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parts ix. x., Leipsic, 1879; H. Cuno

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parts ix. x., Leipsic, 1879; H. Cuno. Die Herbarge zur HeimA Bau and Einrirhtung, Leipsic, 1883; Die Harbergen zur Heimat, Dankschrift den Canbnl Auaac)waaee fttr innere Mission, Berlin, 1888. Much material on the subject may be found in the peri­odical Die Arbeiterkolonie, 1884  98, succeeded by Der Wanderer, 1897 eqq.

HERBERGER, VALERIUS: Lutheran preacher; b. at Fraustadt (50 m.. s.s.w. of Posen) Apr. 21, 1562; d. there May 18, 1627. He studied for three years at Freistadt in Silesia, and then entered the University of Frankfort on the Oder, and in 1582 that of Leipsic. In 1584 he became a teacher in his native city, in 1590 deacon, and in 1599 pastor, in which office he was very successful under great difficulties. When Sigismund III., a pupil of the Jesuits, ordered his congregation to cede their house of worship to the Roman Catholics, Herberger so­quired two private residences, which he gradually transformed into a church. In 1613 a pestilence broke out at Fraustadt. Herberger performed his pastoral duties with undaunted faithfulness, and in these anxious days composed his only song, which has found a place in all Evangelical hymn books, " Valet will ich air geben, du arge falsche Welt " (" O world, so vain, I leave thee "). He was a fertile writer. His most comprehensive work is Magnalia Dei de Jesu 8eripturte nucleo et medulla (12 parts, 1601 18), meditations on the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth, intended to emphasize the revela 


tion of Christ in the Old Testament. Herberger also

wrote commentaries on Rev. xsi. xxii. and pub­

lished them as Himmlisches Jerusalem (1609). Of

his collections of sermons may be mentioned Pas­

sionszeiger (1611), Trauerbinden or funeral ser­

mons (7 vols., 1611 21), Evangelische Hempostille

(1613). After his death appeared Epistolische Herz­

postille, 97 Predigten uber Jesus Sirach, and Stop­

pelpostitle (sermons on various texts). Several of

his works were reprinted in the nineteenth cen­


BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. F. Lauterbach, Vita, fama et /ate Valerii Herberperii, Leipsic, 1708 (the basis of numerous popular accounts); A. Henschel, Val. Herberper, Halle, 1889; ADA vol. xii. The volume of selected sermons, ed. Orphal, Leipsi0. 1892, contains a biographical introduc­tion.

HERBERT, EDWARD (Lord Herbert of Cher­bury). See DEIsM, I., 1 1.
HERBERT, GEORGE: English poet; b. at Montgomery, Wales, Apr. 3, 1593; d. at Bemerton (2 m. w. of Salisbury), Wiltshire, Feb., 1633 (buried Mar. 3). He was a brother of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. At the age of twelve he was sent to Westminster School, and subsequently to Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1613; M.A., 1616). Here his accomplishments secured him a fellowship in 1616, and the public or4torship of the university in 1619, a position which he resigned in 1627. As university orator he came into close contact with the king, and spent much time at court, hoping to obtain preferment in the service of the State. Among his friends were Francis Bacon, Sir Henry Wotton, Izaak Walton, John Donne, and Bishop Andrewes. On the death of James I. in 1625, he withdrew from court life and retired to the home of a friend in Kent to study theology. The follow­ing year he was ordained deacon and presented to the prebend of Layton Ecclesia, Huntingdonshire, to which was attached an estate, with a dilapidated church, at Leighton, two miles from Little Gidding, the home of Nicholas Ferrar (q.v.). Under Ferrar's guidance Herbert restored the church; and, indeed, it was largely through Ferrar's influence that he ultimately gave himself completely to a religious life. In Apr., 1630, he was presented by Charles I. to the rectory of Fugglestone with Bemerton, Wilt­shire. His short ministry of three years at Bemer­ton was characterized by such a saint like devotion to his duties that he was called °' Holy George Herbert." Next to Christianity he loved the Established Church. His fame now rests upon the posthumous volume, The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations (ed. N. Ferrar, Cambridge, 1633, and often; facsimile reprint, with preface by J. H. Shorthouse, London, 1882). Though his poems are often marred by verbal conceits, their genuine piety and devotional fervor have made them religious classics, and given Herbert a position, shared only by John Keble, as the poet of Anglican theology. Herbert's prose work, A Priest to the Temple: or, the Country Parson (ed. H. C. Beeching, Oxford, 1898), first published in his Remains (London, 1652), is an excellent treatise on pastoral theology. Of the many editions of Herbert, the best is that by A. B. Grosart, The Complete Works

in Prose and Verse o j George Herbert, with valuable

introduction (3 vols., London, 1874).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A biographical notice by B. Oley was pre­fixed to the Country Parson, ed. of 1652 and often in late editions of his poems; the Memoir by Izaak Walton first appeared in 1670, then in the collected lives of Donne, Hooker, ed. d 1674, and often in editions of Herbert's poems. Consult: Life of George Herbert of Bemerton, London, 1893; A. G. Hyde, George Herbert and his Times, ib. 1906.

HERDER, hflr'der, JOHANN GOTTFRIED: Superintendent at Weimar, contemporary of Goethe, and influential both in German

Life. church affairs and German literature; b. at

Mohrungen (62 m. ss.w. of Konigsberg),

East Prussia, Aug. 26, 1744; d. at Weimar Dec.

18, 1803. He studied theology, philosophy, and

ancient science at KSnigsberg, 1762 64, and had

Kant as his teacher and fatherly friend. While

still a young clergyman and teacher at the Riga

cathedral school, he established his literary reputa­

tion by the Fragments fiber die neueste deutsche

Letteratur (Riga, 1767) and the Kritischen Bilder

(1769). From 1771 to 1776 he had the position of

court preacher and councilor of the consistory at

Bilckeburg; then he was called to Weimar as super­

intendent to undertake the management of ecclesi­

astical and school affairs. Here he spent the rest

of his life, and here a bronze statue tells of his glory.

Herder, the theologian among the classics and the classic author among the German theologians, is equally great in poetry, criticism, in

His Great  the history of civilization, literature ness and and art, in philosophy and pedagogics, Ability. in religion, religious inquiry, and theol­ogy. Everywhere he sought new paths, found new openings, and inspired minds. The best thinkers of the nation, Leasing, Wieland, Goethe, Lavater, Jacobi, valued him highly. The extent of his knowledge is remarkably wide. He had an open eye for all that is true, good, and beautiful, wh:ch always and everywhere has proved the godly in­stinct of humanity. He united critical sharpness with intuitive geniality, deep learning with inex­haustible productivity. With most ardent diligence he collected the products of human civilization and godly revelation from the Bible, in the mythologies, popular traditions and songs, in the founders of religions and the lawgivers, poets, and thinkers of all nations, and all that he found here and in the philosophers from Zoroaster to Spinoza, Leibnitz, Rousseau, and Shaftesbury, he worked into his philosophy of mankind.

The dry veins of theology, too, were filled with fresh blood by Herder. His sense of truth and love of freedom, his refined taste and wide 

His Service minded toleration, have had a very to Theology favorable influence upon religious life

and and ideas. Liturgics, homiletics, hymn­Religion. ology owe him as much as the Chris­tian catechism, the study of theology, and the practical training of the clergy. He revived church history, he freed dogmatics from the bonds of scholasticism; he was a great promoter of the esthetic and practical religious estimation of the Bible as well as of its historical and critical value; he discovered the law of a progressing reformation and


wonderfully prepared the renovation of the Christian faith, the deliverance of the spirit of religion from the law of a dead form. Herder fought against the insipid and weak neology as well as against rigid orthodoxy. The Bible was all and everything to him. In the different epochs of his development he always was its defender, the cultivator of truly Protestant principles, an honest judge of the dispu­ting parties, a prophet of the regeneration of Chris­tianity, a speaker for Christian humanity. He does not dispute, like a scholastic theologian, for words, forms, theological formulas, but for the eternal truth of the gospel of love. He is not afraid to acknowl­edge the mythical, traditional, poetical elements in Bible history, but he always tries to set forth the highest ideas of God in their glory. He is neither a dry materialist nor a bombastic metaphysician. He wants to be a Bible theologian in the Spirit of Luther, and has become the " John the Baptist of modern theology."

Of his theological works the following may be mentioned here: Die dlteste Urkunde des Men8chen 

geschlechts (2 vole., Riga, 1774 76), in­Theological quiries into the first two chapters of Works. Genesis; two contributions to New

Testament theology entitled ErlButer­

ungen sue einer neugeo fneten morgenlandischen

Quelle (the Zend Avesta; 1775) and Brie fe von zwei

Bradern Jesu in unserem Kanon (the Epistles of

James and Jude; 1775); also Provinzialbldtter an

Prediger (1774), an apology against the theology of

the Aufkldrung. These works Herder published

while at Bfckeburg. At Weimar he published

Lieder der Liebe (the Song of Solomon, " the purest

and sweetest love poetry of old times "; 1778);

Maran Atha oder das Bueh von der Zukunft des

Hewn (the Apocalypse; 1779); Briefe aberdas Sttc­

dium der Theologie (178(1 81), a kind of theolog­

ical encyclopedia, including a whole series of essays

and inquiries of exegetic and dogmatic contents

about the " Redeemer according to the First Three

Gospels "; the " Son of God according to St. John

the Evangelist, the Facts of Whitsuntide, and of the

Resurrection"; about the "Spiritof Christianity" ;

"Religion in Comparison with Dogmatic Opinions

and Customs " ; " Christianity and anti Christian­

ity"; Vom Geist der ebrdischen Poesie (2 vols., 1782­

1783; Eng. transl., Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, 2 vols.,

Burlington, 1833), a book that broke a path for

the study of Hebrew Poetry (see HEBREw LAN­

GUAGE AND LITERATURE, III.). Much that is of

value has also been preserved in Herder's occa­

sional addresses and sermons. His deepest views

are revealed in his philosophical works concerning

God, " Perception and Feeling," and in the Ideen

zur Geschichte der Philasophie der Menschheit (4

vole., 1784 91).

Herder's final and ripest ideal was the regenera­tion of Christianity through the Bible, the extension of the Reformation to church dogmas corrupted by Oriental and Alexandrian ideas, the restoration of the religion of Christ in contrast to the religion addressed to Christ, the revival of the ecclesiastical theory according to the Gospel of Christ, the renova­tion of religious language. He never tires of repeat­ing that religion has its place in the mind and feeling,

and that the way of thinking, confidence, kindness,

charity, and truth are its quintessence and deepest

meaning. A. WERNER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A very rich literature is indicated in the British Museum Catalogue and Supplement. A complete edition of the Werke, ed. W. Suphan, appeared in 33 vols., Berlin, 1877 99; his Brinnerungen in 2 vols. appeared Stuttgart, 1820; a Lebensbild in 3 vols., Erlangen. 1846­1848; Ungedruckte Briefs, 3 vols., Frankfort, 1856 57; Brute von and an Herder, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1861 62; Briefs an Hamann, Berlin, 1889. Consult: A. Werner, Herder ale Theolope, Berlin, 1871; R. Haym, Herder naeh aeinem Leban and Wirken, 2 vole., ib. 1877 85; E. Kiihnemann, Herder, Leipsic, 1904; H. Dechent, Herder and die dethe­tieche Betrachtunp der heiligen $chrift, Lessen, 1904; K. Muthesius, Herder's Familienleben, Berlin, 1904; O. Baumgarten, Herder's Lebenmerk and die religi6se Frage der Gepenuiart, Tiibingen, 1905; R. Weilandt, Herders Theorie von der Religion, Berlin, 1905; R. Stephan, Herder in Backeburp, Tabingen, 1905.


HERESY: A view or opinion not in accord with the prevalent standards. The Greek word hairesis, meaning originally a choice, then a self chosen belief, is applied by the Fathers as early as the third cen­tury to a deviation from the fundamental Christian faith, which was punished by exclusion from the Church. From the end of the fourth century the emperors accepted the view that they were bound to use their temporal power against heretics for the maintenance of purity of doctrine; Theodosius the Great attempted to exterminate heretics by a system of penalties, which was extended by his successors and maintained by Justinian. Any devia­tion from the orthodox belief might be punished by infamy, incapacity to hold office or give testimony, banishment, and confiscation of property; the death penalty was only prescribed for certain sects, such as the Manichean. The severer punishments were imposed on the leaders of heretical sects, or for the conferring and receiving of orders within them and for public gatherings. This legislation was not accepted in the Merovingian kingdom, which left it to the Church to combat heresy with spiritual weapons; the Visigothic law, on the other hand, took the same standpoint as the Roman. The Caro­lingian period provided penalties for the practise of paganism; but in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the rise and spread of heretical sects, especially the Cathari, led to active ecclesiastical legislation against heresy. As early as the eleventh century, the secular authorities in France and Germany had punished individual heretics with death, and the councils of the twelfth declared them bound to use their power in this way. While Frederick 1. and II., and Louis VIII., IX., and X. of France were enacting laws of this kind, the ecclesi­astical view that heresy came by right before the Church's tribunal led to the erection of special church courts with a procedure of their own (see INQLTISrrioN; JURISDICTION, ECCLESIASTICAL). In the present Roman Catholic practise, heresy is the wilful holding by a baptized person of doctrines which contradict any article of faith defined by the catholic Church, or which have been condemned by a pope or a general council as heretical, provided that the holder knows the right faith and makes open profession of his departure from it. The pen­alty is excommunieatio major kt® wntentiw, which



Heretio $apUsm

by the constitution Apostolic® cures of 1869 is specially reserved to the pope; forfeiture of Chris­tian burial; for clerics, deposition and degrada­tion; for impenitent heretics, delivery to the secular arm for a variety of secular penalties. Theoretically, the Roman . Catholic Church still holds to the old severe legislation, and as late as 1878 Leo XIII. confirmed a ruling of the cardinal vicar based on these principles in relation to those who attended Protestant services in Rome. But the altered position of the Church in modern times permits only the imposition of ecclesiastical penal­ties. A number of decisions of the Congregation of the Holy Office and of local councils, it is true, still forbid absolutely any communicatio in ditrinis with heretics, such as attendance at Protestant services (for the purpose of worship), and extend as far as possible even to the avoidance of sending children to Protestant schools.

In the Evangelical Churches not a few relics of the older attitude have continued, although Luther at first was unwilling to recognize heresy as an offense; to say nothing of the burning of Servetus (q.v.), a number of the older Protestant constitutions regard heresy as a crime, with special reference to the Anabaptists, whose punishment by the severe measures of the secular government was applauded by the Reformers. But logically the Evangelical Church, which declines to force the consciences of its members, and appeals solely to Scripture for the confirmation of its doctrines, can only rebuke erroneous doctrines as erroneous, and commend to pastoral exhortation those who hold them. This does not prevent the disciplinary dismissal of a minister who in his teaching transgresses the bounds of Evangelical freedom; and on the part of a lay­man, a public attitude of hostility toward the Evangelical faith would properly subject him also to discipline, extending, in case of obstinate per­sistence, to formal exclusion from church fellowship, although in modern practise this is seldom em­ployed. See ORTHODOxP. (P. HINseHlust)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: From the legal standpoint: B. Hobhouse, Treatise on Heresy as Cognizable by the Spiritual Courts, London, 1792, answered by F. Randolph, Scriptural Re­vision of Scriptural Arguments, ib. 1793; N. Mtinchen, Das kanonisehe Gerichtever/ahren and Strafrecht, ii. 315, Co­logne, 1865; E. LSning, Geschichte deer deutachen Kirchun­rachta, i. 95 eqq., 6trasburg, 1878; J. Havet, L'Htrteie et is bras e1culier au moyen dge, Paris, 1881; P. Farinac­mus, Law of the Church of Rome in Cases o/ Heresy, Lon­don, 1885; B. Guidonis, Practica inquisitionis heretics pramtatia, Paris, 1886; A. L. Richter, Lehrbuch des . . %irchenrechts, ed. W. Ball, p. 229, Leipsic, 1886; P. Hin­schius, %irchenrecht . . . in Deutschland, iv. 790, 844, 847, v. 157, 378, 679, vi. 186, 189, Berlin, 1886 97.

On the historical side consult: G. Arnold. Unpartei­ische %irchen  and %etserhiatorie, Schaffhausen, 1740; C. W. F. Waleh, Entwurf einer oollatandigen Historie der %etzereien, 11 vole., Leipsic, 1762 85; N. Imtdner, Hut. o/ the Heretics of the Pirat Two Centuries, London, 1780; E. Burton, The Heresies of the Apostolic Age, Oxford. 1829; C. U. Hahn, %etzer in Mittelalter, 3 vole., Stutt­gart, 1846 50; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Sects, Here­sies, Ecdeaiastiml Parties arid Schools of Religious Thought, Philadelphia, 1874; M. Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de loa heterodozos Espafiolss, 3 vols., Madrid, 1881; H. H. Wyatt, Principal Heresies Relating to our Lord's Inearna­lion, London, 1881; A. Hilgenfeld, Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchriztenthums, Leipsie, 1884; F. Toeeo, L'Bresia net media evo, Florence, 1884; 6. E. Herrick, Same Here­lies of Yesterday, Boston, 1885; P. Pierini, La Genesi del

Liberalismo, Prato, 1889; U. Robert, Lea Signs* d1in­famie au moyen dge. Hlrdiquea, Paris, 1889; J. J. I. van D&llinger, Beitrdge zur Sektengeschidlte des Mittelalters, 2 vole., Munich, 1890; C. Heuner, Beitr4ge zur Organisation der pdpetlichen %etzergerichte, Leipsie, 1890; A D. White, 'ist. of the Warfare of Science with Theology, New York, 1896; H. C. Hiller, Heresies, 5 vols., London, 1899 1902. A history of the attitude of the English law is given in J. H. Blunt, Dictionary a/ Doctrinal and Historical Theol­ogy, pp. 306 311, Philadelphia, 1870. Consult also the literature under ARIANISM,  DONATIaM, EUTYCHIANIBM, GNoaTIC18M, INQuwrrION, MONTANIBM, PELAGIANISM, etc., and consult also the works on the history of the Chris­tian Church; DCB, ii. 907 911; DCA, i. 766 769.

Its Validity Denied. Controversy between Cyprian

and Stephen (§ 1).

The Donatist Controversy. Augustine (§ 2).

Attitude of the Eastern Church (§ 3).

The Roman Catholic Position (§ 4).

The Protestant Position (§ 5).

The initiation into the Church was accomplished from the beginning by Baptism (q.v.), and the ques 

tion naturally arose, how is the rite to :. Its Valid  be regarded if the adminietrant did not ity Denied. belong to the true communion? If the Controversy working of the Spirit was effective ex­between elusively in the Church, a new baptism Cyprian and of those baptized into a heretical body Stephen. seemed inevitable. Even Clement of

Alexandria regarded the baptism of heretics as not genuine (Strom., i. 19). Tertullian declares with great vigor against heretic baptism (De baptismo, xv.), and in a Greek work now lost treated especially of the subject. A Carthaginian synod held under Agrippinus, between 200 and 220, declared baptism performed outside of the Church in­valid (Cyprian, EPiat., lxx. Dxxi.] 4). In Asia Minor, at the synods of Iconium and Synnada, the baptism of the Montaniats was not recognized (Eusebius, Hist eccl., VIL, vii. 5; Firmilian, in Epist. Cypriani, lxxiv. [lxxv.] 5). As for Rome, Hippolytus charges Calixtus (pope 217 222) with having first (hardly " especially ") introduced the repetition of baptism (Philmophoumena, ix. 12). Nevertheless, Stephen (253 257) could assert as Roman tradition the recep­tion of heretics and schismatics by mere imposition of hands. Stephen's position is not altogether clear. According to Cyprian (Epist., lxxiv. [lxgv.]) and Eusebius (Hilt. eccl., vii. 2), Stephen regarded the imposition of hands at the reception of all heretics as sufficient, but, some Christian form of baptism is evidently presupposed (Gyprian, Epist., lxxiv. [lxxv.] 9, 18; lxxii. [lxxiii.] 18; lxxiii. (lxxiv.] 5). Also the beginning of the controversy with Cyprian is not clear. But Cyprian's letters lxvi. and lxvii. [lxviii. and lxvii.] show that the relation between Cyprian and Stephen, who held communion with bishops who had lapsed, was not at all friendly. According to the extant sources, Cyprian opened the contro­versy, probably provoked by Stephen. At first Gyprian carried on the contest with the help of African councils. The synod at Carthage, in 255, declared that " no one could be baptized out of the Church " (Cyprian, Epist., lxix. [lxx.] 1), without mentioning Stephen. At the synod of 256, seventy­one bishops decided in like manner (Cyprian, Epist., Ixxii. [lxxiii.]), and so did the eighty seven bishops assembled on Sept. 1 of the same year; but their


Heretic Baptism THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 238


decision was not to be binding upon bishops who

represented another tradition. Nevertheless, the

rupture with Rome could not be avoided (Cyprian,

EPist., lxxiii. [1xxiv.]), and this because Stephen

refused all concessions. Cyprian now tried to place

against the authority of Rome the " unanimity "

of the other bishops. Firmilian of Cwsarea in

Cappadocia joined him (Cyprian, Episst., lxxiv.

Dxxv.]), whereas Dionysius of Alexandria tried to

mediate. Death probably prevented Stephen from

excommunicating the churches of Cappadocia and

Cilicia. His successor, Sixtus IL, seems to have

been on friendly terms with Cyprian. See CYPRIAN,


The question of heretic baptism came up again in

the Donatistic controversy, since the characteristic

of Donatism (q.v.) was the rebaptism of heretics

and achismatics. At the Synod of Arles

2. The in 314 it was decided (canon viii.) that

Donatist schismatics are to be received by mere

Contra  imposition of hands. Caecilian gave

versy. up the previously existing African

Augustine. practise; but the Donatists in rejecting

their opponents rejected also their

baptism, though they do not seem at first to have

consistently carried out their principle (cf. T. Hahn,

Tyconiusstudien, Leipsic, 1900, pp. 102 sqq.; Au­

gustine, Epist., xciii. 43 44). The persecution of

the Donatists by Macarius intensified their opposi­

tion, but still they did not always rebaptize (Augus­

tine, De baptismo, i. 2, 7, ii. 16 17, v. 6, Contra

epist. Parmeniani, iii. 21, ii. 34). The Donatist

Tyconius opposed a rebaptism from principle. He

held that the sacraments of the Church catholic

were real; but in Africa, where the Church was

opposing Donatism, they were not the media of

salvation. Tyconius's ideas were taken up by

Augustine and carried further. According to his

notion of the Church as the externs communio acusra­

mentorum, i.e., a " communion of saints," he dis­

tinguishes between the having baptism and the

having salvation through baptism. Though not

correctly, yet actually, baptism is administered

outside of the Church catholic (De baptismo, i. 2,

22 23). The sacredness of the baptism can not be

destroyed by the unholy administrant, because it

has in itself the divine power for salvation or evil

(De baptismo, ii. 15). Even among heretics there

can be " a real Christian baptism " (De baptismo,

v. 2, 5). The baptismal formula according to the

Gospel guarantees the sacrament, hence the achis­

matics also have a " legitimate " sacrament, though

not " legitimately " (De baptismo, v. 8). Inde­

pendent of administrant and recipient a character

dominicus belongs to baptism (De baptismo, vi. l;

cf. Contra epist. Parmeniani, ii. 29); for not the ad­

ministrant, as Petilian says, but Christ, is the

" origin and root and head of the baptized " (Contra

epist. Petiliani, iii. 64). But of course only in the

Church catholic is baptism received for salvation

(De baptismo, vi. 78, vii. 75, Contra Cresconium,

i. 27 28); for the forgiveness of sins is entirely con­

nected with the Church (De baptistno, iii. 22, v. 29).

An unbeliever who has been baptized does not

receive forgiveness or loses it at once, yet if he be

converted he needs no rebaptism (De baptismo,

i . 18 19, iii. 18; and elsewhere). But what prevents the schismatic from receiving salvation is his lack of love. True, the Holy Spirit dwells even in a schismatic communion, but not as the spirit of love. Hence a schismatic, be he ever so praiseworthy, has not the irue love, but only he who has become a " partaker in the holy unity " (Contra Cresconium, ii. 16 sqq.). Without love all sacraments avail nothing, and love is wanting in the schismatic (De baptismo, i. 12, 22, ii. 22, iii. 20 aqq., iv. 24 aqq_). __

In the East, the attitude toward heretic baptism was uncertain and depended on the estimate of the

various sects. The eighth canon of the 3. Attitude Council of Nicsea recognizes the bap 

of the tism of the Novatians; canon xix.

Eastern rejects that of the adherents of Paul

Church. of Samosata. The Synod of Laodicea

(c. 360) also makes distinctions (canons vii. and viii.). The Apostolic Constitutions refuse to acknowledge baptism by heretics, but forbid a repetition of the rite (vi. 15). The Second Trullan Council (692) distinguishes again between heretics.

In the West, Augustine laid a lasting foundation for the estimate of heretic baptism. Followinghim,

Peter Lombard ("Sentences," IV., 4. The dist. 6 A) says that persons baptized

Roman by heretics with the Christian baptis 

Catholic mat formula are to be received by

Position. imposition of hands. Bonaventura (on

Peter Lombard, ut sup.) sees a reason for not repeating baptism in the " impression of a character." Thomas Aquinas (Summa, iii., qucest. 66, art. 9) emphasizes the indelible character which baptism impresses, but holds that the res sacra­menti, the blessed efficacy, is lacking to heretics. The decree of the Council of Florence for the Arme­nians (§ 10; cf. H. Denzinger, Encheiridion, W iirz­burg, 1888, p. 161) declared that even a heathen and heretic can baptize "provided he keeps to the form of the Church and intends to do what the Church does," but the decree for the Jacobites (Denzinger, ut sup., p. 170) says that only in the Church are the sacraments sufficient for salvation. The Council of Trent acknowledged as valid baptism performed by heretics in the name of the Trinity " with the intention of doing what the Church does " (Session vii., de baptismo, canon iv.), and in view of this demanded the obedience of all bap­tized (canon viii.; cf. the letter of Pius IX. to the emperor of Germany in 1873, in Mirbt, Quellen, p. 386). At the Synod of Evreux in 1576 it was decided (and often repeated afterward) that the Protestants were not to be denied the general inten­tion. In practise the disposition prevails to re­baptize Protestant converts, but with exceptions.

Protestantism has from the beginning preserved its ecumenical character in the estimate of baptism.

Hence in the Lutheran Church, in case 5. The of necessity, the administration of

Protestant baptism even by a Roman Catholic

Position. priest has been conceded. Calvin, in

1565, allowed the non Lutherans at Frankfort to have their children baptized by Lutheran ministers. Only against the validity of baptisms by anti Trinitarian communions are



doubts entertained by Protestants, some maintain­

ing that a communion which does not baptize in

the name of Christ has no Christian baptism at all.

But where baptism receives into the congregation

of believers in Christ, it can not be repeated, because

it is the inviolable gift of adoption through Christ.


BIBLIOoRAPar: The sources are: Cyprian, Eyistola, lxix.­

lxxv., ed. G. Hartel, ii. 547 sqq., 3 vols., Vienna, 1868 71,

and the anonymous De rebaptismate, ib., iii. 69 eqq. (Eng.

tranel. of these is to be found in ANF, v. 375 402 and

6671 sqq.); Eueebius, Hist. ecd., VIL, ii. ix.; and the

anti Donatistic writings of Augustine. Consult: J. W.

F. HSfling, Do# Sakrament der Taufe, i. 62 sqq., Er­

langen,1846; W. Elwin, Hilt. of Church Opinion . . . with

Reference to Heretical, Schiamatical and Lay Admini8tra­

tion, London, 1889; T. Hahn, Tyconiusstudien, Leipsic,

1900; J. Ernst, Die Ketzertaufangelepenheit in der all­

chrietlichen Kirche, Mainz, 1901; Hefele, Concilienpe­

echichte, i. 117 sqq., 201 eqq., 407 eqq., 427 sqq., Eng.

transl., i. 98 sqq., 180 sqq., 409 sqq., 430 eqq.; Neander,

Christian Church, i. 317 323, ii. 219; Schaff, Christian

Church, ii. 262 265. Further matter is found in the lit­

erature under CTPRIAN and AvausrlNa.

HERGENROETHER, her'gen r0"ter, JOSEPH:

Roman Catholic scholar; b. at Wiirzburg Sept. 15,

1824; d. in the Cistercian monastery of Mehrerau

(1J m. w. of Bregenz) Oct. 3, 1890. He studied

at Wurzburg and in Rome, and was ordained priest

there in 1848; became professor extraordinary

(1852), and ordinary professor of ecclesiastical law

and history (1855) at Wiirzburg. In 1868 69 he

was one of the committee to prepare for the Vatican

Council, and took a consistent stand in favor of

the infallibility dogma. Pius IX. made him one of

his domestic prelates; and Leo XIII., on May 12,

1879, cardinal deacon and the first prefect of the

apostolic archives. His publications are numerous;

of especial interest are DerKirchenstaat seit der iran­

z6sischen Revolution, Freiburg im Breiagau, 1860;

Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel, 3 vols., Re­

gensburg,1867 69 (one of the great monographs of

modern times; in vol. 3 is Monumenta Grceca ad

Photium ejusque historiam 8peetantia, also separately

issued, 1869); Anti Janus, Freiburg, 1870 (English

transl., Dublin, 1870; a reply to D611inger'a Janus);

Katholische Kirche and christlicher Staat in ihrer

geschiehtlichen Entwicklung and in Beziehung auf die

Fragen der Gegenwart,1872, abridged ed.,1873 (Eng.

transl., Catholic Church and Christian State, 2 vols.,

London, 1876, with a supplementary volume of

documents and appendixes, 1876); Handbuch der

allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte, 3 vols., Freiburg,

1876 80. He also continued Hefele's Cortcilien­

geschichte by publishing vole. viii. and ix. (1887­

1890), published the RegestaLeonis X., sections 1 8,

1884 91, and was the editor of the great Kirchen­

lezikon of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., 1880 1901.

BIBLIooaArar: J. B. Stamminger, Zum Ged&Atniase Car­

dinal Hergenrbthers, Freiburg, 1892; J. Nirechl, Ged"h

nisrede out Cardinal J. Herpenr6dw, Bregena, 1897.

HERIGER, har"i"ZhA': Abbot of Lobbes (Lau­

bach, in Belgium, 10 m. a.w. of Charleroi on the

Sambre); d. at Lobbea Oct. 31, 1007. As a monk

he taught with much success at Lobbes, the seat of

a famous school, between 970 and 980. In all

ecclesiastical and political affairs he was the right

hand of the great Bishop Notker of Lidge (q.v.)

and accompanied him on his journey to Rome in

989. In 990 he became abbot of the monastery. Next to Gerbert of Aurillac (see SYLVESTER II., POPE) Heriger was perhaps the most important and versatile writer of his time. The following of his works have been preserved: (1) Gesta episcoporum Tungrenaium et Leodicensium, written before 980; it extends only to the death of Bishop Remaclus (667 or 671) and is of little value. (2) S. Landvaldi et sociorum translatio, written after June, 980, at the order of Notker for the monks of St. Bavo in Gheflt; the saint and his associates are not known and seem to be fictitious. (3) Vita S. Uramari, a fragment in hexameter. (4) Epiatola ad quendam Hugonem monachum, concerning the calculation of the Easter term, the extent of the time of Advent, and some chronological problems. (5) Regulte nummorum super abacum Gerberti, a mathematical work. (6) Libellus de eof pore et sanguine Domini.

(H. B6HnfHR.)


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