parts ix. x., Leipsic, 1879; H. Cuno. Die Herbarge zur HeimA Bau and Einrirhtung, Leipsic, 1883; Die Harbergen zur Heimat, Dankschrift den Canbnl Auaac)waaee fttr innere Mission, Berlin, 1888. Much material on the subject may be found in the periodical Die Arbeiterkolonie, 1884 98, succeeded by Der Wanderer, 1897 eqq.
HERBERGER, VALERIUS: Lutheran preacher; b. at Fraustadt (50 m.. s.s.w. of Posen) Apr. 21, 1562; d. there May 18, 1627. He studied for three years at Freistadt in Silesia, and then entered the University of Frankfort on the Oder, and in 1582 that of Leipsic. In 1584 he became a teacher in his native city, in 1590 deacon, and in 1599 pastor, in which office he was very successful under great difficulties. When Sigismund III., a pupil of the Jesuits, ordered his congregation to cede their house of worship to the Roman Catholics, Herberger soquired two private residences, which he gradually transformed into a church. In 1613 a pestilence broke out at Fraustadt. Herberger performed his pastoral duties with undaunted faithfulness, and in these anxious days composed his only song, which has found a place in all Evangelical hymn books, " Valet will ich air geben, du arge falsche Welt " (" O world, so vain, I leave thee "). He was a fertile writer. His most comprehensive work is Magnalia Dei de Jesu 8eripturte nucleo et medulla (12 parts, 1601 18), meditations on the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth, intended to emphasize the revela
983 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA g
tion of Christ in the Old Testament. Herberger also
wrote commentaries on Rev. xsi. xxii. and pub
lished them as Himmlisches Jerusalem (1609). Of
his collections of sermons may be mentioned Pas
sionszeiger (1611), Trauerbinden or funeral ser
mons (7 vols., 1611 21), Evangelische Hempostille
(1613). After his death appeared Epistolische Herz
postille, 97 Predigten uber Jesus Sirach, and Stop
pelpostitle (sermons on various texts). Several of
his works were reprinted in the nineteenth cen
tury. (FERDINAND COHRS.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. F. Lauterbach, Vita, fama et /ate Valerii Herberperii, Leipsic, 1708 (the basis of numerous popular accounts); A. Henschel, Val. Herberper, Halle, 1889; ADA vol. xii. The volume of selected sermons, ed. Orphal, Leipsi0. 1892, contains a biographical introduction.
HERBERT, EDWARD (Lord Herbert ofCherbury). See DEIsM, I., 1 1.
HERBERT, GEORGE: English poet; b. at Montgomery, Wales, Apr. 3, 1593; d. at Bemerton (2 m. w. of Salisbury), Wiltshire, Feb., 1633 (buried Mar. 3). He was a brother of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. At the age of twelve he was sent to Westminster School, and subsequently to Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1613; M.A., 1616). Here his accomplishments secured him a fellowship in 1616, and the public or4torship of the university in 1619, a position which he resigned in 1627. As university orator he came into close contact with the king, and spent much time at court, hoping to obtain preferment in the service of the State. Among his friends were Francis Bacon, Sir Henry Wotton, Izaak Walton, John Donne, and Bishop Andrewes. On the death of James I. in 1625, he withdrew from court life and retired to the home of a friend in Kent to study theology. The following year he was ordained deacon and presented to the prebend of Layton Ecclesia, Huntingdonshire, to which was attached an estate, with a dilapidated church, at Leighton, two miles from Little Gidding, the home of Nicholas Ferrar (q.v.). Under Ferrar's guidance Herbert restored the church; and, indeed, it was largely through Ferrar's influence that he ultimately gave himself completely to a religious life. In Apr., 1630, he was presented by Charles I. to the rectory of Fugglestone with Bemerton, Wiltshire. His short ministry of three years at Bemerton was characterized by such a saint like devotion to his duties that he was called °' Holy George Herbert." Next to Christianity he loved the Established Church. His fame now rests upon the posthumous volume, The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations (ed. N. Ferrar, Cambridge, 1633, and often; facsimile reprint, with preface by J. H. Shorthouse, London, 1882). Though his poems are often marred by verbal conceits, their genuine piety and devotional fervor have made them religious classics, and given Herbert a position, shared only by John Keble, as the poet of Anglican theology. Herbert's prose work, A Priest to the Temple: or, the Country Parson (ed. H. C. Beeching, Oxford, 1898), first published in his Remains (London, 1652), is an excellent treatise on pastoral theology. Of the many editions of Herbert, the best is that by A. B. Grosart, The Complete Works in Prose and Verse o j George Herbert, with valuable
introduction (3 vols., London, 1874).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A biographical notice by B. Oley was prefixed to the Country Parson, ed. of 1652 and often in late editions of his poems; the Memoir by Izaak Walton first appeared in 1670, then in the collected lives of Donne, Hooker, ed. d 1674, and often in editions of Herbert's poems. Consult: Life of George Herbert of Bemerton, London, 1893; A. G. Hyde, George Herbert and his Times, ib. 1906.
HERDER, hflr'der, JOHANN GOTTFRIED: Superintendent at Weimar, contemporary of Goethe, and influential both in German
Life. church affairs and German literature; b. at
Mohrungen (62 m. ss.w. of Konigsberg),
East Prussia, Aug. 26, 1744; d. at Weimar Dec.
18, 1803. He studied theology, philosophy, and
ancient science at KSnigsberg, 1762 64, and had
Kant as his teacher and fatherly friend. While
still a young clergyman and teacher at the Riga
cathedral school, he established his literary reputa
tion by the Fragments fiber die neueste deutsche
Letteratur (Riga, 1767) and the Kritischen Bilder
(1769). From 1771 to 1776 he had the position of
court preacher and councilor of the consistory at
Bilckeburg; then he was called to Weimar as super
intendent to undertake the management of ecclesi
astical and school affairs. Here he spent the rest
of his life, and here a bronze statue tells of his glory.
Herder, the theologian among the classics and the classic author among the German theologians, is equally great in poetry, criticism, in
His Great the history of civilization, literature ness and and art, in philosophy and pedagogics, Ability. in religion, religious inquiry, and theology. Everywhere he sought new paths, found new openings, and inspired minds. The best thinkers of the nation, Leasing, Wieland, Goethe, Lavater, Jacobi, valued him highly. The extent of his knowledge is remarkably wide. He had an open eye for all that is true, good, and beautiful, wh:ch always and everywhere has proved the godly instinct of humanity. He united critical sharpness with intuitive geniality, deep learning with inexhaustible productivity. With most ardent diligence he collected the products of human civilization and godly revelation from the Bible, in the mythologies, popular traditions and songs, in the founders of religions and the lawgivers, poets, and thinkers of all nations, and all that he found here and in the philosophers from Zoroaster to Spinoza, Leibnitz, Rousseau, and Shaftesbury, he worked into his philosophy of mankind.
The dry veins of theology, too, were filled with fresh blood by Herder. His sense of truth and love of freedom, his refined taste and wide
His Service minded toleration, have had a very to Theology favorable influence upon religious life
and and ideas. Liturgics, homiletics, hymnReligion. ology owe him as much as the Christian catechism, the study of theology, and the practical training of the clergy. He revived church history, he freed dogmatics from the bonds of scholasticism; he was a great promoter of the esthetic and practical religious estimation of the Bible as well as of its historical and critical value; he discovered the law of a progressing reformation and
Rerder THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG234
wonderfully prepared the renovation of the Christian faith, the deliverance of the spirit of religion from the law of a dead form. Herder fought against the insipid and weak neology as well as against rigid orthodoxy. The Bible was all and everything to him. In the different epochs of his development he always was its defender, the cultivator of truly Protestant principles, an honest judge of the disputing parties, a prophet of the regeneration of Christianity, a speaker for Christian humanity. He does not dispute, like a scholastic theologian, for words, forms, theological formulas, but for the eternal truth of the gospel of love. He is not afraid to acknowledge the mythical, traditional, poetical elements in Bible history, but he always tries to set forth the highest ideas of God in their glory. He is neither a dry materialist nor a bombastic metaphysician. He wants to be a Bible theologian in the Spirit of Luther, and has become the " John the Baptist of modern theology."
Of his theological works the following may be mentioned here: Die dlteste Urkunde des Men8chen
geschlechts (2 vole., Riga, 1774 76), inTheological quiries into the first two chapters of Works. Genesis; two contributions to New
Testament theology entitled ErlButer
ungen sue einer neugeo fneten morgenlandischen
Quelle (the Zend Avesta; 1775) and Brie fe von zwei
Prediger (1774), an apology against the theology of
the Aufkldrung. These works Herder published
while at Bfckeburg. At Weimar he published
Lieder der Liebe (the Song of Solomon, " the purest
and sweetest love poetry of old times "; 1778);
Maran Atha oder das Bueh von der Zukunft des
Hewn (the Apocalypse; 1779); Briefe aberdas Sttc
dium der Theologie (178(1 81), a kind of theolog
ical encyclopedia, including a whole series of essays
and inquiries of exegetic and dogmatic contents
about the " Redeemer according to the First Three
Gospels "; the " Son of God according to St. John
the Evangelist, the Facts of Whitsuntide, and of the
Resurrection"; about the "Spiritof Christianity" ;
"Religion in Comparison with Dogmatic Opinions
and Customs " ; " Christianity and anti Christian
ity"; Vom Geist der ebrdischen Poesie (2 vols., 1782
1783; Eng. transl., Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, 2 vols.,
Burlington, 1833), a book that broke a path for
the study of Hebrew Poetry (see HEBREw LAN
GUAGE AND LITERATURE, III.). Much that is of
value has also been preserved in Herder's occa
sional addresses and sermons. His deepest views
are revealed in his philosophical works concerning
God, " Perception and Feeling," and in the Ideen
zur Geschichte der Philasophie der Menschheit (4
vole., 1784 91).
Herder's final and ripest ideal was the regeneration of Christianity through the Bible, the extension of the Reformation to church dogmas corrupted by Oriental and Alexandrian ideas, the restoration of the religion of Christ in contrast to the religion addressed to Christ, the revival of the ecclesiastical theory according to the Gospel of Christ, the renovation of religious language. He never tires of repeating that religion has its place in the mind and feeling,
and that the way of thinking, confidence, kindness,
charity, and truth are its quintessence and deepest
meaning. A. WERNER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A very rich literature is indicated in the British Museum Catalogue and Supplement. A complete edition of the Werke, ed. W. Suphan, appeared in 33 vols., Berlin, 1877 99; his Brinnerungen in 2 vols. appeared Stuttgart, 1820; a Lebensbild in 3 vols., Erlangen. 18461848; Ungedruckte Briefs, 3 vols., Frankfort, 1856 57; Brute von and an Herder, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1861 62; Briefs an Hamann, Berlin, 1889. Consult: A. Werner, Herder ale Theolope, Berlin, 1871; R. Haym, Herder naeh aeinem Leban and Wirken, 2 vole., ib. 1877 85; E. Kiihnemann, Herder, Leipsic, 1904; H. Dechent, Herder and die dethetieche Betrachtunp der heiligen $chrift, Lessen, 1904; K. Muthesius, Herder's Familienleben, Berlin, 1904; O. Baumgarten, Herder's Lebenmerk and die religi6se Frage der Gepenuiart, Tiibingen, 1905; R. Weilandt, Herders Theorie von der Religion, Berlin, 1905; R. Stephan, Herder in Backeburp, Tabingen, 1905.
HERDING. See PASTORAL LIFE, HEBREW.
HERESY: A view or opinion not in accord with the prevalent standards. The Greek word hairesis, meaning originally a choice, then a self chosen belief, is applied by the Fathers as early as the third century to a deviation from the fundamental Christian faith, which was punished by exclusion from the Church. From the end of the fourth century the emperors accepted the view that they were bound to use their temporal power against heretics for the maintenance of purity of doctrine; Theodosius the Great attempted to exterminate heretics by a system of penalties, which was extended by his successors and maintained by Justinian. Any deviation from the orthodox belief might be punished by infamy, incapacity to hold office or give testimony, banishment, and confiscation of property; the death penalty was only prescribed for certain sects, such as the Manichean. The severer punishments were imposed on the leaders of heretical sects, or for the conferring and receiving of orders within them and for public gatherings. This legislation was not accepted in the Merovingian kingdom, which left it to the Church to combat heresy with spiritual weapons; the Visigothic law, on the other hand, took the same standpoint as the Roman. The Carolingian period provided penalties for the practise of paganism; but in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the rise and spread of heretical sects, especially the Cathari, led to active ecclesiastical legislation against heresy. As early as the eleventh century, the secular authorities in France and Germany had punished individual heretics with death, and the councils of the twelfth declared them bound to use their power in this way. While Frederick 1. and II., and Louis VIII., IX., and X. of France were enacting laws of this kind, the ecclesiastical view that heresy came by right before the Church's tribunal led to the erection of special church courts with a procedure of their own (see INQLTISrrioN; JURISDICTION,ECCLESIASTICAL). In the present Roman Catholic practise, heresy is the wilful holding by a baptized person of doctrines which contradict any article of faith defined by the catholic Church, or which have been condemned by a pope or a general council as heretical, provided that the holder knows the right faith and makes open profession of his departure from it. The penalty is excommunieatio major kt® wntentiw, which
Heretio $apUsm by the constitution Apostolic® cures of 1869 is specially reserved to the pope; forfeiture of Christian burial; for clerics, deposition and degradation; for impenitent heretics, delivery to the secular arm for a variety of secular penalties. Theoretically, the Roman . Catholic Church still holds to the old severe legislation, and as late as 1878 Leo XIII. confirmed a ruling of the cardinal vicar based on these principles in relation to those who attended Protestant services in Rome. But the altered position of the Church in modern times permits only the imposition of ecclesiastical penalties. A number of decisions of the Congregation of the Holy Office and of local councils, it is true, still forbid absolutely any communicatio in ditrinis with heretics, such as attendance at Protestant services (for the purpose of worship), and extend as far as possible even to the avoidance of sending children to Protestant schools.
In the Evangelical Churches not a few relics of the older attitude have continued, although Luther at first was unwilling to recognize heresy as an offense; to say nothing of the burning of Servetus (q.v.), a number of the older Protestant constitutions regard heresy as a crime, with special reference to the Anabaptists, whose punishment by the severe measures of the secular government was applauded by the Reformers. But logically the Evangelical Church, which declines to force the consciences of its members, and appeals solely to Scripture for the confirmation of its doctrines, can only rebuke erroneous doctrines as erroneous, and commend to pastoral exhortation those who hold them. This does not prevent the disciplinary dismissal of a minister who in his teaching transgresses the bounds of Evangelical freedom; and on the part of a layman, a public attitude of hostility toward the Evangelical faith would properly subject him also to discipline, extending, in case of obstinate persistence, to formal exclusion from church fellowship, although in modern practise this is seldom employed. See ORTHODOxP. (P. HINseHlust)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: From the legal standpoint: B. Hobhouse, Treatise on Heresy as Cognizable by the Spiritual Courts, London, 1792, answered by F. Randolph, Scriptural Revision of Scriptural Arguments, ib. 1793; N. Mtinchen, Das kanonisehe Gerichtever/ahren and Strafrecht, ii. 315, Cologne, 1865; E. LSning, Geschichte deer deutachen Kirchunrachta, i. 95 eqq., 6trasburg, 1878; J. Havet, L'Htrteie et is bras e1culier au moyen dge, Paris, 1881; P. Farinacmus, Law of the Church of Rome in Cases o/ Heresy, London, 1885; B. Guidonis, Practica inquisitionis heretics pramtatia, Paris, 1886; A. L. Richter, Lehrbuch des . . %irchenrechts, ed. W. Ball, p. 229, Leipsic, 1886; P. Hinschius, %irchenrecht . . . in Deutschland, iv. 790, 844, 847, v. 157, 378, 679, vi. 186, 189, Berlin, 1886 97.
On the historical side consult: G. Arnold. Unparteiische %irchen and %etserhiatorie, Schaffhausen, 1740; C. W. F. Waleh, Entwurf einer oollatandigen Historie der %etzereien, 11 vole., Leipsic, 1762 85; N. Imtdner, Hut. o/ the Heretics of the Pirat Two Centuries, London, 1780; E. Burton, The Heresies of the Apostolic Age, Oxford. 1829; C. U. Hahn, %etzer in Mittelalter, 3 vole., Stuttgart, 1846 50; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecdeaiastiml Parties arid Schools of Religious Thought, Philadelphia, 1874; M. Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de loa heterodozos Espafiolss, 3 vols., Madrid, 1881; H. H. Wyatt, Principal Heresies Relating to our Lord's Inearnalion, London, 1881; A. Hilgenfeld, Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchriztenthums, Leipsie, 1884; F. Toeeo, L'Bresia net media evo, Florence, 1884; 6. E. Herrick, Same Herelies of Yesterday, Boston, 1885; P. Pierini, La Genesi del
Liberalismo, Prato, 1889; U. Robert, Lea Signs* d1infamie au moyen dge. Hlrdiquea, Paris, 1889; J. J. I. van D&llinger, Beitrdge zur Sektengeschidlte des Mittelalters, 2 vole., Munich, 1890; C. Heuner, Beitr4ge zur Organisation der pdpetlichen %etzergerichte, Leipsie, 1890; A D. White, 'ist. of the Warfare of Science with Theology, New York, 1896; H. C. Hiller, Heresies, 5 vols., London, 1899 1902. A history of the attitude of the English law is given in J. H. Blunt, Dictionary a/ Doctrinal and Historical Theology, pp. 306 311, Philadelphia, 1870. Consult also the literature under ARIANISM, DONATIaM, EUTYCHIANIBM, GNoaTIC18M, INQuwrrION, MONTANIBM, PELAGIANISM, etc., and consult also the works on the history of the Christian Church; DCB, ii. 907 911; DCA, i. 766 769.
Its Validity Denied. Controversy between Cyprian
and Stephen (§ 1).
The Donatist Controversy. Augustine (§ 2).
Attitude of the Eastern Church (§ 3).
The Roman Catholic Position (§ 4).
The Protestant Position (§ 5).
The initiation into the Church was accomplished from the beginning by Baptism (q.v.), and the ques
tion naturally arose, how is the rite to :. Its Valid be regarded if the adminietrant did not ity Denied. belong to the true communion? If the Controversy working of the Spirit was effective exbetween elusively in the Church, a new baptism Cyprian and of those baptized into a heretical body Stephen. seemed inevitable. Even Clement of
Alexandria regarded the baptism of heretics as not genuine (Strom., i. 19). Tertullian declares with great vigor against heretic baptism (De baptismo, xv.), and in a Greek work now lost treated especially of the subject. A Carthaginian synod held under Agrippinus, between 200 and 220, declared baptism performed outside of the Church invalid (Cyprian, EPiat., lxx. Dxxi.] 4). In Asia Minor, at the synods of Iconium and Synnada, the baptism of the Montaniats was not recognized (Eusebius, Hist eccl., VIL, vii. 5; Firmilian, in Epist. Cypriani, lxxiv. [lxxv.] 5). As for Rome, Hippolytus charges Calixtus (pope 217 222) with having first (hardly " especially ") introduced the repetition of baptism (Philmophoumena, ix. 12). Nevertheless, Stephen (253 257) could assert as Roman tradition the reception of heretics and schismatics by mere imposition of hands. Stephen's position is not altogether clear. According to Cyprian (Epist., lxxiv. [lxgv.]) and Eusebius (Hilt. eccl., vii. 2), Stephen regarded the imposition of hands at the reception of all heretics as sufficient, but, some Christian form of baptism is evidently presupposed (Gyprian, Epist., lxxiv. [lxxv.] 9, 18; lxxii. [lxxiii.] 18; lxxiii. (lxxiv.] 5). Also the beginning of the controversy with Cyprian is not clear. But Cyprian's letters lxvi. and lxvii. [lxviii. and lxvii.] show that the relation between Cyprian and Stephen, who held communion with bishops who had lapsed, was not at all friendly. According to the extant sources, Cyprian opened the controversy, probably provoked by Stephen. At first Gyprian carried on the contest with the help of African councils. The synod at Carthage, in 255, declared that " no one could be baptized out of the Church " (Cyprian, Epist., lxix. [lxx.] 1), without mentioning Stephen. At the synod of 256, seventyone bishops decided in like manner (Cyprian, Epist., Ixxii. [lxxiii.]), and so did the eighty seven bishops assembled on Sept. 1 of the same year; but their
Heretic Baptism THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 238
decision was not to be binding upon bishops who
represented another tradition. Nevertheless, the
rupture with Rome could not be avoided (Cyprian,
EPist., lxxiii. [1xxiv.]), and this because Stephen
refused all concessions. Cyprian now tried to place
against the authority of Rome the " unanimity "
of the other bishops. Firmilian of Cwsarea in
Cappadocia joined him (Cyprian, Episst., lxxiv.
Dxxv.]), whereas Dionysius of Alexandria tried to
mediate. Death probably prevented Stephen from
excommunicating the churches of Cappadocia and
Cilicia. His successor, Sixtus IL, seems to have
been on friendly terms with Cyprian. See CYPRIAN,
§ 3; STEPHEN I., POPE.
The question of heretic baptism came up again in
the Donatistic controversy, since the characteristic
of Donatism (q.v.) was the rebaptism of heretics
and achismatics. At the Synod of Arles
2. The in 314 it was decided (canon viii.) that
Donatist schismatics are to be received by mere
Contra imposition of hands. Caecilian gave
versy. up the previously existing African
Augustine. practise; but the Donatists in rejecting
their opponents rejected also their
baptism, though they do not seem at first to have
consistently carried out their principle (cf. T. Hahn,
Tyconiusstudien, Leipsic, 1900, pp. 102 sqq.; Au
gustine, Epist., xciii. 43 44). The persecution of
the Donatists by Macarius intensified their opposi
tion, but still they did not always rebaptize (Augus
tine, De baptismo, i. 2, 7, ii. 16 17, v. 6, Contra
notion of the Church as the externs communio acusra
mentorum, i.e., a " communion of saints," he dis
tinguishes between the having baptism and the
having salvation through baptism. Though not
correctly, yet actually, baptism is administered
outside of the Church catholic (De baptismo, i. 2,
22 23). The sacredness of the baptism can not be
destroyed by the unholy administrant, because it
has in itself the divine power for salvation or evil
(De baptismo, ii. 15). Even among heretics there
can be " a real Christian baptism " (De baptismo,
v. 2, 5). The baptismal formula according to the
Gospel guarantees the sacrament, hence the achis
matics also have a " legitimate " sacrament, though
not " legitimately " (De baptismo, v. 8). Inde
pendent of administrant and recipient a character
dominicus belongs to baptism (De baptismo, vi. l;
cf. Contra epist. Parmeniani, ii. 29); for not the ad
ministrant, as Petilian says, but Christ, is the
" origin and root and head of the baptized " (Contra
epist. Petiliani, iii. 64). But of course only in the
Church catholic is baptism received for salvation
(De baptismo, vi. 78, vii. 75, Contra Cresconium,
i. 27 28); for the forgiveness of sins is entirely con
nected with the Church (De baptistno, iii. 22, v. 29).
An unbeliever who has been baptized does not
receive forgiveness or loses it at once, yet if he be
converted he needs no rebaptism (De baptismo, i . 18 19, iii. 18; and elsewhere). But what prevents the schismatic from receiving salvation is his lack of love. True, the Holy Spirit dwells even in a schismatic communion, but not as the spirit of love. Hence a schismatic, be he ever so praiseworthy, has not the irue love, but only he who has become a " partaker in the holy unity " (Contra Cresconium, ii. 16 sqq.). Without love all sacraments avail nothing, and love is wanting in the schismatic (De baptismo, i. 12, 22, ii. 22, iii. 20 aqq., iv. 24 aqq_). __
various sects. The eighth canon of the 3. Attitude Council of Nicsea recognizes the bap
of the tism of the Novatians; canon xix.
Eastern rejects that of the adherents of Paul
Church. of Samosata. The Synod of Laodicea
(c. 360) also makes distinctions (canons vii. and viii.). The Apostolic Constitutions refuse to acknowledge baptism by heretics, but forbid a repetition of the rite (vi. 15). The Second Trullan Council (692) distinguishes again between heretics.
In the West, Augustine laid a lasting foundation for the estimate of heretic baptism. Followinghim,
Peter Lombard ("Sentences," IV., 4. The dist. 6 A) says that persons baptized
Roman by heretics with the Christian baptis
Catholic mat formula are to be received by
Position. imposition of hands. Bonaventura (on
Peter Lombard, ut sup.) sees a reason for not repeating baptism in the " impression of a character." Thomas Aquinas (Summa, iii., qucest. 66, art. 9) emphasizes the indelible character which baptism impresses, but holds that the res sacramenti, the blessed efficacy, is lacking to heretics. The decree of the Council of Florence for the Armenians (§ 10; cf. H. Denzinger, Encheiridion, W iirzburg, 1888, p. 161) declared that even a heathen and heretic can baptize "provided he keeps to the form of the Church and intends to do what the Church does," but the decree for the Jacobites (Denzinger, ut sup., p. 170) says that only in the Church are the sacraments sufficient for salvation. The Council of Trent acknowledged as valid baptism performed by heretics in the name of the Trinity " with the intention of doing what the Church does " (Session vii., de baptismo, canon iv.), and in view of this demanded the obedience of all baptized (canon viii.; cf. the letter of Pius IX. to the emperor of Germany in 1873, in Mirbt, Quellen, p. 386). At the Synod of Evreux in 1576 it was decided (and often repeated afterward) that the Protestants were not to be denied the general intention. In practise the disposition prevails to rebaptize Protestant converts, but with exceptions.
Protestantism has from the beginning preserved its ecumenical character in the estimate of baptism.
Hence in the Lutheran Church, in case 5. The of necessity, the administration of
Protestant baptism even by a Roman Catholic
Position. priest has been conceded. Calvin, in
1565, allowed the non Lutherans at Frankfort to have their children baptized by Lutheran ministers. Only against the validity of baptisms by anti Trinitarian communions are
987 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Heretic Baatiem
Herkenne doubts entertained by Protestants, some maintain
ing that a communion which does not baptize in
the name of Christ has no Christian baptism at all.
But where baptism receives into the congregation
of believers in Christ, it can not be repeated, because
it is the inviolable gift of adoption through Christ.
BIBLIOoRAPar: The sources are: Cyprian, Eyistola, lxix.
lxxv., ed. G. Hartel, ii. 547 sqq., 3 vols., Vienna, 1868 71,
and the anonymous De rebaptismate, ib., iii. 69 eqq. (Eng.
tranel. of these is to be found in ANF, v. 375 402 and
6671 sqq.); Eueebius, Hist. ecd., VIL, ii. ix.; and the
anti Donatistic writings of Augustine. Consult: J. W.
F. HSfling, Do# Sakrament der Taufe, i. 62 sqq., Er
langen,1846; W. Elwin, Hilt. of Church Opinion . . . with
Reference to Heretical, Schiamatical and Lay Admini8tra
tion, London, 1889; T. Hahn, Tyconiusstudien, Leipsic,
1900; J. Ernst, Die Ketzertaufangelepenheit in der all
1879, cardinal deacon and the first prefect of the
apostolic archives. His publications are numerous;
of especial interest are DerKirchenstaat seit der iran
z6sischen Revolution, Freiburg im Breiagau, 1860;
Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel, 3 vols., Re
gensburg,1867 69 (one of the great monographs of
modern times; in vol. 3 is Monumenta Grceca ad
Photium ejusque historiam 8peetantia, also separately
issued, 1869); Anti Janus, Freiburg, 1870 (English
transl., Dublin, 1870; a reply to D611inger'a Janus);
Katholische Kirche and christlicher Staat in ihrer
geschiehtlichen Entwicklung and in Beziehung auf die
Fragen der Gegenwart,1872, abridged ed.,1873 (Eng.
transl., Catholic Church and Christian State, 2 vols.,
London, 1876, with a supplementary volume of
documents and appendixes, 1876); Handbuch der
allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte, 3 vols., Freiburg,
1876 80. He also continued Hefele's Cortcilien
geschichte by publishing vole. viii. and ix. (1887
1890), published the RegestaLeonis X., sections 1 8,
1884 91, and was the editor of the great Kirchen
lezikon of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., 1880 1901.
BIBLIooaArar: J. B. Stamminger, Zum Ged&Atniase Car
dinal Hergenrbthers, Freiburg, 1892; J. Nirechl, Ged"h
nisrede out Cardinal J. Herpenr6dw, Bregena, 1897.
HERIGER, har"i"ZhA': Abbot of Lobbes (Lau
bach, in Belgium, 10 m. a.w. of Charleroi on the
Sambre); d. at Lobbea Oct. 31, 1007. As a monk
he taught with much success at Lobbes, the seat of
a famous school, between 970 and 980. In all
ecclesiastical and political affairs he was the right
hand of the great Bishop Notker of Lidge (q.v.)
and accompanied him on his journey to Rome in
989. In 990 he became abbot of the monastery. Next to Gerbert of Aurillac (see SYLVESTER II., POPE) Heriger was perhaps the most important and versatile writer of his time. The following of his works have been preserved: (1) Gesta episcoporum Tungrenaium et Leodicensium, written before 980; it extends only to the death of Bishop Remaclus (667 or 671) and is of little value. (2) S. Landvaldi et sociorum translatio, written after June, 980, at the order of Notker for the monks of St. Bavo in Gheflt; the saint and his associates are not known and seem to be fictitious. (3) Vita S. Uramari, a fragment in hexameter. (4) Epiatola ad quendam Hugonem monachum, concerning the calculation of the Easter term, the extent of the time of Advent, and some chronological problems. (5) Regulte nummorum super abacum Gerberti, a mathematical work. (6) Libellus de eof pore et sanguine Domini.