Semerli THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 2 18
of Switzerland objected to this new tendency and threatened to stop sending their pupils to Geneva. The Council of Geneva submitted and peremptorily demanded from all candidates subscription to the older articles. But the conservative elements were not satisfied, and the idea occurred to them to stop the further spread of such novelties by establishing a formula obligatory upon all teachers and preachers. After considerable discussion between Gernler of Basel, Hummel of Bern, Ott of Schaffhausen, Heidegger of Zurich, and others, the last mentioned was charged with drawing up the formula. In the beginning of 1675, Heidegger's Latin draft was communicated to the ministers of Zurich; and in the course of the year it received very general adoption, and almost everywhere was added as an appendix and exposition to the Helvetic Confession.
The Consensus consists of a preface and twentysix canons, and states clearly the difference between
strict Calvinism and the school of Content. Saumur. Canons i. iii. treat of divine
inspiration, and the preservation of the
Scriptures. Canons iv. vi. relate to election and
predestination. In canons vii. ix. it is shown that
man was originally created holy, and that obedience
to law would have led him to eternal life. Canons
x: xii. reject La Place's doctrine of a mediate im
putation of the sin of Adam. Canons xiii. xvi.
treat of the particular destination of Christ as he
from eternity was elected head, master, and heir
of those that are saved through him, so in time he
became mediator for those who are granted to him
as his own by eternal election. According to canons
xvii. xx., the call to election has referred at different
Although the Helvetic Consensus was introduced everywhere in the Reformed Church of
Switzerland, it could not long hold Later its position, as it was a product of the History. reigning scholasticism. At first, cir
cumspection and tolerance were shown it the enforcement of its signature, but as soon. as many French preachers sought positions in Vaud after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, it was ordered that all who intended to preach must sign the Consensus without reservation. An address of the great elector of Brandenburg to the Reformed cantons, in which, in consideration of the dangerous position of Protestantism and the need of a union of all Evangelicals, he asked for a nullification of the separating formula, brought it about that the signature was not demanded in Basel after 1686, and it was also dropped in Schaffhausen and later (1706) in Geneva, while Zurich and Bern retained it. Meanwhile the whole tendency of the time had changed.
Secular science stepped into the foreground. The
practical, ethical side of Christianity began to gain
a dominating influence. Rationalism and Pietism
undermined the foundations of the old orthodoxy.
An agreement between the liberal and conservative
parties was temporarily attained in so far that it
was decided that the Consensus was not to be re
garded as a rule of faith, but only as a norm of
teaching. In 1722 Prussia and England applied
to the respective magistracies of the Swiss cantons
for the abolition of the formula for the sake of the
unity and peace of the Protestant Churches. The
reply was somewhat evasive; but, though the for
mula was never formally abolished, it gradually fell
entirely into disuse. (EMIT. EGLI.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The official copy, in Latin and German, is in the archives of Zurich. It was printed in 1714 as a supplement to the Second Helvetic Confession, then in 1718, 1722, and often, and may be found in H. A. Niemeyer, Codlectio Confeaeionum, pp. 729 739, Leipsic, 1840 (Latin), and in E. G. A. B5oke1, Die Bekenntniaachrdften der evanpelisch reformirten Kirda, pp. 348 360, ib. 1847 (German). Consult: J. J. Hottinger, Succincta . . . Fmmalm Consensus . . . historia, Zurich, 1723; idem, HelvetiseAe Kirchengeschiohte, iii. 1086 .qq., iv. 258, 268 sqq., ib. 1708 29; C. M. Pfaff, Diassrtatio . . . de Pormula Consensus Helvetica, TObingen, 1723; A. Schweizer, Dis proteatantiaden CentraYdopmen in ihrer Entwickelunp, pp. 439 563, ib.1856; E. B15seh, Geachichte der schuxizeriach reformirten Kirden, i. 485 496, ii. 77 97, Bern, 18981899; Behalf, Crews, i. 477 489.
HELVETIUS, el"v6"si"tis', CLAUDE ADRIEft: French philosopher; b. in Paris Jan., 1715; d. there Dec. 26, 1771. He studied at the ColliAge Louis leGrand, and in 1738 received the lucrative post of farmer general, which, however, he soon exchanged for the position of chamberlain to the queen. Tiring of the idle and dissipated life of the court, he married in 1751, and retired to a small estate at Vor6, in Perche, where he devoted himself chiefly to philosophical studies. He visited England in 1764, and the following year he went to Germany, where he was received with distinction by Frederick II. He was one of the Encyclopedists (q.v.), and held the skeptical and materialistic views common to that school of philosophy. His principal works are: De l'esprit(Paris, 1758; Eng. transl., De l'Esprit: or, Essays on the Mind, London, 1759), which, condemned by the Sorbonne and publicly burned at Paris, was translated into most European languages, and read more than any other book of the time; and the posthumous De l'homme, de ses facukks intellectuellm et de son Education (2 vols., London, 1772; Eng. tranal., A Treatise on Man; his lnteuectual Faculties and his Education, 2 vols., 1777).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: (F. J. de Chastellux), 2lope de M. Hdvniua, Paris, 1774; Saint Lambert, Essai ear is vie et lea ouvrapes de Helvdtius, ib. 1792; J. P. Damiron, in vol. ix. of Comyterendu de L'acad6mie des sciences moral" st potifquea; A. Keim, Helv6liue, so vie et son auvre, Paris, 1907. HELVICUS, hel'vf cus (HELWICH), CHRISTOPHORUS: German theologian and educator; b. at Spreudlingen (23 m. s.w. of Mainz), Hesse, Dec. 26, 1581; d. at Giessen Sept. 10,1617. He was educated at the University of Marburg (M.A.,1599), and was called to teach in the academic gymnasium at Giessen in 1605. In 1610, three years after the school had been reorganised as a university, he
219 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Helvetio conusasns
Hemerli was appointed professor of theology and Hebrew
there. He composed grammars of the Latin, Greek,
and Hebrew languages, wrote on poetics and history,
and took part in the dogmatic controversies of his
time. He won renown chiefly by his knowledge
of Hebrew. On account of his efforts for educa
tional reform, particularly in connection with Wolf
gang Rattich (Ratke), he occupies also a worthy
position in the history of pedagogy in the seven
teenth century. CARL MIRBT.
Bmntoaewrar: The early source is J. Winkelmann, Oratio /unebria in obitum C. Heivici. Consult: F. W. Strieder, Grundlapen au nner heaaiaehen Gekhrten and Schriftatellerpaechirhte, v. 520630, Cassel, 1785; ADB, xi. 718 718.
HELVIDIUS: A layman living in Rome at the time of Damasus I. (366 384). Concerning his personality nothing is known, except that he was an imitator of the pagan rhetorician and statesman Symmachus, and a pupil of the Arian Auxentius, bishop of Milan. During the second sojourn of Jerome at Rome, 382 385, Helvidius wrote a tract in which he combated the perpetual virginity of the mother of Jesus. This tract is known only through Jerome's counter tract, composed prior to. 384. From this it appears that Helvidius also opposed the practical deductions made in the monastic circles of Rome from the perpetual virginity of Mary, and sharply antagonized the claims of monasticism to represent a higher ideal of Christian life. Helvidius proceeded upon the assumption that Mary, subsequent to the virgin birth of Jesus, bore several children in wedlock with Joseph, citing Matt. i. 18, i. 25; Luke ii. 7. Jerome undertook to refute him and at the same time make propaganda for monasticism. Jerome's objections are purely sophistical. He argues that from the expression " before they came together " (Matt. i. 18) it can not be inferred that there was afterward an actual estate of conjugal cohabitation between them, that the expression " firstborn son " (Luke ii. 7), according to Old Testament phraseology, only indicated what ",openeth the womb," and by no means referred to younger brothers or sisters of Jesus, and that the brethren of the Lord were not literal brothers, but only cousins. Jerome also advocates the perpetual virginity of Joseph, because the virgin's son was to issue from a virginal marriage. Augustine enumerates the Helvidiani, or followers of Helvidius, in his catalogue of heretics. The views of Helvidius were shared by Bonosus (see BONosua AND THE
BONOsIANB). G. GRt)TZMACHER.
BIBLIOanwPBP: The contemporary source of information is Jerome's tract De perpetua virpinitate beater Marion adversus Helvidium, in MPL xxxiii., Eng. tranel. in NPNF, 2d ser., vi, 334 sqq. Other early sources are Augustine, Har., chap. lxxxiv., in MPL, xlii.; Gennadiue, De vir. ill., chaP. xx fi., in MPL, (viii. Consult C. W. F. Walch, Hiatorie der %taereien, iii. 577 598, Leipsie, 1785; 0. Z6okler, Hieronymus, pp. 94 eqq„ Goths, 1885; W. Haller, Tovinianue, in TU xvii (1897), 152 eqq.; DCB, ii. 892; cf. Ceillier, Auteura aacr&, vii. 595, 884, viii. 46, 47.
HELYOT, 6"V8', PIERRE (or HIPPOLYTE; the latter his monastic name): French Franciscan; b. at Paris 1660; d. there Jan. 5, 1716. At the age of twenty three he entered the Third Order of St. Francis (Congregation of Picpus), whose most noteworthy author he became. His fame was gained
not so much through his edifying writings, such as
his Le ChrOffien mourant (Paris, 1695), as through his
Hiatoire des ordres monastiquea, religieux et militairea
et des congr6gatzona a& uli&es de Pun et de 1'autre
aexe, qui ont M dtablies jusqu'au prEsent (8 vole.,
Paris, 1714 19); to this he devoted a quarter of
a century, and it was completed after his death by
Maximilien Ballot, a member of the same order.
It went through repeated editions in France (1721,
1792,1838), and formed the basis of M. L. Badiche'a
portant being The Forest Sanctuary (London, 1825);
Records o f Women (1828); Songs o f the Affections
(Edinburgh, 1830); Hymns for Childhood (Dublin,
1834); National Lyrics and Songs for Music (1834);
and Scenes and Hymns of Life (Edinburgh, 1834).
Her works were edited, with a Memoir by her sister
Mrs. Hughes (7 vole., London, 1839), also her
Poetical Works, with a Memoir, by W. M. Roaetti
Baraooawrax: Besides the Memoirs in the collections, ut sup., consult: H. F. Chorley, Memorials of Mrs. Hemana, 2 vole., London 1838; idem The Authors of England, ib. 1838; Mrs. R. Lawrence, The Last Autumn at a Favorite Residence, Liverpool, 1838; DNB, aav. 352 383; Julian, Hymnology. PP. b09 510.
HEMERLI (not HEMMERLIIP), FELIX:Swiss canonist, an advocate of reform in the Church; b.
friars, establishing his literary fame by a treatise,
Contra validos mendicdntes (1438), which was edited
later in German by Nicholas of Wyle under the title
Von den ver»a6genden Bettlem (possibly in Transla
tion oder Tutschungen etlicher Bilcher, Esslingen,
1478 ?, Augsburg, 1536). In De libertate ecclesi
astics he approved the efforts of the Council of
Basel to abolish the celibacy of the clergy. Of his
legal works may be mentioned Tractatus de matri.
monio, De emptione et venditione unius pro viginti,
and Processes judiciaries. His principal work is his
great political Dialogus de nobilitate, in which he
vehemently attacked the enemies of his native city,
the people of the canton of Schwyz. In 1452 he
wrote the story of his sufferings in his Passionale.
During his captivity he wrote Registrum qeerele,
a solemn assertion of his innocence and a vehement
accusation against Gundolfinger, and a Dialogea
de consolations inique suppressorum. Most of his
writings were first edited by Sebastian Brant in 1497
(Basel). They were nearly all merely occasional
tracts, lack breadth of view, profundity, and con
sistency, and aim at sensational effect, with a
predilection for scandalous stories. Therefore
Hemerli's admonitions had little influence toward promoting a real reformation. (A. SCnNEIDER.)
BIBwoaRAPHy: B. Reber, Felix Hemmerlin von Zfamich, Zurich, 1846; F. Fials, Dr. Felix Hemmerlin ale Probet doe 3. Uraendiftes au Solothurn, Soleure, 1857; J. J. V6geli, Zum Veratdndnia van . . . Hrimmerlis Schritten, Zurich, 1873; O. Lorenz, DGQ, i. 78, 119 121, ii. 405, Berlin, 1886; A. Schneider, Der Zttrcher %anonikua and Kantor Magiater Felix Hemmerlin, Zurich, 1888.
HEMMINGGSEN, NIELS (Nicolaus Heinmingii): Danish theologian; b. at Erindlev, island of Lolland, Denmark, June 4, 1513; d. at Roskilde, Zealand, May 23, 1600. He studied under the humanist Niels Black at Roskilde, and at the age of twentyfour went to Wittenberg, where he was graduated B.D., and became a devoted follower of Melanchthon. In 1542 he returned to Denmark, and was appointed privat docent at the University of Copenhagen; in 1543 he became instructor in Greek, and in 1545 lecturer in Hebrew and professor of dialectics; in 1553 he was appointed professor of theology.
In 1555 he published his De methodis, the second volume of which treats of hermeneutics and rhetoric. His Enchirldion theologicum appeared in 1557, and became popular in Denmark and abroad as a handbook of dogmatics and ethics. He was a pronounced adherent of Melanchthon, and he considers his own work merely an aid to the deeper understanding of Melauchthon's opus sacrosanetum. His Enchiridion consists of four parts, the first treating of the covenant of grace and the kingdom of Christ; the second, of man's duties toward God, dwelling especially on the ten commandments; the third, of the three articles of faith, the Lord's Prayer, and the importance of traditional teachings; and the fourth, of the public and private duties of a Christian. Of still greater importance from an ethical point of view is his De loge naturm apodictica methodes (Wittenberg, 1562).
When the waves of Crypto Calvinism reached Denmark Hemmingsen was called upon to defend the Lutheran conception of the Lord's Supper, which he did in his Tavle om Herrens Nadvere (" Table of the Lord's Supper "); in consequence of this he came to be regarded as the foremost theologian in Denmark. In 1569 he was entrusted with the task of drafting the twenty five articles of religion to which every foreigner who settled in Denmark had to conform; and in the following year he published his Livsens Vej (" The Path of Life "), a compendium of the teachings he himself followed during his long nareer.
When at the very summit of his greatness Hemmingsen published (1572 and 1574) certain writings which displayed a leaning toward Crypto Calvinism, and King Frederick II. forbade him to engage in any disputations concerning the Lord's Supper. Repeated accusations on the part of the duke and duchess of Saxony, who were related to the king, compelled Frederick II. further to demand that he renounce his Crypto Calvinistic tendencies altogether; and he had to retract his utterances publicly. The accusations continued;' and the king finally deposed Hemmingsen. On July 29, 1579, he was dismissed from his professorship, and ordered to leave Copenhagen. He went to Roskilde, where for
222 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA $emeru
twenty years he occupied himself with studies,
officiating also as protector of the cathedral there.
Upon the death of Frederick II. he again ventured
to publish his writings, and his commentary on the
Gospel of St. John, accompanied by a Tractatus
de gratis universali (Copenhagen, 1591), showed
that he was no adherent of Calvin as far as the
latter's teachings of predestination were concerned.
In 1599, however, he wrote some Spbrgsmaal
og Svar om Alterens Sakramente (" Questions and
Answers concerning the Lord's Supper "), which
proved that his conceptions of the Lord's Supper
were more Calvinistic than Lutheran.
BIHwOGBAPnr7: E. Pontokopidan AnnaUs eodesim
Danie~. vol. iii., Copenhagen, 1747; H. Roerdam, %i~= Unioeraiteta Historie 165'7 1621, ii. 425 sqq., ib. 1869 sqq.; J. H. Paulli, Niels Hemmingsem Pastoradtheolopie, ib. 1851.
HEMPHILL, CHARLES ROBERT: Presbyterian;
b. at Chester, S. C., April 18, 1852. He was edu
cated at the University of South Carolina, the Uni
versity of Virginia (B.A., 1871), and the Presby
terian Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C.
(1874). He was tutor in Hebrew there (1874 78),
fellow in Greek at Johns Hopkins University (1878
1879), professor of Greek and Latin at South
western Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn.
(1879 82), and professor of Biblical literature in
Columbia Seminary (1882f 85). He was pastor of
the Second Presbyterian Church at Louisville, Ky.
(1885 99), and from 1893 to the present time he has
held a professorship in the Louisville Presbyterian
(now Kentucky Presbyterian) Theological Semi
nary. He contributed to Moses and His Recent
Critics (New York, 1889) the essay entitled Validity
and Bearing o f the Testimony o f Christ and His
Apostles to the Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch.