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HEMPHILL, SAMUEL: Church of Ireland; b. at Clonmel (45 m. n.e. of Cork), County Tipperary, July 5, 1859. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A.,1882), and was curate of Holy Trinity, Rathmines, Dublin (1883 88), rector of Westport, County Mayo (1888 92), and rector of Birr, King's County, since 1892. He was also professor of Biblical Greek in Trinity College, Dublin (1888 98), and select preacher to the same university in 1891 92 and 1899, and has been canon of Killaloe since 1897, in addition to being examining chaplain to the bishop of Killaloe since 1894. He has edited The Diatessaron of Tatian (London, 1888); and has written My Neighbour (London, 1897) and Immor­tality in Christ (1904), in addition to a translation of the " Satires " of Perseus (London, 1901).

terian; b. in the parish of Creich (12 m. w. of

St. Andrews), Fifeshire, 1583; d. in

Ministry in Edinburgh Aug. 19, 1646. He studied

Leuchars. at St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews

(matriculated Dec., 1599; M.A.,1603),

and taught philosophy in the university for several

years. In Sept., 1611, he is known to have been

an " expectant " or probationer, and soon thereafter

he was presented to the church of Leuchars (a

parish adjoining St. Andrews on the north and

west). So unpopular was his settlement there that

the people fastened the church doors on the day of his ordination, and he had literally to enter by a window. A year or two afterward he went, per­haps out of curiosity, to hear Robert Bruce preach at a communion in the adjoining parish of Forgan. In order to be hid, he sat in a dark corner of the church; and there the sharp arrows of the king pierced his heart as Bruce read for his text, " Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other. way, the same is a thief and a robber."

Henderson's views on church government and, worship appear to have undergone a radical change at this time, and in 1618 he opposed the " Five Articles " in the Perth Assembly (see PERTH, FlvE AP.TICllrs oF). In 1619 he was charged with not having given the communion according to the prescribed order, and explained that his disobedience was due not to contempt, but to doubts of its law­fulness. For the next eighteen years he seems to have been allowed to live in Leuchars in compar­ative peace, storing his mind with knowledge, doing good work among his people, and educating young men boarding with him. He bought a house and lands which, with a thousand pounds Scots, he gave as an educational endowment to the parish. To the school of his native parish he bequeathed two thousand merks.

In 1636 Charles I., instigated by Archbishop Laud, tried to force upon the Church of Scotland a book of canons, a book of ordination,

Resistance and a book of common prayer. The

to arbitrarymannerinwhichitwassought

Episcopacy. to impose these on the ScottishChuroh

was perhaps more offensive than their

matter. To please the king, the Scottish privy

council issued a proclamation in Dec., 1636, com­

manding all the people to conform in public worship,

and that two copies at least of the prayer book

should be procured for each parish before Easter,

1637. In June the council issued an order charging

those ministers who had not already provided them­

selves with copies of the book to do so Within fifteen

days, under penalty of being considered in rebellion.

An attempt to use the book in St. Giles's, Edinburgh,

in July, 1637, led to the " Jenny Geddes riot " (see

GEDDEB, JENNY). The next month Henderson and

two other ministers appeared before the privy coun­

cil and presented formal reasons for suspension of

the letters of outlawry under which they had been

charged to procure the book. Petitions, many of

which are still preserved, poured in upon the coun­

cil. Soon the body of the nation was embarked in

the cause; and four committees were appointed to

represent the noblemen, gentlemen, burgesses, and

ministers. These committees, each of which con­

tained four members, were called'( the tables," and

met in the parliament house. On their meetings

being prohibited by royal proclamation, they re­

solved to renew the old covenants, and on Feb. 28,

1638, the " National Covenant," in the drafting

of which Henderson had a part (see CovENArrr,las,

§ 3), was sworn and subscribed by thousands in the

Greyfriars' Church and Churchyard, Edinburgh.

Copies were circulated through the country; and

almost everywhere it was sworn with zeal and alac 

Henderson Hengel


rity by all ranks and classes. The shires subscribed by their commissioners, and so did the towns, save Aberdeen, St. Andrews, and Crail. Henderson preached at St. Andrews, and won it over, not a burgess refusing to sign. Henderson, Dickson, and Cant were sent to the north, and preached to great crowds at Aberdeen, securing several hundreds of subscriptions; but with the doctors of divinity they had only a fruitless controversy. The king had to call a general assembly and parliament to consider the national grievances. Henderson was unan­imously chosen moderator of the former, which met on Nov. 21, 1638, in the High Church or Cathedral of Glasgow. Though the royal commissioner dis­solved it in the king's name, it continued its sittings, condemned the six spurious assemblies from 1606 to 1618, as well as the service book, the book of canons, the book of ordination, and the court of high commission. It also excommunicated eight of the bishops, deposed the other six, and prohibited episcopacy and the articles of Perth. Though anxious to remain in Leuchars, Henderson was translated by this assembly to Edinburgh, and was inducted into the Greyfriars' Church on Jan. 10, 1639.

A Remonstrance o f the Nobility, etc., which

Henderson drafted (1639), strongly impressed the

English with the justice of the cove­ftegotia  nanted cause. He accompanied the tions with Scotch army to Dunes Law, and took the Eng  part in arranging the articles of peace lish. The at the Birks, near Berwick on Tweed,

West  in June, 1639. Next year he was

minster appointed rector of Edinburgh Univer­

Assembly. sity. He gave it an immense stimulus,

and is now regarded as the ablest educator and the man of clearest insight who had had to do with the university since its foundation. On the king refusing to carry out the stipulations of the pacification, denouncing the Covenanters as rebels, and preparing again to invade the country, the Scotch army entered England in Aug., 1640, and the king was fain to treat a second time. For this treaty Henderson, who had accompanied the army, was appointed a commissioner. While in London he wrote several pamphlets, held service according to the Scottish form, preached in St. Antholine's Church to crowded audiences, and heartily concurred with William Castell's petition to the English Parliament for propagating the Gospel in America as " most pious, Christian, and charitable." Toward the end of July, 1641, he returned to Edinburgh, and was chosen moderator of the assembly then sitting. The king having come to Scotland to preside in Parliament, Hender­son was appointed royal chaplain and dean of the chapel royal, and Parliament unanimously declared that, in the matter of the recent treaty, he had proved a loyal subject to the king and a true patriot to his country. By his exertions the revenues of the bishopric at Edinburgh were secured for the university of that city, and probably he helped to secure for the University of St. Andrews the grant of the rents of the archbishopric and priory of St. Andrews, under certain reservations. In 1641, and again in 1644, Parliament appointed him as one of


the commissioners to visit St. Andrews University; and he manifested his practical interest in that ancient seat of learning by giving a thousand pounds Scots for perfecting the building for its library. In Jan., 1642, he was translated to the East Kirk. As he was anxious to reconcile the king and the English Parliament, he was sent with the Scotch commissioners to Oxford. There he perceived that there was no hope of accommodation consistent with the liberties of England. On his return he had a conference with Montrose, and, seeing that he was determined to support the king, cautioned his friends against him. He was moderator of the general assembly in 1643, when commissioners were present from the English Parliament; and he drafted the Solemn League and Covenant (see CovE.rrAN­TzRs, § 4), which was cordially adopted by the Assembly and Convention of Estates. The assembly renewed the commission's appointment of mem­bers to assist at the Westminster Assembly. Hen­derson accordingly sailed from Leith for London on Aug 30. He addressed the English House of Commons and the Westminster Assembly, when met in St. Margaret's Church to swear the Solemn League and Covenant on Sept. 25. He was of great service in the Westminster Assembly, and often took a leading part in its debates. Early in 1645 he was appointed to assist the commissioners of both parliaments in their treaty with the king at Uxbridge. On this treaty being broken off without success, he returned to his duties at West­minster, though his health was now failing.

In the spring of 1646 the king threw himself into the Scottish army, who retired with him to New­castle. The Independents were now

Discussion supreme in the English army, which with had crushed the royal forces; and the

Charles I. king's only hope lay in speedily coming

to terms with the Presbyterians. He

sent for Henderson as the fittest man to remove the

difficulties of his mind. Though unfit for the jour­

ney, he complied, and reached Newcastle in May.

But he soon found that there was little hope of

Charles agreeing to abolish prelacy in England. It

was arranged that the conscientious scruples of

Charles should be discussed in a series of papers

between him and Henderson. Of these there are

eight, five being by the king. Henderson prepared

four; but, perhaps to let the king have the last

word, only three were published. The object of

Charles seems to have been to gain time; and, as

the discussion lasted fully six weeks, he was not

altogether unsuccessful. As Henderson's health had

grown much worse, he returned to Scotland, arriving

in Edinburgh on Aug. 11, sick and exhausted. Eight

days after his arrival he entered into his rest. He

was undoubtedly, after Knox, the greatest of

Scottish ecclesiastics, and has been held in universal

honor for his tact, statesmanship, and patriotism,

as well as for his attachment to the faith and polity

of the Reformed Church.

Most of the principal public papers of the Presby­terians from 1637 to 1646 were drafted or polished by Henderson. In 1641 he published The Order and Government of the Church of Scotland. The Plat­form of the Presbyterian Government, published by


Hendersmn 8enae1

authority in 1644, is substantially the same without the preface. He seems to have published a pamphlet against episcopacy, and another against

Writings. Independency. Several of his sermons

have been printed separately; and

a volume of Sermons, Prayers, and Pulpit Addresses,

from the notes of a hearer, was issued at Edinburgh

in 1867. His speech.before the Solemn League and

Covenant was sworn at Westminster is in the

Appendix to James Reid, Memoirs of . . those

Eminent Divines who Convened in the Famous

Assembly at Westminster (2 vole., Paisley, 1811 15).

The papers which passed between him and the

king are in Aiton's Appendix (see Bibliography),

and are printed with Charles's Works.


BIHwOGBAPBY: The beet biography is by J. Aiton, Life and

Times of A. Henderson, Edinburgh, 1838 (embodies Orig­inal research into sources and contains documents). Consult further: Wodrow Society publications, Wodrow'e Correspondence, ed. T. MaaCrie, Edinburgh, 1842 43, and Wodrow'e Select Biographies, ed. W. K. Tweedie, ib. 184b 47; T. MacCrie, Life o) A. Henderson, ad. T. Thom­eon, Edinburgh, 1848; D. Neel, Hist. of the Puritans, ed. J. Toulmin, iii. 218 217, Bath, 1822; W. M. Hethering­ton, Hist. of the Church of Scotland, pp. 148 150, et pae­mm, New York, 1881; DNB, xxv. 390 395 (where may be found a list of references).

HENDERSON, EBENEZER: Scotch linguist and missionary; b. in the parish of Dunfermline, Fife­ehire, Nov. 17, 1784; d. at Mortlake (8 m. w.s.w. of London), Surrey, May 16, 1858. His parents were of humble station, and he enjoyed few educa­tional advantages; nevertheless, in the midst of the duties of an active professional life, he acquired a knowledge of many languages, including not only Greek, Latin, French, German, Danish, and Swedish, but also  so it is said Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic, Russian, Arabic, Tatar, Persian, Turkish, Arme­nian, Manchu, Mongolian, and Coptic. In 1803 he entered Robert Haldane's seminary in Edinburgh to study for the ministry. In 1805 he left Scotland in company with the Rev. John Patterson, with whom he continued to be associated in missionary labor and friendship for a great part of his life. His original destination was the East Indies; but difficulties connected with the existing policy of the East India Company led Henderson, who bad gone to Denmark with the view of a passage to India in a Danish ship, to alter his plans, and devote his future labors mainly to the northern countries of Europe.

In Jan., 1806, he undertook a ministerial charge at Elsinore, Denmark, whence, in Sept., 1807, he removed to Gothenburg, in Sweden. In the fol­lowing year he itinerated in Sweden, Lapland, and Finland, forming Bible societies in connection with the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1811 through his influence, the first Swedish Con­gregational Church was formed. In 1812 13 his headquarters were at Copenhagen, where a Danish Bible Society was established and where his chief work was the superintendence of a translation of the New Testament into Icelandic. In 1814 he visited Iceland, distributed the newly printed Testaments, and preached in many parts of the island. In 1816 he went to St. Petersburg, and, under the auspices of the Czar, procured the printing of the Bible in

ten dialects. In 1825, however, through the influence of the Greek Church, the work of the Bible Society was interdicted in Russia.

Henderson returned to England in 1825, and

for the next twenty five years devoted himself to

the work of training others for the labors which bad

occupied him for the twenty years preceding. For

five years he wds theological tutor at Hoxton. In

1830 he was appointed to the theological lectureship

at Highbury, where he also gave instruction in.

Oriental languages. In 1850 he retired on a pen­

sion, but continued to preach, particularly in the

Independent Chapel at Mortlake, 1852 53. In addi­

tion to a number of popular reprints which appeared

under his editorship, Henderson's literary works

include: Translation of Roos on the Prophecies of

Daniel (Edinburgh, 1811); Two Dissertations on

Hans Mikkelsen'a (Danish) Translation of the New

Testament (Copenhagen, 1813); Iceland, or the

Journal of a Residence in that Isle in 181.¢, 1816

(Edinburgh, 1818); Biblical Researches arid Travels

in Russia (London, 1826); The Great Mystery of

Godliness (1830); An Appeal to the Members of the

British arid Foreign Bible Society (1824); The Turk­

ish New Testament Incapable of Defence (1825);

Divine Inspiration (1836); Translation of Isaiah,

with Commentary (1840); Translation of Ezekiel

(1855); Translation of Jeremiah and Lamentations

(1851); and Tranalationa of the Minor Prophets

(1845). Hwcxy COWAN.

$:aLsoasersn: Th"a S. Henderson (his daughter), Mem 

oir of Rbeneser Henderson, London, 1859; Bible of Every

Land, p. 218, ib. 1881; DNB, xxv. 398.

copal (South) bishop; b. at Fayette, Mo., May 17,

1847. He was graduated from Wesleyan Univer­

sity, Middletown, Conn. (B.A., 1867), and Union

Theological Seminary (1869). He was then pastor

of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at

Leavenworth, Kan. (1869 70), Macon, Mo. (1870­

1872), Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. (1872 76),

and at Glasgow, Mo. (1877 78), and was president

of Central College, Fayette, Mo. (1878 86). Since

1888 he has been a bishop of his denomination. He

has been one of the managers of the Board of Mis­

sions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South,

since 1878, of the Board of Church Extension since

1886, and of the Board of Education since 1894.

He was Cole Lecturer at Vanderbilt University in

1903, and Quillian Lecturer at Emory College in

the same year. In theology he is a Wesleyan

Arminian, and has written Around the World (Nash­

ville, Tenn., 1877); Skilled Labor for the Master

(1900); Religion o f the Incarnation (1903); Person­

ality of the Holy Spirit (1903); and Religion of as

Incarnation; (1907).

HENGEL, WESSEL ALBERT VAN: One of the foremost Dutch exegetes of the school of Van Vooret; b. at Leyden Nov. 12, 1779; d. there Feb. 6, 1871. He received his education in his native city, and held pastorates at Halslagen (1803 1805), Drie­huizen (180rr10) , and Grootebroek (1810 1815). In 1815 he was appointed professor of theology at the academy of Franeker, whence he was called, three years later, to a similar position in Amsterdam. In

Henirstenbere THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 294


1827 he became professor of theology at Leyden,

.vhere he resided until his death, although he was

made professor emeritus in 1849. This period of

retirement was the time of his ripest literary activ­

ity. He was a prolific writer both in Latin and in

Dutch. His principal works are as follows: Anna­

tatio in loan nonnulla Novi Testamenti (Amsterdam,

1824); Institutio oratoris sacri (Leyden, 1829), a

handbook of homiletics; Geschiedenis der zedeliyke

en godsdiewtige beschaving van het hedendaagsche

Europa (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1831 44; 2d ed.,

Leyden, 1862 66); Commentarius perpetuus in

Epistolam Pauli ad Philippenses (Leyden, 1838);

Keizer Hendrik de Derde (1844); Interpretatio

Epistolas Pauli ad Romanos (2 vols., Bois le Duc,

1855 59); De Testamenten der Twaal/ Patriar­

chen op nwaw ter sprake gebragl (Amsterdam,

1860); and De gave der talen (Leyden, 1864).

  (C. SEPPt.)


Protestant exegete; b. at Frondenberg (a village of

Westphalia, near Hamm, 22 m. n.n.w. of Arnsberg)

Oct. 20, 1802; d. at Berlin May 28, 1869. He was

a descendant of an old Westphalian patrician fam­

ily of Dortmund, one in which the tradition of

service in the ministry was very persistent. His

health did not permit attendance at a public

school, but he received so excellent a training from

his father, who was a Lutheran clergyman of

supranaturalistic views, that in 1819 he found

himself qualified to enter the newly founded

University of Bonn. Destined from early child­

hood for a theological career, he prepared him­

self by a thorough grounding in philology and

philosophy. He studied Old Testament exegesis

and church history under Freytag and Gieseler,

passed through a complete course in classical phi­

lology, gave particular attention to the Aristotelian

philosophy, but above all devoted himself to the

study of Arabic. The results of his philosophical

studies were embodied in a German translation of

the metaphysics of Aristotle (Bonn, 1824), and of

his Arabic studies in an edition of the moallaxah o f

Amru'l'Kais (Bonn, 1823), with the latter of which

he obtained his doctorate. He was unable to enter

on a course in theology on account of lack of means

so, through the recommendation of Freytag, he

became assistant to Sthhelin at Basel, taking part

there in the latter's Oriental investigations. The

leisure there enjoyed gave him opportunity for

serious study of the Scriptures.

Finding his theological views to be in accord

with the Augsburg Confession, he decided to enter

the Lutheran communion. In 1824 he

His Work went to Berlin as privat docent, and

in Berlin. in the following year took his bacca­

laureate in theology. His thesis em­

bodied a defense of the truth of Protestantism and

an earnest criticism of the rationalistic position,

especially on Old Testament problems. As head

of the seminar of Old Testament studies his activity

and his reputation continued to increase, while as

guide and counselor of the students who gathered

around him he exercised a profound and beneficent

influence that was inferior only to that of Tholuck,

his lifelong friend. Other of his friends were August

Neander, Friedrich Strauss, Theremin, and many of the younger clergymen of Berlin. His connection with these men and the growing vigor of his or­thodoxy brought upon Hengstenberg the dislike of the authorities. In order to remove him from the sphere of his influence, the minister Von Altenstein repeatedly attempted to transfer him to another university under the guise of promotion, which attempts were frustrated by Hengstenberg's refusal to accept the offers made. In July, 1827, he became editor of the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, a medium through which he, was to exercise a far wider and deeper influence on the religious life of his age than through his strictly academic labors.

Once convinced that his proper field lay in the career then opened for him, Hengstenberg entered with vigor on a task that he was to His carry on under great discouragement

Contest for forty two years. No man of our

against time has been exposed to more oppo 

Rational  sition and enmity, ridicule and slander, ism. open and secret denunciation than the editor , of the Bvangelische Kirchen­witung. " The opinion of the world during the last forty years has associated with Hengstenberg's name all that it finds condemnatory in the revival of a former faith Pietism, a dead orthodoxy, ob­scurantism, fanaticism, Jesuitism, sympathy with every influence for retrogression " (Kahnis). More­over, charges which were mutually contradictory were filed against him. To the impartial student these accusations will appear no more justified than to blame the policy of the Kirchenzeatu»g in Chang­ing its views and its attitude on many important ecclesiastical questions. That publication would never have accomplished its purpose as organ of the Evangelical Church if it had not accommodated its policy to the progress of religious development. However vacillating its position may have been on particular issues, Hengstenberg's organ remained steadfast in the pursuit of its great mission the combating of the rationalistic spirit. It was not content to assail rationalism as an abstract system, but attacked its tendencies in whatever individual form it manifested itself, in concrete localities, per­sonalities, and publications. Its quarrel was with all who assailed or denied the divinity of the Savior, exalted matter and the flesh, or paid undue worship to the human reason. Against error in its. manifold forms it upheld the standard that the Church of all ages has upheld against error and recusancy the word of God and the creed of the Church.

Of Hengstenberg's writings the Christologie des Allen Testaments (Berlin, 1829 35; Eng. trawl., The Christology of the Odd Testament,

Writings. 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1854 58) contains

his first contribution to the develop­

ment of the theology of the older law. His avowed

purpose was to create a line of defense against

those who denied prophecy and miracle and to

restore the Old Testament to its ancient and well­

founded rights. The Kommentar fiber die Psalmen

(4 vols., Berlin, 1842 47; Eng. trawl., 3 vols.,

Edinburgh, 1845 48) adopts the methods of in­

terpretation employed in the ancient Church and


during the period of the Reformation. Minor exegetical works are Geschichte Bileams and seine Weiasagungen (Berlin, 1842), Hohelied Salbmonis (Berlin, 1853), Prediger Salomo (Berlin, 1858; Eng. transl., Commentary on the Book of Ecclesiastes, to which are appended Treatises on the Song of Solo­mon, the Book of Job, the Prophet Isaiah, the Saerir fices of Holy Scripture, the Jews and the Christian Church, Edinburgh, 1860), and Weisabgungen des Propheten Ezechiels (Berlin, 1867 68; Eng. tranal., The Prophecies of Ezekiel, Edinburgh, 1869)., Al­lied with his studies in the Hebrew prophets axe the Offenbarung des heiligen Johannes (2 vols., Berlin, 1849 51; Eng. transl., The Revelation. of St. John, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1851 52), and Evan­gelium des healigen Johannes (Berlin, 1861 64; Eng. tranal., Commentary on . . . John, 2 vols., Edin­burgh, 1865). His Beitrage zur Einkitung ins Alts Testament (Berlin, 1831; Eng. tranal., Genuineness of the Pentateuch, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1847; Genu­ineness of Daniel and Integrity of Zechariah, ib. 1848) examine critically the prophecies of Zecha­riah and Daniel and maintain the authenticity of the Pentateuch. Other writings are Geschichte des Reichm Gotten unter dem Aken Bunde (2 vols., Ber­lin, 1869 71; Eng. tranal., History of the King­dom of God under the Old Testament, 2 vols., Edin­burgh, 1871 72), Ueber den Tag des Herrn (Berlin, 1852; Eng. transl., The Lord's Day, Edinburgh, 1853), and Die Opfer der heiligen Schrift (Berlin, 1859). His Egypt and the Books of Moses ap­peared in Eng. transl., Edinburgh, 1843.

(J. BAcaMAxNt.)

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