professor in 1876. In 1879 he accepted a call to Giessen as full professor of church history, and remained there until 1886, when he went to Marburg in a similar capacity. In 1889 he was called to Berlin. In addition to his pro­fessorship of church history, he has since 1905 held the post of director of the Royal Library there. He is recognized as one of the leaders of the critical school of theology and an authority on the history of the antenicene period. Since 1881 he has been one of the editors of the Theologische Literatur­zeitung, and since 1882 of the well known Tezte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur, to which series he has contributed many monographs. He has written:

Zur Quellenkritik der Geschichte des Gnostisismus (Leip­sic, 1873); De Appellia gnosi monarchica (1874); Die Zeit des Ignatius and die Chronologie der antioehenischen Bischefe Us Tyrannus (1878); Evangeliorum codex purpureus Rosa­nienaia (in collaboration with the late Oscar von Gebhardt, Leipsic, 1880); Das Mt6nehehum, seine Ideals and Geschichle (Giessen, 1881, 6th ed. 1903, Eng. travel. by O. R. Gillett, Monasticism: its Ideals and its history, New York 1895); Augustin's Confessionen (Giessen, 1888, 3d ed., 1903; Eng. trawl. by E. E. Kellett and F. H. Marseille, together with their trawl. of the lecture on Monasticism, London, 1901); Martin Luther in seiner Bedeutung far die Geschichte der Wis­senschaft and der Bildung (Giessen, 1883); Die Ayostellehre and die y4dischen beiden Wege (Leipsie, 1886); Die Quellen der sogenanaten apostolischen %irchenordnung (1886, Eng. trawl. by L. A. Wheatley, Sources of the Apostolic Canons; wroth a Treatise on the Origin of the Readership and Other Lower Orders, London, 1895); Lehrbuch der DopmengeacKichte (3 vols., Freiburg, 1886 90, 3d ed., 1894; Eng. trawl. by Neil Buchanan, History of Dogma, 7 vols., London, 1895­1900); Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte (1889, 4th ed., 1905; Eng. trans]. by Edward K. Mitchell, Outlines of the History of Dogma, New York, 1893); Geschichte der allchrisitichen Literatur his Eusebius (3 vols., Leipsic, 1893 1904, in col­laboration with Edwin Preuschen in the first volume); Thoughts on the Present Position of Protestantism (Eng. trawl. by Thomas Bailey Saunders, London, 1899); Gs­schichte der kdniglichen preussischen Akademie der Wiesen­schaften zu Berlin (3 vols., Berlin, 1900); Das Wesen des Chrietentums (Leipsic, 1900, 52d thousand, 1905; Eng. trawl. by T. B. Saunders, What is Christianity? London 1901, 3d ed. (1904); Das Chriatentum and die Geschiehte (Leipsic, 1897, 5th ed., 1904; Eng. trawl. by T. B. Saunders, Christianity and History, London, 1900); Apostles' Creed (Eng. travel. by Stewart Means from 3d ed. Herzog's Real­eneyklopadie, London, 1901); Die Aufgabe der theologischen Fakultaten and die allgemeine Religionegeschichte (Giessen, 1901); Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Leipsie, 1902, 2d ed., 1906; Eng. trawl. by James Moffatt, The Expansion of Christian­ity in the First, Three Centuries, 2 vole., London, 1904 0.5, new ed.19Q8); Reden and Aufsotw (2 vols.. Giessen, 1904, 2d ed. 1906); Militia Christi. Die chriMliche Religion and der Soldatenstand in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (T7­bingen, 1905); Beitidge zur Einleitung in das Neue Testa­ment (3 parts, Leipsie, 1906 08; Eng. trawl. of part 1:, Luke the Physician, the Author of the Third Gospel and the Ads of the Apostles, London, 1907), Zwei Warts Jesu (Berlin, 1907); Essays on the Social Gospel (London, 1907;

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