HEMPHILL, SAMUEL: Church of Ireland; b. at Clonmel (45 m. n.e. of Cork), County Tipperary, July 5, 1859. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A.,1882), and was curate of Holy Trinity, Rathmines, Dublin (1883 88), rector of Westport, County Mayo (1888 92), and rector of Birr, King's County, since 1892. He was also professor of Biblical Greek in Trinity College, Dublin (1888 98), and select preacher to the same university in 1891 92 and 1899, and has been canon of Killaloe since 1897, in addition to being examining chaplain to the bishop of Killaloe since 1894. He has edited The Diatessaron of Tatian (London, 1888); and has written My Neighbour (London, 1897) and Immortality in Christ (1904), in addition to a translation of the " Satires " of Perseus (London, 1901).
HENDERSON, ALEXANDER:Scotch Presby
terian; b. in the parish of Creich (12 m. w. of
St. Andrews), Fifeshire, 1583; d. in
Ministry in Edinburgh Aug. 19, 1646. He studied
Leuchars. at St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews
(matriculated Dec., 1599; M.A.,1603),
and taught philosophy in the university for several
years. In Sept., 1611, he is known to have been
an " expectant " or probationer, and soon thereafter
he was presented to the church of Leuchars (a
parish adjoining St. Andrews on the north and
west). So unpopular was his settlement there that
the people fastened the church doors on the day of his ordination, and he had literally to enter by a window. A year or two afterward he went, perhaps out of curiosity, to hear Robert Bruce preach at a communion in the adjoining parish of Forgan. In order to be hid, he sat in a dark corner of the church; and there the sharp arrows of the king pierced his heart as Bruce read for his text, " Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other. way, the same is a thief and a robber."
Henderson's views on church government and, worship appear to have undergone a radical change at this time, and in 1618 he opposed the " Five Articles " in the Perth Assembly (see PERTH, FlvE AP.TICllrs oF). In 1619 he was charged with not having given the communion according to the prescribed order, and explained that his disobedience was due not to contempt, but to doubts of its lawfulness. For the next eighteen years he seems to have been allowed to live in Leuchars in comparative peace, storing his mind with knowledge, doing good work among his people, and educating young men boarding with him. He bought a house and lands which, with a thousand pounds Scots, he gave as an educational endowment to the parish. To the school of his native parish he bequeathed two thousand merks.
In 1636 Charles I., instigated by Archbishop Laud, tried to force upon the Church of Scotland a book of canons, a book of ordination,
Resistance and a book of common prayer. The
Episcopacy. to impose these on the ScottishChuroh
was perhaps more offensive than their
matter. To please the king, the Scottish privy
council issued a proclamation in Dec., 1636, com
manding all the people to conform in public worship,
and that two copies at least of the prayer book
should be procured for each parish before Easter,
1637. In June the council issued an order charging
those ministers who had not already provided them
selves with copies of the book to do so Within fifteen
days, under penalty of being considered in rebellion.
An attempt to use the book in St. Giles's, Edinburgh,
in July, 1637, led to the " Jenny Geddes riot " (see
GEDDEB, JENNY). The next month Henderson and
two other ministers appeared before the privy coun
cil and presented formal reasons for suspension of
the letters of outlawry under which they had been
charged to procure the book. Petitions, many of
which are still preserved, poured in upon the coun
cil. Soon the body of the nation was embarked in
the cause; and four committees were appointed to
represent the noblemen, gentlemen, burgesses, and
ministers. These committees, each of which con
tained four members, were called'( the tables," and
met in the parliament house. On their meetings
being prohibited by royal proclamation, they re
solved to renew the old covenants, and on Feb. 28,
1638, the " National Covenant," in the drafting
of which Henderson had a part (see CovENArrr,las,
§ 3), was sworn and subscribed by thousands in the
Greyfriars' Church and Churchyard, Edinburgh.
Copies were circulated through the country; and
almost everywhere it was sworn with zeal and alac
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG rity by all ranks and classes. The shires subscribed by their commissioners, and so did the towns, save Aberdeen, St. Andrews, and Crail. Henderson preached at St. Andrews, and won it over, not a burgess refusing to sign. Henderson, Dickson, and Cant were sent to the north, and preached to great crowds at Aberdeen, securing several hundreds of subscriptions; but with the doctors of divinity they had only a fruitless controversy. The king had to call a general assembly and parliament to consider the national grievances. Henderson was unanimously chosen moderator of the former, which met on Nov. 21, 1638, in the High Church or Cathedral of Glasgow. Though the royal commissioner dissolved it in the king's name, it continued its sittings, condemned the six spurious assemblies from 1606 to 1618, as well as the service book, the book of canons, the book of ordination, and the court of high commission. It also excommunicated eight of the bishops, deposed the other six, and prohibited episcopacy and the articles of Perth. Though anxious to remain in Leuchars, Henderson was translated by this assembly to Edinburgh, and was inducted into the Greyfriars' Church on Jan. 10, 1639.
A Remonstrance o f the Nobility, etc., which
Henderson drafted (1639), strongly impressed the
English with the justice of the coveftegotia nanted cause. He accompanied the tions with Scotch army to Dunes Law, and took the Eng part in arranging the articles of peace lish. The at the Birks, near Berwick on Tweed,
West in June, 1639. Next year he was
minster appointed rector of Edinburgh Univer
Assembly. sity. He gave it an immense stimulus,
and is now regarded as the ablest educator and the man of clearest insight who had had to do with the university since its foundation. On the king refusing to carry out the stipulations of the pacification, denouncing the Covenanters as rebels, and preparing again to invade the country, the Scotch army entered England in Aug., 1640, and the king was fain to treat a second time. For this treaty Henderson, who had accompanied the army, was appointed a commissioner. While in London he wrote several pamphlets, held service according to the Scottish form, preached in St. Antholine's Church to crowded audiences, and heartily concurred with William Castell's petition to the English Parliament for propagating the Gospel in America as " most pious, Christian, and charitable." Toward the end of July, 1641, he returned to Edinburgh, and was chosen moderator of the assembly then sitting. The king having come to Scotland to preside in Parliament, Henderson was appointed royal chaplain and dean of the chapel royal, and Parliament unanimously declared that, in the matter of the recent treaty, he had proved a loyal subject to the king and a true patriot to his country. By his exertions the revenues of the bishopric at Edinburgh were secured for the university of that city, and probably he helped to secure for the University of St. Andrews the grant of the rents of the archbishopric and priory of St. Andrews, under certain reservations. In 1641, and again in 1644, Parliament appointed him as one of
the commissioners to visit St. Andrews University; and he manifested his practical interest in that ancient seat of learning by giving a thousand pounds Scots for perfecting the building for its library. In Jan., 1642, he was translated to the East Kirk. As he was anxious to reconcile the king and the English Parliament, he was sent with the Scotch commissioners to Oxford. There he perceived that there was no hope of accommodation consistent with the liberties of England. On his return he had a conference with Montrose, and, seeing that he was determined to support the king, cautioned his friends against him. He was moderator of the general assembly in 1643, when commissioners were present from the English Parliament; and he drafted the Solemn League and Covenant (see CovE.rrANTzRs, § 4), which was cordially adopted by the Assembly and Convention of Estates. The assembly renewed the commission's appointment of members to assist at the Westminster Assembly. Henderson accordingly sailed from Leith for London on Aug 30. He addressed the English House of Commons and the Westminster Assembly, when met in St. Margaret's Church to swear the Solemn League and Covenant on Sept. 25. He was of great service in the Westminster Assembly, and often took a leading part in its debates. Early in 1645 he was appointed to assist the commissioners of both parliaments in their treaty with the king at Uxbridge. On this treaty being broken off without success, he returned to his duties at Westminster, though his health was now failing.
In the spring of 1646 the king threw himself into the Scottish army, who retired with him to Newcastle. The Independents were now
Discussion supreme in the English army, which with had crushed the royal forces; and the
Charles I. king's only hope lay in speedily coming
to terms with the Presbyterians. He
sent for Henderson as the fittest man to remove the
difficulties of his mind. Though unfit for the jour
ney, he complied, and reached Newcastle in May.
But he soon found that there was little hope of
Charles agreeing to abolish prelacy in England. It
was arranged that the conscientious scruples of
Charles should be discussed in a series of papers
between him and Henderson. Of these there are
eight, five being by the king. Henderson prepared
four; but, perhaps to let the king have the last
word, only three were published. The object of
Charles seems to have been to gain time; and, as
the discussion lasted fully six weeks, he was not
altogether unsuccessful. As Henderson's health had
grown much worse, he returned to Scotland, arriving
in Edinburgh on Aug. 11, sick and exhausted. Eight
days after his arrival he entered into his rest. He
was undoubtedly, after Knox, the greatest of
Scottish ecclesiastics, and has been held in universal
honor for his tact, statesmanship, and patriotism,
as well as for his attachment to the faith and polity
of the Reformed Church.
Most of the principal public papers of the Presbyterians from 1637 to 1646 were drafted or polished by Henderson. In 1641 he published The Order and Government of the Church of Scotland. The Platform of the Presbyterian Government, published by
authority in 1644, is substantially the same without the preface. He seems to have published a pamphlet against episcopacy, and another against
Writings. Independency. Several of his sermons
have been printed separately; and
a volume of Sermons, Prayers, and Pulpit Addresses,
from the notes of a hearer, was issued at Edinburgh
in 1867. His speech.before the Solemn League and
Covenant was sworn at Westminster is in the
Appendix to James Reid, Memoirs of . . those
Eminent Divines who Convened in the Famous
Assembly at Westminster (2 vole., Paisley, 1811 15).
The papers which passed between him and the
king are in Aiton's Appendix (see Bibliography),
and are printed with Charles's Works.
D. HAY FLEMaNG.
BIHwOGBAPBY:The beet biography is by J. Aiton, Life and
Times of A. Henderson, Edinburgh, 1838 (embodies Original research into sources and contains documents). Consult further: Wodrow Society publications, Wodrow'e Correspondence, ed. T. MaaCrie, Edinburgh, 1842 43, and Wodrow'e Select Biographies, ed. W. K. Tweedie, ib. 184b 47; T. MacCrie, Life o) A. Henderson, ad. T. Thomeon, Edinburgh, 1848; D. Neel, Hist. of the Puritans, ed. J. Toulmin, iii. 218 217, Bath, 1822; W. M. Hetherington, Hist. of the Church of Scotland, pp. 148 150, et paemm, New York, 1881; DNB, xxv. 390 395 (where may be found a list of references).
HENDERSON, EBENEZER: Scotch linguist and missionary; b. in the parish of Dunfermline, Fifeehire, Nov. 17, 1784; d. at Mortlake (8 m. w.s.w. of London), Surrey, May 16, 1858. His parents were of humble station, and he enjoyed few educational advantages; nevertheless, in the midst of the duties of an active professional life, he acquired a knowledge of many languages, including not only Greek, Latin, French, German, Danish, and Swedish, but also so it is said Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic, Russian, Arabic, Tatar, Persian, Turkish, Armenian, Manchu, Mongolian, and Coptic. In 1803 he entered Robert Haldane's seminary in Edinburgh to study for the ministry. In 1805 he left Scotland in company with the Rev. John Patterson, with whom he continued to be associated in missionary labor and friendship for a great part of his life. His original destination was the East Indies; but difficulties connected with the existing policy of the East India Company led Henderson, who bad gone to Denmark with the view of a passage to India in a Danish ship, to alter his plans, and devote his future labors mainly to the northern countries of Europe.
In Jan., 1806, he undertook a ministerial charge at Elsinore, Denmark, whence, in Sept., 1807, he removed to Gothenburg, in Sweden. In the following year he itinerated in Sweden, Lapland, and Finland, forming Bible societies in connection with the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1811 through his influence, the first Swedish Congregational Church was formed. In 1812 13 his headquarters were at Copenhagen, where a Danish Bible Society was established and where his chief work was the superintendence of a translation of the New Testament into Icelandic. In 1814 he visited Iceland, distributed the newly printed Testaments, and preached in many parts of the island. In 1816 he went to St. Petersburg, and, under the auspices of the Czar, procured the printing of the Bible in
ten dialects. In 1825, however, through the influence of the Greek Church, the work of the Bible Society was interdicted in Russia.
Henderson returned to England in 1825, and
for the next twenty five years devoted himself to
the work of training others for the labors which bad
occupied him for the twenty years preceding. For
five years he wds theological tutor at Hoxton. In
1830 he was appointed to the theological lectureship
at Highbury, where he also gave instruction in.
Oriental languages. In 1850 he retired on a pen
sion, but continued to preach, particularly in the
Independent Chapel at Mortlake, 1852 53. In addi
tion to a number of popular reprints which appeared
under his editorship, Henderson's literary works
include: Translation of Roos on the Prophecies of
Daniel (Edinburgh, 1811); Two Dissertations on
Hans Mikkelsen'a (Danish) Translation of the New
Testament (Copenhagen, 1813); Iceland, or the
Journal of a Residence in that Isle in 181.¢, 1816
since 1878, of the Board of Church Extension since
1886, and of the Board of Education since 1894.
He was Cole Lecturer at Vanderbilt University in
1903, and Quillian Lecturer at Emory College in
the same year. In theology he is a Wesleyan
Arminian, and has written Around the World (Nash
ville, Tenn., 1877); Skilled Labor for the Master
(1900); Religion o f the Incarnation (1903); Person
ality of the Holy Spirit (1903); and Religion of as
HENGEL, WESSEL ALBERT VAN: One of the foremost Dutch exegetes of the school of Van Vooret; b. at Leyden Nov. 12, 1779; d. there Feb. 6, 1871. He received his education in his native city, and held pastorates at Halslagen (1803 1805), Driehuizen (180rr10) , and Grootebroek (1810 1815). In 1815 he was appointed professor of theology at the academy of Franeker, whence he was called, three years later, to a similar position in Amsterdam. In
Henirstenbere THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 294
Henke 1827 he became professor of theology at Leyden,
.vhere he resided until his death, although he was
made professor emeritus in 1849. This period of
retirement was the time of his ripest literary activ
ity. He was a prolific writer both in Latin and in
Dutch. His principal works are as follows: Anna
tatio in loan nonnulla Novi Testamenti (Amsterdam,
1824); Institutio oratoris sacri (Leyden, 1829), a
handbook of homiletics; Geschiedenis der zedeliyke
bodied a defense of the truth of Protestantism and
an earnest criticism of the rationalistic position,
especially on Old Testament problems. As head
of the seminar of Old Testament studies his activity
and his reputation continued to increase, while as
guide and counselor of the students who gathered
around him he exercised a profound and beneficent
influence that was inferior only to that of Tholuck,
his lifelong friend. Other of his friends were August
Neander, Friedrich Strauss, Theremin, and many of the younger clergymen of Berlin. His connection with these men and the growing vigor of his orthodoxy brought upon Hengstenberg the dislike of the authorities. In order to remove him from the sphere of his influence, the minister Von Altenstein repeatedly attempted to transfer him to another university under the guise of promotion, which attempts were frustrated by Hengstenberg's refusal to accept the offers made. In July, 1827, he became editor of the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, a medium through which he, was to exercise a far wider and deeper influence on the religious life of his age than through his strictly academic labors.
Once convinced that his proper field lay in the career then opened for him, Hengstenberg entered with vigor on a task that he was to His carry on under great discouragement
Contest for forty two years. No man of our
against time has been exposed to more oppo
Rational sition and enmity, ridicule and slander, ism. open and secret denunciation than the editor , of the Bvangelische Kirchenwitung. " The opinion of the world during the last forty years has associated with Hengstenberg's name all that it finds condemnatory in the revival of a former faith Pietism, a dead orthodoxy, obscurantism, fanaticism, Jesuitism, sympathy with every influence for retrogression " (Kahnis). Moreover, charges which were mutually contradictory were filed against him. To the impartial student these accusations will appear no more justified than to blame the policy of the Kirchenzeatu»g in Changing its views and its attitude on many important ecclesiastical questions. That publication would never have accomplished its purpose as organ of the Evangelical Church if it had not accommodated its policy to the progress of religious development. However vacillating its position may have been on particular issues, Hengstenberg's organ remained steadfast in the pursuit of its great mission the combating of the rationalistic spirit. It was not content to assail rationalism as an abstract system, but attacked its tendencies in whatever individual form it manifested itself, in concrete localities, personalities, and publications. Its quarrel was with all who assailed or denied the divinity of the Savior, exalted matter and the flesh, or paid undue worship to the human reason. Against error in its. manifold forms it upheld the standard that the Church of all ages has upheld against error and recusancy the word of God and the creed of the Church.
Of Hengstenberg's writings the Christologie des Allen Testaments (Berlin, 1829 35; Eng. trawl., The Christology of the Odd Testament,
restore the Old Testament to its ancient and well
founded rights. The Kommentar fiber die Psalmen
(4 vols., Berlin, 1842 47; Eng. trawl., 3 vols.,
Edinburgh, 1845 48) adopts the methods of in
terpretation employed in the ancient Church and
996 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA g
during the period of the Reformation. Minor exegetical works are Geschichte Bileams and seine Weiasagungen (Berlin, 1842), Hohelied Salbmonis (Berlin, 1853), Prediger Salomo (Berlin, 1858; Eng. transl., Commentary on the Book of Ecclesiastes, to which are appended Treatises on the Song of Solomon, the Book of Job, the Prophet Isaiah, the Saerir fices of Holy Scripture, the Jews and the Christian Church, Edinburgh, 1860), and Weisabgungen des Propheten Ezechiels (Berlin, 1867 68; Eng. tranal., The Prophecies of Ezekiel, Edinburgh, 1869)., Allied with his studies in the Hebrew prophets axe the Offenbarung des heiligen Johannes (2 vols., Berlin, 1849 51; Eng. transl., The Revelation. of St. John, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1851 52), and Evangelium des healigen Johannes (Berlin, 1861 64; Eng. tranal., Commentary on . . . John, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1865). His Beitrage zur Einkitung ins Alts Testament (Berlin, 1831; Eng. tranal., Genuineness of the Pentateuch, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1847; Genuineness of Daniel and Integrity of Zechariah, ib. 1848) examine critically the prophecies of Zechariah and Daniel and maintain the authenticity of the Pentateuch. Other writings are Geschichte des Reichm Gotten unter dem Aken Bunde (2 vols., Berlin, 1869 71; Eng. tranal., History of the Kingdom of God under the Old Testament, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1871 72), Ueber den Tag des Herrn (Berlin, 1852; Eng. transl., The Lord's Day, Edinburgh, 1853), and Die Opfer der heiligen Schrift (Berlin, 1859). His Egypt and the Books of Moses appeared in Eng. transl., Edinburgh, 1843.