161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Bachmann, Hengstenbov, win Leben and Wirken, 2 vole., GVtersloh, 1876 79. An impartial esti­mate is given by J. E. J6rg, Gewhiohte des Protestantia­mus, i. 22, Freiburg, 1858. Adverse judgments are given in D. 8ehuls, Die Wesen and Treiben der Berliner Rvan­pdisehen Kirehenaeitunp, Breslau, 1839; A. Maller, ,Heny­stenberg and die Evanpeliade Kirchenasitunp, Berlin, 1857; F. Nippold, Neueete Kirehengsschiehte, v. 391 eqq., Leipsic, 1906; F. C. Baur, Kirrhengeschichte des 19. JahrL hunderta, pp. 228 eqq., TQbingen, 1862. Appreciative are: F. Delitaseh, Die biblisch prophetiache Tloeolopie and ihre . . . Entwickelung seit der Christolapis Henp8ten­Urge, pp. 164 sqq Leipsic, 1845; P. Schaff, many, its Universities, Theology and Religion, pp. 3oo 32o, Phiia­delphis, 1857; K. F. A. Kahnie, Zeupnis roan den Grund_ wahrheiten des Proteetantienaus pagan Dr. Henpatenberp, Leipsic, 1862.

HENHOEFER, hhn"h0f'er, ALOY3 : German theo­

logian; b. at Vblkersbach (near Carlsruhe) July 11,

1789; d. at Sp6ck (near Carlsruhe) Dec. 5, 1862.

He was born of Roman Catholic parents, and in 1811

entered the University of Freiburg, later attending

the seminary at Mee burg, where he was ordained

priest. After acting for three years as a private

tutor, he was appointed to the parish of MtW­

hausen in 1818. His sermons soon began to show

a marked Evangelical tendency, deepened by his

reading of Boos's pamphlet Christus fur uns and

in uns. Henh6fer made many enemies, however,

and the episcopal vicar at Bruchsal requested him

to vindicate himself. In reply he published his

Christliches Glaubenabekenntnia des Pfarrers Hen­

h6fer van Miihlhausen (Heidelberg, 1823), which

caused his excommunication from the Roman

Catholic Church. Together with many members

of his former congregation, he joined the Evangel­

V. 15

ical Church, and was installed as pastor of Graben (near Carlaruhe) in 1823. Four years later he was appointed to the pastorate of Spock, where he officiated for thirty five years. Together with sev­eral young theologians, whom he had converted, he published a signed protest against anew catechism which had been introduced by the church authori­ties, which was characteristic of their lukewarm spirit. This pamphlet, published in 1830, and entitled Der neue Landeskotechismus der evange­lischen Kirche des Grosaherzogtums Baden, gepriift nach der heiligen Schrift und. den symbolischen Bih chern, became immenselyy popular, and gave rise to a lively controversy, in which even a Catholic clergyman took part, only to be refuted by Henh6fer in his Biblische Lehre room Heilewege and van der Kirche (Speyer, 1832), while only the Christliche Mittedungen, of which he was one of the founders, aided his Evangelical propaganda.

The French Revolution of 1830, and the inner disturbances which agitated Germany in 1848 and 1849, caused a religious upheaval in Baden in favor of liberalism, and Henhofer, was compelled to flee to Stuttgart. During the latter years of his life he published Baden and seine Revolution. Ursache and He dung (anonymously); Die wahre katholisehe Kirche and.ihr Oberhaupt (Heidelberg, 1845); Das Abendmahl des Hewn oder die Mesas, Christentum and Papattum, Diamant oder Was (Stuttgart, 1852); Die Chriatliche Kirche and die Concordat (Carls­ruhe, 1860); and Der Kampf des Unglaubens mit Aberglauben and Glauben, sin Zeichen unaerer Zebt (Heidelberg, 1861). (K. F. LEDDMMaosat.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Frommel, Aus dam Leben du Dr. Aloye Henh6ter, Carlsruhe, 1865; F. van Weeeh, Badude Bio 

yraphien, 2 vole., Darmstadt, 1875.

HENKE, ERNST LUDWIG THEODOR: Professor of theology at Marburg; b. at Helmstedt Feb. 22, 1804; d. at Marburg Dec. 1,1872. He was the young­est son of Heinrich Philipp Konrad Henke (q.v.), studied in Helmstedt, at the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick, at G6ttingen (1822 24), and at Jena. In 1826 he became privat docent in Jena, lecturing on church history and the New Testament. In 1828 he was appointed professor at the Collegium Caro­linum in Brunswick, where he lectured on theo­logical encyclopedia, church history, isagogics, logic, and history of philosophy. In 1833 , he became professor of exegesis and church history at Jena. In 1836 he removed to Wolfenbiittel as councilor of the consistory and director of the theological seminary; as a partial fulfilment of his duties here he lectured on Biblical theology and the epistles of Paul, and directed the practical exercises of the candidates for the ministerial office. In 1839 he followed a call to Marburg; he lectured on hom­iletics, liturgics, church history, history of dogma, Biblical theology, and propsedeutics, assumed the leadership of the Homiletical Society, and in 1843 was entrusted with the superintendency of the Seminarium Thilippinum; in 1848 he became also first librarian of the university library.

Henke's theology was the result of his compre­hensive studies in church history and philosophy. He considered the dualism of faith and science an essential factor of the human mind; a higher unity

8eearke y of Sslkar

may be postulated, but it can not be realized. His broad theological views made it impossible for him to look with favor upon confessional particularism and Pietistic narrowness. He advocated the right of the Evangelical Union in the fullest and broadest sense. In religion, he maintained, love and grat­itude toward Christ must find expression in different formulas according to the different states of religious knowledge. Owing to his consistent separation of religion and theology, he considered it the right and duty of science to test and change the trans­mitted systems of 1eligion.

Henke's literary productions were numerou9. The most important in the sphere of church history was Georg Calixtus Land seine Zeit (2 vols., Halle, 1853­1860). He issued several addresses and memorials of deceased teachers and colleagues. The Evangelical Union was treated by him in Das Verhaltnis Luthers and Melanchthons zu einander (Marburg, 1860). He also wrote Das Unionakolloquium zu Kassel im JvA 1661 (1861); Spener's pia desideria and Are ErfWung (1862); Sehleiermacher and die Union (1869). With his pupil Lindenthal he issued the first edition of Abelard's Sic et Non (1851), and he was a diligent contributor to the Halliache En­cyk1opadie, Konversationslexicon der Gegentuart and the first edition of the Herzog Realencyklopddie.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. J. Mangold, B. L. T. Henke, sin Gedenk 

blatt, Marburg, 1879; J. Gtnther, Lebenaskiuen der Pro 

feaeoren der Univereitlit Jena, pp. 37 eqq., Jena, 1558.

HENKE, hAn'ke, HEINRICH PHILIPP gON­RAD: Professor of theology at Helmstedt; b. at Hehlen (on the Weser, near Hameln), in Brunswick, July 3, 1752; d. at Helmstedt May 2, 1809. He attended school in Brunswick, and in 1712 entered the University of Helmstedt. In 1777 he became professor of philosophy, and lectured on the clas­sics, history of literature and philosophy, logic and esthetics, devoting, however, some time also to in­struction in theological branches. In 1780 he be­came professor of theology, in 1795 abbot of the monastery of Michaelstein, which had been trans­formed into an Evangelical seminary, in 1800 gen­eral superintendent, in 1803 abbot of KBnigalut­ter, and in 1804 vice president of the consistory and superintendent of the Collegium Carolinum, without, however, interrupting his work as pro­fessor at Helmstedt.

Henke found hiss way to theology by his human­istic, philological, and philosophical studies. His aversion to orthodoxy, however, did not exclude the most faithful and vital reverence for Christ; he could not help acknowledging in the greatness and beauty of ancient philosophy and poetry traces and gifts of God. In the human history of Christ he saw his divinity and the deeds of him who had sent him. Thus he was inclined to trace the un­evangelical disfigurement of original simplicity not only to the fourth and fifth centuries, but to much earlier phases of theological development. He wrote a church history (6 vols., Brunswick, 1799 ­1808). His dogmatics, Lineaments inatitutionum fidei Christiana historisb sriticarum (Helmstedt, 1793), was written from the point of view of oppo­sing the unpolluted Christianity of the earliest times



to the whole later development of doctrine as a perversion of primitive faith. (E. HENxEt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A life was written by two of his pupils, G.

B. Bollmann and W. Wolff, Helmstedt, 1818, and a notice

by his youngest eon in Erech and Gruber, IL, v. 308 314.

HENOTICON, THE: The " decree of union " or " instrument of union," probably drawn up by Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and issued by the Emperor Zeno (482) for thepurpose of rec­onciling the Monophysite and orthodox divisions of the Church. It satisfied neither party. In the East it was made obligatory on all bishops and teachers. In the West it was anathematized by Felix II., and a schism of forty years followed, until the death of Anastasius (518); his successor, Justin, belonged to the orthodox side and suffered the Henoticon to fall into disuse without formally re­pealing it. See MoNopaysrrEs, § 6.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: KL, v. 1770 74 (where the substance and part of the text is given in Latin); Neander, Christian Church, ii. 588 590, 592.

HENRICIANS: A name given to the followers of Henry of Lausanne (q.v.).

HENRIQUEZ, do"r^1"k6s', HENRICUS: 1. Portu­guese Jesuit; b. at Oporto 1536; d. at Tivoli (19 m. em.e. of Rome), Italy, Jan. 28,1608. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen, and taught with distinction at several Jesuit colleges, attaining the zenith of his fame at Salamanca. There he published, in 1590, his De elavlbus ecelesio;, which was condemned by the papal nuncio at Madrid for its anticurial tendencies. A still greater sensation was caused by his Summa theologise moralis (3 vols., Salamanca,  1591 93), a commentary on those por­tions of the Summa of Thomas Aquinas which treat of moral theology. In an excursus, De fine homi­num, appended to the section on the Sacraments, Henriquez sharply attacked the doctrine of grace propounded by his fellow Jesuit Molina (q.v.). The violence of his polemic caused Aquaviva, then general of the Jesuits, to forbid him to write. Thereupon, he appealed to a general council, yet refused to obey its summons until, in 1594, he was carried forcibly to Rome. He was sentenced to leave the Jesuit order, but was allowed to become a Dominican. Nevertheless, after making his novitiate in the latter order, he returned to the Jesuits, among whom he spent the remainder of his life: In 1603 those sections of his Summa which discussed the Sacraments were plated upon the Index donee corrigatur. As a casuistic moralist, Henriquez contributed much to the probabilistic tradition of the Jesuits (see PBOBABILISM), al­though he was free from any suspicion of laxity.

2. A second Jesuit Henricus Henriquez, older than

the one just discussed, worked as a missionary in

Portuguese India for thirty four years, and died in

1600 after publishing a Malabar grammar and sev­

eral religious works. (O. ZbcszEERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana vetue, i. 583, Rome, 1672; H. Hurter, Nomenclator literariua re­eentioria theologise catholiece, i. 413, ii. 988, Innsbruck, 1881; F. Reueeh, Index der verbotenen Bucher, ii. 309 eqq., Bonn, 1885; G. H. Putnam, Ceneorehip of the Church, Vol. ii., chap. ii., New York, 1906; KL, v. 1774 79.

HENRY IV.: King of France. See HvauENois, §9.

227 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA seen k° or sa.r

HENRY OF CLAIRVAU%: Abbot of Clairvaux, cardinal bishop of Albano; b. at Marcy, near Cluny; d. at Arras Jan. 1, 1189. He joined the Cistercians at Clairvaux in 1156, and was made abbot of the monastery in 1176. He had already taken part in an undertaking against the Cathari (see Nrw MANI­csEANs, II.). In compliance with his request, he was called to attend the council of 1179, and against his expectation was made a cardinal there. He took part in 1181 in the campaign against the Cathari, in which the fortress La­vour was taken. Finally he was active in bring­ing about the third crusade. Through his efforts a reconciliation took place between the Emperor Frederick I. and Archbishop Philip of Cologne, as well as between the kings of England and France. At the "Tag Gottes," at Mainz in 1188, he finally induced the Emperor Frederick to take the cross. He did not live to see the beginning of the crusade. His importance in church history rests on the fact that he favored ardently the use of force and all worldly power to extirpate heresy, and helped to make them an essential factor in church policy.

S. M. DEu'raca.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His letters and fragments of a work are

given in MPL, ociv. 215 402; other notices are found in the Chronioon Claraevallense, MPL, elaaxv. 1247 52. Consult: Hiatoire litt6raire de la Prance, xiv. 451 462; H. Reuter, Geschichte Aleaanders 111., vol. iii., Leipaie, 1864; W. von Giesebreeht, Geechirhte der deutecAtenKaiser­wit, vols. v., vi., Brunswick, 1874; KL, v. 1701 03.

HENRY OF CLUNY. See HENRY of LAUSANNE. HENRY OF GHENT, (called in Latin, Henricus a Gandavo, Henricus Gandavensis, Henricus Mudanus; and sometimes Hendrik Goethals): Archdeacon of Tournai; b. at Mude (a village near Ghent) about 1217; d. either at Paris or at Tournai (35 m. s.w. of Ghent) 1293. In 1276 he was a famous teacher in Paris, where he held a disputation on do quolibet, and in 1277 78 he was archdeacon of Tournai. These are the only certain data concerning him, although medieval historians and Servite authors add many unauthentic details. It is not probable that he was a member of a mendicant order, since he sided with the secular clergy in the controversy concerning the right of these orders to hear con­fession. As shown by his works, the QuodlZeta and the Summa theologise, he was a realist and a Pla­tonist, if such a atatemen tmay be made of one who scarcely knew Plato in the original and thought that the tenets of Plato and Aristotle were essentially the same. Though ranked among the great scho­lastics and much read, he never founded a school.

(R.. SC13mm.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Huet, Recherehes hiatoriques sur la vie . de Henri de Gand . . . , Ghent, 1838; K. Werner,

Hsanrich von Gent, sin Reprdmntant des chriatlichen Pla­

tonismus, Vienna, 1878; F. Ehrle, in Archiv fear Litteratur

and Kirehenpeachuhte des Mittelalters, vol. i., 1885; H.

Delehaye, Nouvelles recherches sur Henri de Gand, Ghent,

1886; A. Wauters. Sur les documents apop Vphea qui con­

csrnaient Henri de Gand, Brussels, 1888.

HENRY OF HUNTINGDON: English historian; b. c. 1084; d. 1155. He was brought up in the household of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, and was made archdeacon of Huntingdon in 1109 or 1110. In 1139 he visited Rome with Archbishop Theobald. On his way he stopped at the monastery

of Bee, making the acquaintance there of Robert de Monte (de Torigny), the Norman historian, who drew his attention to the Historic Britonum of Geoffrey of Monmouth. This circumstance, added to a request from Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, led him to write his well known Historic Anglorum, covering the period from 55 B.c. to 1154 A.D. The work was first printed in H. Savile's Rerum Angli­carum Scriptores post Bedam (London, 1596), re­printed at Frankfort in 1601, also in MPL, cxcv. 799 978, and edited by T. Arnold in the Rolls Series (London, 1879). An English translation by T. For­ester will be found in Bohn's Antiquarian Li­brary, vol. xxi. (London, 1853). A letter by Henry, De eontemptu mundi, is reprinted in E. L. d'AchS­ry's Spicidegium, vol. iii. (Paris, 1723), pp. 503 ­507; in MPL, cxcv. 979 990, and in Arnold's edition of the history.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. D. Hardy, in the Introduction to the Monuments historica Britannica (which contains his chronicles), London, 1848; T. Wright, Biographic Bri­tannim literaria, ii. 167 173, ib. 1846; F. Liebermann, in PorsAungen sur deutschen Gewhiehte, xviii (1878), 267 295; DNB, xxvi. 118 119.

HENRY OF KALKAR (HEINRICH AEGER or EGER): Carthusian; b. at Kalkar (55 m. n.w. of Diisseldorf) 1328; d. at Cologne Dec. 20, 1408. He studied theology and philosophy in Paris, and afterward received a canonical prebend on the St. George's foundation at Cologne and Kaiserswerth. In 1365 he resigned this position and entered the Carthusian Order at Cologne. On account of his erudition and earnest piety he was selected to direct sundry houses of the order, being prior at Munickhuizen, near Arnheim, 1367 72, at Roer­mund 1372 77, at Cologne 1377 84, and at Stras­burg 1384 96. Because of bodily infirmity he then returned to the cloister in Cologne. For twenty years he was visitator of the order's Rhenish province, and five times he was definitor in its general chapter.

Henry was renowned as a fervent adorer of Mary, whom he extolled in poems, and whose rosary devo­tions he introduced far and wide. He had an ex­ceptional influence upon the spiritual awakening and the conversion of Geert Groote (q.v.), the founder of Brothers of the Common Life, who spent considerable time with him. This accounts for the similarity in thought between Henry and Groote and his followers, and also for the fact that he has been thought the author of the Imitatio of Thomas A Kempis.

Henry's writings, often copied with those of the Brothers, particularly Thomas, have not yet been collected. They are: (1) De ortu ac propream (or decursu) ordinis Carthu. siani (1398); Hartaheim saw the original in the Cologne library (no. 117); a copy is also in the Darmstadt library (no. 819) and at Milnater (no. 171); the chronicle no. 517 in Vienna is also doubtless the same work. (2) Loquapium de rhetorica for the Carthusiane at Utrecht, where an ex. tract is still preserved (rose. 251 nod. avi ecclea.). (3) Can­tuapium de musim. (4) Ds cont%nenhis et distinctions scion. tiarum. (5) Epiatolee varim ad diversos. (6) Sermonea capitulares breves: Epiatolm of sermonee in a manuscript of 1483, in the library at Miinater (171). (7) Scala spiritualis exercitii psr modum orationis. (8) De holoaauato quotidiano apiritualis exercitii (found by De Vooys in Mains). (9) Liber exhortationis ad Petrum quondam Carthusia Con¢uentice re­lipiosum. (10) Modus faeiendi collationes more Carthusi­ano. In print there are only: (1) Psaledrium seu rosarium

Henry, of Lsngenstein Henry



B. Virpinis, 160 dicbionea in ejuadam laudem (Cologne, 1809; of. also the little known poem printed by Aoquoy). (2) A treatise found by T. A. Liebner in 1842 in a Quedlinburg manuscript and attributed by him to Thomas I< Kempis, whose authorship was denied by Ullmann (TSK, 1843); other manuscripts are known, one of which (Brussels, no. 11889) bears the inept title Speculum peccatorum, added by a later hand; the beet text on the basis of all manuscripts is given by Hireche (pp. 482 504; cf. pp. 470 sqq.).

L. Scaumm

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Thomas A Kempis, Vita Gerhardi, chap. iv., Eng. trend. by J. P. Arthur in Founders of the New Devotion, pp. 9 11, London, 1905; Trithemius, De vir. ill., in J. A. Fabrieius, Bibliotheca Latina medii et infima wtatis, iii. 885, Hamburg, 1748; V. Andrew, Bibliotheca Bslpica, p. 358, Louvain, 1843; G. H. M. Delprat, Verhan­delinp over de Broderahap van G. Groote, p. 10, Utrecht, 1822; W. Moll, Korkpewhiedenie van Nederland, ii. 2, pp. 119 eqq., Utrecht, 1871; J. G. R. Acquoy, Hot Klooster to Windesheim, p. 23, Utrecht, 1875; K. Hireohe, Pro­legomena su liner newn Auapabe der fmitatio Christi, i. 514 sqq., Berlin, 1883; L. Schulze, in ZKG, vol. ix., 1888; KL, v. 1700 01.


Hassia) : Roman Catholic; b. near Langenatein,

upper Hesse, c. 1340; d. at Vienna Feb. 11, 1397.

He received his early education at Kirchhain,

probably among the Carmelites, then entered the

University of Paris, where, on completing his

studies, he became professor of philosophy in 1363.

He soon acquired fame as an astronomer and as an

opponent of astrology. After 1375 he devoted

himself entirely to theology, lecturing and writing

on dogmatics, Biblical exegesis, and canon law.

Early in 1383 he was compelled to leave Paris, be­

cause he, together with the best forces of the Uni­

versity, had declared himself in favor of Urban VI.

against the French Pope Clement VII. He en­

tered the Cistercian monastery at Eberbach on the­

Rhine, but later in the same year accepted a call

to the University of Vienna, becoming rector of the

university in 1394. He has been celebrated as a

prophet of the Reformation, but he has no claim

to that distinction. His chief work is the Epistola

concilii paeis (in H. von der Hardt's Magnum mcu­

menicum Constantiense, ii. 1, 3 80, 6 vols., Leipsie,

1697 1700), written in 1381 with reference to the

papal schism and emphasizing the necessity of a

general council. (B. Bxes.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Epistola de oathadra Petri. and Inroec

tiva contra moiudrum Babylonis are in A. Kneer, Die Ent­"unp der konxiliaren Theorie, pp. 127 129, 134 145, cf. 103 sqq., 130 134, Rome, 1893; his Epistala de oblatu epiacopatu Osiliensi was published at Helmetfidt, 1715; his Eputola pact's was also reprinted at the same place, 1779; and his Liter adversw Telesphors . . roatieinia is in B. Pes, Thesaurus aneodotomm, i. 2, pp. 507 588, Augs­burg, 1721. The one book to consult is 0. Hartwig, Leben and Sc7ustten Heinrirhe von Lanpsnatein, Marburg, 1858. Consult further: Kneer, ut sup.; ductmium c1sar­tul8rii Uniroersitatis Pariaiensie, ed. H. Denifle and A. Chatelain, vol. i., Paris, 1894; Chartularium Universitatis Parisionsis, same editors, vol. iii., ib. 1894; P. Fdret, La Facuiti de dEolopia de Paris, iii. 283  qq., ib. 1898; Pas­tor, Popes: i., passim, consult indexamder Langenetein.

HENRY OF LAUSANNE: An itinerant preacher of France of the first half of the twelfth century; d. after 1145. From contemporary accounts pre­served by his enemies it appears that he was not a native of France. He was a man of deep learning and extraordinary oratorical powers; the tradition that he had been a member of the congregation of Cluny (whence he has been called Henry of Cluny)

has not been substantiated. According to his

opponents, he left the cloister because of gross

irregularities in conduct, but there is as little

foundation for this report as for the Protestant state­

ment that he was moved to the step by the corrup­

tion of monastic life. As a matter of fact, his life

was that of an ascetic outside of the cloister, and he

remained true to the tenets of medieval faith. In

1101 he made his appearance in Le Mans and from

Bishop Hildebert obtained permission to preach.

The influence he exerted on his auditors was tremen­

dous. The charge that he attacked the faith of the

Church is justified only to the extent that he found

the only basis for the sanctity of the priesthood and

the validity of the sacraments in purity of action

and sincerity of repentance and belief. At the

order of Hildebert he left Le Mans and passed by

way of Poitiers and Bordeaux into Provence, where

he seems to have preached in conjunction with

Peter of Bruys (q.v.). In 1135 he was arrested by

the archbishop of Arles and brought before the

Synod of Pisa, which probably refused to condemn

him as a heretic, but attempted to put an end to

his public work by ordering him to enter a cloister.

Despatched with a letter to Bernard at Clairvaux,

he must have remained there for a brief time only,

if at all, and returned to his mission work in the

south of France. D611inger's supposition that

Henry was imbued with Manichean doctrines is

based on an unjustifiable interpretation of the

account of Peter the Venerable. For ten years

Henry pursued his work without molestation, but

in 1145, at the instance of the papal legate Alberic,

Bernard of Clairvaux was sent to the south to com­

bat his teachings. Henry was arrested, and died

probably soon after. (A. HAucs.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are Bernard of Clairvaux, Epist., 241 242, in his Opera, ed. J. Mabillon, i. 199 sqq., Paris, 1887; Gaufrid of Clairvaux, Epist., 5, in MPL, clxxxv. 412; Vita Bernhardi, iii. 18 19; idem, 312  qq.; the Bx­ordiwe rnopnum, xvii., idem, pp. 427 428; Ada spiaco­porum Cenomanensium, in J. Mabillon, Vetera anolata, Paris, 1723. Consult: A. Neander, Der Wig@ Bernhard and #sin Zeitalter, with additions by Deutsch, Goths, 1889; C. N. Hahn, OeschicAte der Ketzer im Afittelaltar, Stuttgart, 1845; J. J. I. von D51linger, Beitrape sur Sek­tmrgesch06s, i. 75 eqq., Munich, 1889; E. Vacandard, Vie de B. Bernard, ii. 217 sqq„ Paris, 1895; and the literature under BERNARD OF CLAIRYAUx.
HENRY OF NOERDLINGEN, n0rt'ling en: Ger­man mystic of the fourteenth century. His com­prehensive correspondence with Margareta Ebner (q.v.), a nun in the Dominican convent of Maria Medingen, near Dillingen, and his confessant, ex­tending from 1332 to 1350, throws valuable light upon the mystical life of the time and is the principal source for Henry's life. About 1332 he is found in NSrdlingen (in Bavaria, 50 m. s.w. of Nuremberg), his native town, as secular priest and spiritual adviser and leader of mystical souls, surrounded by pious women, mostly of the nobility, to whom his mother belonged. It was his desire to lead as many women as possible to the " Common Life " and associate them in a large mystical union. On account of the strained relations between the pope and Emperor Louis, Henry, as a faithful son of the Church, had to leave his native country. He wandered aimlessly about until he finally settled

at Bawl, in 1339, where Tauler took care of him. Here he preached daily, often twice a day, with extraordinary success. In 1346 and 1347 he was in Cologne, Aix la Chapelle, and Bamberg, collect­ing relics, and in 1348 or 1349 he went to Sulz, in Alsace, to live in solitude. In 1349 he is found again wandering from place to place and preaching. In 1350 he returned to his native country. After the death of Margarets Ebner (1351), whom he had frequently visited, he resumed his wandering life. The time and place of his death are not known. His correspondence with Margareta Ebner is the oldest collection of letters in the German language that has been preserved, and is a valuable store­house of information for the history of culture. In 1344 Henry translated the Low German " Rev­elations " of Matilda of Magdeburg (q.v.) into High German. From his intercourse with mystics he appropriated a mystical method of preaching, which found applause because mysticism was fashionable at the time, especially among women, and it was chiefly to them that his pious, childlike heart and his amiable character appealed.


BmmoGRAPHY: P. 6traueh, Marpareta Ebner and Hein­rich von Ntirdlinpen, Freiburg, 1882; W. Preger, Gesehichta der deutedhen Mystik, ii. 277 aqq., 289 aqq., Leipsie, 1881; R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, i. 216 217, 8th ed., London, n.d.


HENRY, JOHN EDGAR: Irish Presbyterian; b. at Ballyward (10 m. s.e, of Banbridge), County Down, Feb. 18, 1841. He was educated at Queen's College, Belfast (B.A., Queen's University, 1862; M.A.,1864), and was minister of his denomination at Ardstraw, in the presbytery of Strabane (1865­1879), Canterbury (1880 82), and the Second Presby­terian Church, Derry (1883 90). Since 1890 he has been professor of church history at Magee College, Londonderry. He was Smyth lecturer in the same institution in 1892 and Cavey lecturer there in 1896. In doctrine he is a sublapsarian Calvinist, in church government a Presbyterian, and in worship Puritan­ical, but moderately liberal, while in regard to the results of the newer critical school he is conservative. Besides his commentaries on Amos and Jonah in The Pulpit Commentary (2 vols., London, 1893), he has written The Plan of the House, a catechism of church government and worship (Belfast, 1874).
HENRY, PAUL EMIL: German clergyman of the French Reformed Church; b. at Potsdam Mar. 22, 1792; d. in Berlin Nov. 24, 1853. He was of French descent, and studied at the French College in Berlin. He was for many years pastor of the French Church in Berlin, and director of the French Seminary there. He published Das Lcben Johann Calvin's (3 vols., Hamburg, 1835 44; Eng. transl., 2 vols., London, 1849); and also a German transla­tion of the Confession of Faith of the French Re­formed Church (Berlin, 1845).
HENRY, MATTHEW: Non conformist minister and commentator; b. at Broad Oak, near Bangor­Iscoed, Flintshire, Wales, Oct. 18, 1662; d. at Nantwich (17 m. s.e. of Chester), Cheshire, June 22,



Henry of Lanitenstein Henry

1714. He was educated privately at the home of his father, the Rev. Philip Henry (q.v.), and at the academy of Thomas Doolittle, Islington, which he attended 1680 82. In May, 1685, he began the study of law at Gray's Inn; but he already desired to enter the ministry, and devoted much time to theological studies. In June, 1686, he began to preach in the neighborhood of Broad Oak, and in the following January he preached privately in Chester. He was asked to settle there, and con­sented conditionally, but returned to Gray's Inn. After the declaration of liberty of conscience by James II. in 1687, he was privately ordained in London, and on June 2, 1687, he began his regular ministry as pastor of a Presbyterian congregation at Chester. He remained in this charge for twenty­five years. After having several times declined overtures from London congregations, he finally accepted a call to Hackney, London, and entered upon his ministry there May 18, 1712. He visited Chester for the last time in May, 1714. On his return journey he was seized with apoplexy, and died at Nantwich.

Henry's reputation rests upon his celebrated com­mentary, An Exposition of the Old arid New Testa­ments (5 vols., London, 1708 10; afterward en­larged and often reprinted; new ed., 5 vols., New York, 1896). He lived to complete it only as far as to the end of the Acts; but after his death certain non conformists prepared the Epistles and Revela­tion from Henry's manuscripts. This work was long celebrated as the best of English commentaries for devotional purposes. The author betrays a remark­able fertility of practical suggestion; and, although the work is diffuse, it contains rich stores of truths, which hold the attention by their quaint freshness and aptness, and feed the spiritual life by their Scriptural unction. It has no critical value; and Henry in the preface expressly says that, in this department, he leaves the reader to Poole's Synop­sis. Robert Hall, Whitefield, and Spurgeon used the work, and commended it heartily. Whitefield read it through four times, the last time on his knees; and Spurgeon says (Commenting and Commentaries, p. 3): " Every minister ought to read it entirely and carefully through once at least."

Other works by Henry are Memoirs o f . . . Philip

Henry (1696); A Scripture Catechism (1702); A Plain Catechism (1702); The Communicant's Com­panion (1704); A Method for Prayer (1710); and numerous sermons, which are included in his Mis­cellansous Works (1809; ed. Sir J. B. Williams, 1830; also 2 vols., New York, 1855, containing funeral sermons by Daniel Williams, John Reynolds, and William Tong).

BIBLIoaaAPHY: W. Tong, An Account of the Life and Death of Matthew Henry, London, 1716; J. B. Williams, Mem­oirs of Matthew Henry, ib. 1850 (uses Henry's diaries); C. Chapman, Matthm Henry, his Life and Times, ib. 1859; A. B. Grosart, $epreseatattroe Nonconformists, ib. 1879; DNB, uvi. 123 124.

HENRY, PHILIP: English non conformist; b. at Whitehall, London, Aug. 24, 1631; d. at Broad Oak, near Bangor Iscoed, Wales, June 24, 1696. He studied at Westminster School, and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1649; M.A., 1652): In 1653 he went to Flintshire, North Wales, as tutor to the sons



of John Puleston at Emral and preacher at Worth­

enbury Chapel, in the parish of Bangor Iscoed. He

was ordained in 1657 and presented with the

donative of Worthenbury in 1658. For refusing to

subscribe to the Act of Uniformity (see UNI­

FoRmITy, AcTs op) he was ejected from his liv­

ing in 1662; and in 1665 he was driven from his

home by the Five Mile Act (q.v.) and forced to

seek safety in concealment. He did not resume

his regular ministry till the indulgence of 1672.

For keeping conventicles he was fined in 1681; and

during the Monmouth rebellion he was imprisoned

in Chester Castle for three weeks. After the pro­

clamation of liberty of conscience by James II. in

1687, he preached daily at Broad Oak, Flintshire,

the country estate of his wife, and at various places

in the neighborhood. Nothing was published by

Henry himself, but from his manuscripts several

volumes have been edited which throw light on

the inner life of early non conformity. These are:

Eighteen Sermons (London, 1816); Skeletons of Ser­

mons (1834); Exposition . . upon . . . Genesis

(1839); Remains (1848); and Diaries and Letters,

ed. M. H. Lee (1882). He was the father of Mat­

thew Henry (q.v.), the commentator.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The beet source apart from the Diaries

and Letters, ut sup., is the Memoirs, by his eon Matthew

Henry, London, 1696, corrected and enlarged by J. B.

Williams, ib. 1825; DNB, uvi. 124 126.

HENSCHEft, GOTTFRIED: The first pupil and

collaborator of Bolland in the great work of his

Acta Sanctorum (see BOLLAND, JAN, BOLLANDIBTB);

b. at Venray (22 m. n. of Roermond), Holland,

Jan. 21, 1600; d. at Antwerp Sept. 11, 1681. He

entered the Jesuit order at Mechlin in 1619, taught

Latin and Greek in various Flemish schools, and

was preparing to go as a missionary to the North

when, in 1635, Bolland asked for help in his task.

Henschen was chosen as the most suitable man,

and so far justified the choice that he may almost

be called the creator of the Acta Sanctorum Bollan­

distarum in its present shape; Bolland's plan con­

templated little more than an expansion of the

collection of Surius, but Henschen's scholarly in­

fluence induced him to add the learned critical

dissertations which constitute the special value of

the work.

B:Br.IOaserar: See the literature under AQrA MAaTramr,

AcrA SANcrosux, and consult RL, v. 1780  81.


England; b. at London Nov. 8, 1863. He studied

at Oxford (B.A., 1884; fellow of All Souls, 1884 91;

reelected in 1896). He was ordained priest in 1888,

and was head of the Oxford House, Bethnal Green

(1887,88), vicar of Barking, Essex (1888 95), and

incumbent of St. Mary's Hospital, Ilford (1895­

1900). Since 1900 he has been canon of West­

minster and rector of St. Margaret's. He was also

select preacher at Oxford in 1896 96 and Cam­

bridge in 1901, as well as chaplain to the bishop of

St. Albans from 1897 to 1900. Since 1903 he has

been proctor in convocation and almoner of Christ's

Hospital. In addition to editing Church Problems

(London, 1900), he has written Light and Leaven

(London, 1897); Apostolic Christianity (1898); Dis­

cipline, law (1898); Cui Bono? An Open Letter to

Lord Halifax (1899); Ad Rem: Thoughts on the Crisis in the Church (1900); Godly Unity and Con­cord (1902); Cross Bench Views of Current Church Questions (1902); Preaching to the Times (1903); English Religion in the Seventeenth Century (1903); The Value of the Bible and Other Sermons (1904); Thoughts on Popular Rationalism (1904); Moral Dis­cipline in the Christian Church (1905); Religion in Schools (1906); Christian Marriage (1907); and The National Church: Essays on its Hist. and Con­stitution (1908).

HENSON, POINDEXTER SMITH: Baptist; b. at Fork Union, Va., Dec. 7, 1831. He was grad­uated from Richmond College, Richmond, Va., in 1849, and from the University of Virginia two years later. He was principal of the Classical Institute at Milton, N. C. (1851 53), and professor of natural science at Chowan Female College, Murfrees­borough, N. C. (1853 55). After being pastor of the Baptist Church at Fluvanna, Va. (1855 60), he was pastor of Broad Street Baptist Church, Philadelphia (1860 67), of Memorial Church in the same city (1867 82), of the First Baptist Church, Chicago (1882 1901), of the Hanson Place Baptist Church, Brooklyn (1901 03), and of Tremont Temple, Boston, since 1903. Since 1870 he has been editor of The Baptist Teacher.

HEPBURN, JAMES CURTIS: Presbyterian; b. at Milton, Pa., Mar. 13, 1815. He was educated at Princeton (B.A., 1832) and the University of Pennsylvania (M.D., 1836), and in 1840 went to China as a medical missionary, being at Singapore from 1841 to 1843, and at Amoy from 1843 to 1846. He then resided in New York until 1859, when he went to Japan, residing at Yokohama until 1892. In 1893 he returned to the United States, and retired from active life. He became a member of the American Geographical Society in 1859, and of the American Bible Society in 1881, and in 1905 re­ceived the decoration of the Order of the Rising Sun, third class, from the Emperor of Japan. He has written Japanese and English Dictionary (Shanghai, 1867; abridged ed., 1873), and a Bible dictionary in Japanese (Yokohama, 1889), besides preparing Japanese translations of the Westminster Con­fession, the Shorter Catechism, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer, and the Creed. He also contributed to the translation of the Bible into Japanese, having taken up the study of Hebrew in order to qualify himself for the work.

HEPPE, HEINRICH LUDWIG JULIUS: German Reformed; b. in Cassel Mar. 30, 1820; d. at Mar­burg July 25, 1879. He studied at Marburg 1839­1843, became privat docent there 1844, extraordinary professor of theology 1850, and ordinary professor 1864. He is known chiefly as a church historian, and his productive activity in this field began with studies in local history. While serving as pastor at Cassel (1845 48), he was moved by the wealth of electoral Hesse's private and public archives to work over the ecclesiastical past of his more imme­diate neighborhood, and published Die Geschichte der hessischen Generalsynoden von 1668 1682 (2 vols., Cassel, 1847). In 1849 appeared Die Einfahrung der Verbesserungspunkte in Hessen won 180¢1610.



As characteristic of the German Reformed Church, he notes (1) the absolute authority of the divine word of Scripture over every ecclesiastical institu­tion; and (2) the Melanchthonian Calvinistic doc­trine of the Lord's Supper. The Lutheranism of the Formula of Concord is thus decidedly rejected.

Heppe treated the same theme in a series of greater and lesser writings, particularly in his Ge­schichte des deutschen Protestandsmus in den Jah­ren 1666 1681 (4 vole., Marburg, 1853 59), and his Dogmatik des deutschen Protestantismua im 16. Jahrhundert (3 vols., Gotha, 1857). In this connec­tion occurred, in the years after 1850, the vehement controversy between Heppe and A. F. C. Vilmar (q.v.), consistorial councilor at Cassel, over the confessional character of the Church of Electoral Hesse. Vilmar asserted that the Church of Hesse was originally Lutheran, and was so still, even though it regarded itself as Reformed, and was thus regarded. The two disputants came to an open feud when Vilmar sought to introduce his theory into the practical life of the Church. Some twenty tracts in rapid succession bear witness to the bitterness of the dispute.

Heppe also published an important Geschichte des

deutsehen Volkssehulwesens (5 vole., Gotha, 1857 59).

Church history, however, was the proper field of his

scholastic labor. His Kirchengeschichte beider Hessen

(2 vols., Marburg, 1876 78) was the most favorably

received of his works, and is not only an excellent

historical study, but also a work of piety toward his

much loved Hessian country. Lastly, he gave at­

tention to two peculiar manifestations of devotion

  Quietistic mysticism in the Roman Church, and

Pietism in the Reformed Church, especially of the

Netherlands. The central figure of his Geschichte

der quietistisehen Mystik in der katholischen Kirche

(Berlin, 1875) is Madame Guyon, whom he had orig­

inally intended to treat in a monograph. By this

work Heppe brought to light a domain of church

history which till then had lain wholly in the dark.

At the close he speaks of similar manifestations in

the Evangelical Church, of Labadism and Pietism

in the Netherlandish Church, and thus prepares the

way for his Gesehichte des Pietism= and der mystik

in der reformierten Kirche, namentlich der N4eder­

lande (Leyden, 1879). Heppe's literary activity is

the more praiseworthy in that, as university in­

structor, he occupied the field of systematic theol­

ogy and delivered carefully elaborated lectures. His

lectures on ethics were issued by the writer of this

article after Heppe's death (Elberfeld, 1882), and

were also translated into Dutch. Heppe likewise

took an active part in the practical tasks of the

Church, and promoted the founding of a Hessian

deaconesses' house, which now exists in Cassel in

great prosperity. A. KuaNa$T.

BxBwoaaAPBY: Wolff and Ranks, Zur &rinnerunp an H.

Heppe, Marburg, 1879; Supplement to Augsburg. ARge 

rnedne Zeitung no. 226 1879; Annalen der Uniroeraita

Marburg, Marburg, 1879.
HERACLAS: Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232 to 247 or 248. There is no reason to suppose that he was an author, but his successor, Dionysius, cites a canon of " our blessed father Heraclas." The Copto Arabic Synaxarium (ed. F. W astenfeld,

ii., Gotha, 1879, p. 160) says that he was the son of pagan parents, who had him taught the ancient philosophy, and after their conversion, the Chris­tian also; that he was ordained priest by the holy Demetrius, whose successor he became; that he converted many pagans, and chose Dionysius to assist him in administration, keeping the teaching office to himself. Origen (in Eusebius, Hist eccl., VI., xix. 13) justifies his own interest in profane learning by the example of Pantvnus and Heraclaa, "who is now a member of the presbyterium at Alexandria. I found him with the teacher of philosophical learning [Ammoniusl with whom he had already continued five years before I began to hear lectures on those subjects "  so that He­raclas must have been born not long after 170. Origen himself made such an impression upon Hera­clas that he and his brother were among the first auditors of the youthful teacher. At this time he became a Christian, and soon distinguished him­self as a theologian. Origen entrusted to him the direction of the preparatory department of the catechetioal shool. He refused to support Origen in his contest with Demetrius, and after he went to Cmsarea succeeded him as head of the school, and about a year later became bishop of Alexandria. When Origen returned to Egypt, Heraclas excom­municated him once more, and deposed Bishop Ammonius of Themuis because he allowed him to preach in his church. Probably until the beginning of the third century the bishop of Alexandria was the only bishop in Egypt. Eutychius of Alex­andria (q.v.) says (i. 332) that Deme'trius conse­crated three others and Heraclas twenty, and that he was the first to be called patriarch.


Brswomsprry: ASB, July, iii. 846 847; M. Le Quien, Oriene Christianus ii. 392, Paris, 1740; Harnack, Gs­achichte, i. 332, ii. 2, pp. 24 25 et passim; Neander, Chris­tian Church, i. 698, 700, 712; DNB, ii. 897.


HERACLITUS, her"a clai'tvs: According to Euse­bius (Hilt eccd., v. 27), the author of a lost work " On the Apostle " (probably a commentary on Paul's epistles), and a contemporary of Commodus. BuHLaoa8APHT: Harnaak, Littervtur,,i. 758 759, ii. 1, p. 701; Kruger, History. P. 224.
HERBELOT, Ar"bldl, DE MOLAINVILLE, BAR­THLLEMY DI: French Orientalist; b. in Paris Dec. 4, 1625; d. there Dec. 8, 1695. He studied at the University of Paris, where he devoted himself particularly to Oriental languages. Subsequently he spent a year and a half in Italy, going there to establish relations with people from the Orient. On his return to France he received the patronage of Fouquet and a pension of 1,500 livres. Of this last, however, he was deprived on the fall of his patron in 1661, but was then appointed secretary and interpreter of Oriental languages to the king. On a second visit to Italy in 1666, Ferdinand II. of Tuscany presented him with many valuable Eastern manuscripts, and sought to retain him at his court. Recalled to Paris by Colbert, he was granted a pension by Louis XIV.; and in 1692 he was ap­pointed the successor of J. d'Auvergne in the chair


of Syriac at the College Royal. His life was spent chiefly in the preparation of his well known BZlio­lUque orientale, ou dictionnaire univerael contenant g6n&alement tout ce qui regards la connoiasance des peuplea de d'Orimt (ed. A. Galland, Paris, 1697; reprinted, Maastricht, 1776 [supplement, 1780] ; Germ. transl., 4 vols., Halls, 1785 90; best ed., 4 vols., The Hague, 1777 79). The work is mainly an abridged translation of the immense Arabic en­cyclopedia of Hajji Khalfa, but it also contains the substance of other compilations and manuscripts. Despite occasional inaccuracies and inconsistencies, it has proved an invaluable storehouse of Oriental learning, and remains till to day the only work of the kind in this field. The Hague edition contains a supplement by A. Galland and C. de Visdelou, together with additional notes by H. A. Schultens and J. J. Reiske. A less desirable edition is the abridgment of M. Desessarts (6 vols., Paris, 1781­1783).

BIHwOGSAPHr: C. Perrault, Lee Hoimnss iUur*ww, vol. ii ., P0. 1700; C. Aneillon, Wnwirm eoncarnant Iea vs*se . . de . . . modernea cabbree, p. 134, Amsterdam, 1709;

Niobron, Manoirea, vol. iv.; Lichtenberger, EBR, vi. 186 

HERBEN, STEPHEN JOSEPH: Methodist Epis­copalian; b. at London May 11, 1861. He emi­grated to the United States in childhood, and was graduated at Northwesterb University, Evanston, Ill., in 1889, and Garrett Biblical Institute, Chicago, in 1891. In the latter year he was ordained to the Methodist Episcopal ministry, and was assist­ant editor of the Epworth Herald from 1890 to 1895, and of the Christian Advocate from 1895 to 1904. Since the latter year he has been editor of the Eptoorth Herald.

HERBERGEN ZUR RE13UT: The name given in Germany to certain inns or lodging houses (Her­bergen) intended primarily for wandering artisans, and combining the comforts of the ordinary hostelry with the advantages of a refined and religious atmos­phere. The founder of the system was Clemens Theodor Perthes (1809 67), professor of juris­prudence at the University of Bonn, and son of F. C. Perthes, the celebrated publisher of Hamburg and Gotha. The need of amelioration in the con­dition of the wandering youth among the German working classes had long been recognized, and as early as the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century some attempts in that direction were made, chiefly through the publication of new guide books for the use of traveling jour­neymen. Johann Heinrich Wichern (q.v.) had discerned in the class of itinerant workingmen a dangerous means for the dissemination of com­munistic ideas. There existed in 1854, when Perthes first began his work, so called " Pilgrims' Houses " in a few of the larger cities, but these failed to reach the great mass of young men. The first Herberge zur Heimat was opened at Bonn in May, 1854, and such wise foresight did Perthes display in formulating his scheme that at the present day, when the number of workingmen's inns has risen to about 500, the same principles control that he advanced in his classic work on the subject

(Das Herbergatt der HandwerksgeseWn, Gotha, 1856; 2d ed., 1883).

The Herbergen are primarily public inns in that they are supplied with all the comforts to be found in such institutions, and are quite free from the suggestion of charity; expenses must be met by income, and only the funds necessary for the estab­lishment of new houses are derived from free gifts. The Herbergen are conducted in a spirit of. strict Christian decency; the use of intoxicating liquors, gaming, and excess of all kinds are prohibited. Each house is under the management of a Hmuavater, who receives a fixed salary, and thus is free from tempta­tion to advance his personal welfare at the expense of his guests. Morning and evening prayers are held by the Hau8vater, at which the guests are invited to be present, but attendance is voluntary. A broader spirit than that which prevailed during the first period of the system animated the manage­ment of the Herbergen during the last twenty years of the nineteenth century, the inevitable result of the great process of transformation from agriculture and home production to highly developed industry and commercialism that began in Germany after the war with France. With the influx of hordes of workingmen into the cities the old familiar relation­ship between Hausvater and guests became im­possible; yet the old spiritual influence has not been abandoned. For the harmonious coordination of effort, provincial Herbergen associations as well as a national society have been organized.


BIDLIOGRAPHY: Besides the work of Perthee named in the text, consult: G. Augener, Die Herbergen zur Heimat and die VereinaMuser in ihrw aociaien Bedeutung ftw die Ge­,Bielefeld, 1889, H. Rathmann Die Herberge, nacbiahoipen KtwoFkatunp, Hamburg,

1876; H. Hope, Die Herberge our Heiwat, in Kleine Bib­Uothek fur innere Mission,

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