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8emetfo Consensus


of Switzerland objected to this new tendency and threatened to stop sending their pupils to Geneva. The Council of Geneva submitted and peremptorily demanded from all candidates subscription to the older articles. But the conservative elements were not satisfied, and the idea occurred to them to stop the further spread of such novelties by establishing a formula obligatory upon all teachers and preachers. After considerable discussion between Gernler of Basel, Hummel of Bern, Ott of Schaffhausen, Heidegger of Zurich, and others, the last mentioned was charged with drawing up the formula. In the beginning of 1675, Heidegger's Latin draft was communicated to the ministers of Zurich; and in the course of the year it received very general adop­tion, and almost everywhere was added as an ap­pendix and exposition to the Helvetic Confession.

The Consensus consists of a preface and twenty­six canons, and states clearly the difference between

strict Calvinism and the school of Content. Saumur. Canons i. iii. treat of divine

inspiration, and the preservation of the

Scriptures. Canons iv. vi. relate to election and

predestination. In canons vii. ix. it is shown that

man was originally created holy, and that obedience

to law would have led him to eternal life. Canons

x: xii. reject La Place's doctrine of a mediate im­

putation of the sin of Adam. Canons xiii. xvi.

treat of the particular destination of Christ as he

from eternity was elected head, master, and heir

of those that are saved through him, so in time he

became mediator for those who are granted to him

as his own by eternal election. According to canons

xvii. xx., the call to election has referred at different

times to smaller and larger circles. Canons xxi.­

xxiii. define the incapacity of man to believe in

the Gospel by his own powers as natural, not only

moral, so that he could believe if he only tried.

According to canons xxui~xxv., there are only two

ways of justification before God and consequently

a twofold covenant of God, namely the covenant

of the works for man in the state of innocence, and

the covenant through the obedience of Christ for

fallen man. The final canon admonishes to cling

firmly to the pure and simple doctrine and avoid

vain talk.

Although the Helvetic Consensus was intro­duced everywhere in the Reformed Church of

Switzerland, it could not long hold Later its position, as it was a product of the History. reigning scholasticism. At first, cir 

cumspection and tolerance were shown it the enforcement of its signature, but as soon. as many French preachers sought positions in Vaud after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, it was ordered that all who intended to preach must sign the Consensus without reservation. An address of the great elector of Brandenburg to the Reformed cantons, in which, in consideration of the dangerous position of Protestantism and the need of a union of all Evangelicals, he asked for a nullification of the separating formula, brought it about that the signa­ture was not demanded in Basel after 1686, and it was also dropped in Schaffhausen and later (1706) in Geneva, while Zurich and Bern retained it. Mean­while the whole tendency of the time had changed.

Secular science stepped into the foreground. The

practical, ethical side of Christianity began to gain

a dominating influence. Rationalism and Pietism

undermined the foundations of the old orthodoxy.

An agreement between the liberal and conservative

parties was temporarily attained in so far that it

was decided that the Consensus was not to be re­

garded as a rule of faith, but only as a norm of

teaching. In 1722 Prussia and England applied

to the respective magistracies of the Swiss cantons

for the abolition of the formula for the sake of the

unity and peace of the Protestant Churches. The

reply was somewhat evasive; but, though the for­

mula was never formally abolished, it gradually fell

entirely into disuse. (EMIT. EGLI.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The official copy, in Latin and German, is in the archives of Zurich. It was printed in 1714 as a supplement to the Second Helvetic Confession, then in 1718, 1722, and often, and may be found in H. A. Nie­meyer, Codlectio Confeaeionum, pp. 729 739, Leipsic, 1840 (Latin), and in E. G. A. B5oke1, Die Bekenntniaachrdf­ten der evanpelisch reformirten Kirda, pp. 348 360, ib. 1847 (German). Consult: J. J. Hottinger, Succincta . . . Fmmalm Consensus . . . historia, Zurich, 1723; idem, HelvetiseAe Kirchengeschiohte, iii. 1086 .qq., iv. 258, 268 sqq., ib. 1708 29; C. M. Pfaff, Diassrtatio . . . de Por­mula Consensus Helvetica, TObingen, 1723; A. Schweizer, Dis proteatantiaden CentraYdopmen in ihrer Entwickelunp, pp. 439 563, ib.1856; E. B15seh, Geachichte der schuxizer­iach reformirten Kirden, i. 485 496, ii. 77 97, Bern, 1898­1899; Behalf, Crews, i. 477 489.

HELVETIUS, el"v6"si"tis', CLAUDE ADRIEft: French philosopher; b. in Paris Jan., 1715; d. there Dec. 26, 1771. He studied at the ColliAge Louis le­Grand, and in 1738 received the lucrative post of farmer general, which, however, he soon exchanged for the position of chamberlain to the queen. Tiring of the idle and dissipated life of the court, he married in 1751, and retired to a small estate at Vor6, in Perche, where he devoted himself chiefly to philo­sophical studies. He visited England in 1764, and the following year he went to Germany, where he was received with distinction by Frederick II. He was one of the Encyclopedists (q.v.), and held the skeptical and materialistic views common to that school of philosophy. His principal works are: De l'esprit (Paris, 1758; Eng. transl., De l'Esprit: or, Essays on the Mind, London, 1759), which, con­demned by the Sorbonne and publicly burned at Paris, was translated into most European lan­guages, and read more than any other book of the time; and the posthumous De l'homme, de ses facukks intellectuellm et de son Education (2 vols., London, 1772; Eng. tranal., A Treatise on Man; his lnteuectual Faculties and his Education, 2 vols., 1777).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (F. J. de Chastellux), 2lope de M. Hdvniua, Paris, 1774; Saint Lambert, Essai ear is vie et lea ouvrapes de Helvdtius, ib. 1792; J. P. Damiron, in vol. ix. of Comyte­rendu de L'acad6mie des sciences moral" st potifquea; A. Keim, Helv6liue, so vie et son auvre, Paris, 1907.
HELVICUS, hel'vf cus (HELWICH), CHRIS­TOPHORUS: German theologian and educator; b. at Spreudlingen (23 m. s.w. of Mainz), Hesse, Dec. 26, 1581; d. at Giessen Sept. 10,1617. He was educated at the University of Marburg (M.A.,1599), and was called to teach in the academic gymnasium at Giessen in 1605. In 1610, three years after the school had been reorganised as a university, he

219 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Helvetio conusasns


was appointed professor of theology and Hebrew

there. He composed grammars of the Latin, Greek,

and Hebrew languages, wrote on poetics and history,

and took part in the dogmatic controversies of his

time. He won renown chiefly by his knowledge

of Hebrew. On account of his efforts for educa­

tional reform, particularly in connection with Wolf­

gang Rattich (Ratke), he occupies also a worthy

position in the history of pedagogy in the seven­

teenth century. CARL MIRBT.

Bmntoaewrar: The early source is J. Winkelmann, Oratio /unebria in obitum C. Heivici. Consult: F. W. Strieder, Grundlapen au nner heaaiaehen Gekhrten  and Schriftatel­lerpaechirhte, v. 520630, Cassel, 1785; ADB, xi. 718 718.
HELVIDIUS: A layman living in Rome at the time of Damasus I. (366 384). Concerning his per­sonality nothing is known, except that he was an imitator of the pagan rhetorician and statesman Symmachus, and a pupil of the Arian Auxentius, bishop of Milan. During the second sojourn of Jerome at Rome, 382 385, Helvidius wrote a tract in which he combated the perpetual virginity of the mother of Jesus. This tract is known only through Jerome's counter tract, composed prior to. 384. From this it appears that Helvidius also opposed the practical deductions made in the monastic circles of Rome from the perpetual virginity of Mary, and sharply antagonized the claims of monasticism to represent a higher ideal of Christian life. Helvidius proceeded upon the assumption that Mary, subse­quent to the virgin birth of Jesus, bore several children in wedlock with Joseph, citing Matt. i. 18, i. 25; Luke ii. 7. Jerome undertook to refute him and at the same time make propaganda for monas­ticism. Jerome's objections are purely sophistical. He argues that from the expression " before they came together " (Matt. i. 18) it can not be inferred that there was afterward an actual estate of conju­gal cohabitation between them, that the expression " firstborn son " (Luke ii. 7), according to Old Testa­ment phraseology, only indicated what ",openeth the womb," and by no means referred to younger brothers or sisters of Jesus, and that the breth­ren of the Lord were not literal brothers, but only cousins. Jerome also advocates the perpetual vir­ginity of Joseph, because the virgin's son was to issue from a virginal marriage. Augustine enu­merates the Helvidiani, or followers of Helvidius, in his catalogue of heretics. The views of Helvidius were shared by Bonosus (see BONosua AND THE


BIBLIOanwPBP: The contemporary source of information is Jerome's tract De perpetua virpinitate beater Marion ad­versus Helvidium, in MPL xxxiii., Eng. tranel. in NPNF, 2d ser., vi, 334 sqq. Other early sources are Augustine, Har., chap. lxxxiv., in MPL, xlii.; Gennadiue, De vir. ill., chaP. xx fi., in MPL, (viii. Consult C. W. F. Walch, Hiatorie der %taereien, iii. 577 598, Leipsie, 1785; 0. Z6okler, Hieronymus, pp. 94 eqq„ Goths, 1885; W. Hal­ler, Tovinianue, in TU xvii (1897), 152 eqq.; DCB, ii. 892; cf. Ceillier, Auteura aacr&, vii. 595, 884, viii. 46, 47.

HELYOT, 6"V8', PIERRE (or HIPPOLYTE; the latter his monastic name): French Franciscan; b. at Paris 1660; d. there Jan. 5, 1716. At the age of twenty three he entered the Third Order of St. Francis (Congregation of Picpus), whose most note­worthy author he became. His fame was gained

not so much through his edifying writings, such as

his Le ChrOffien mourant (Paris, 1695), as through his

Hiatoire des ordres monastiquea, religieux et militairea

et des congr6gatzona a& uli&es de Pun et de 1'autre

aexe, qui ont M dtablies jusqu'au prEsent (8 vole.,

Paris, 1714 19); to this he devoted a quarter of

a century, and it was completed after his death by

Maximilien Ballot, a member of the same order.

It went through repeated editions in France (1721,

1792,1838), and formed the basis of M. L. Badiche'a

Dietiannaire des ordres religiettx, published as part

of Migne's E»ayclap6die th6ologique (4 vole., Paris,

1858). It was translated into Italian by Fontana

(Laces, 1737), and into German anonymously (8

vole., Leipsic, 1753 56), and likewise formed the

basis of several imitations and abbreviations. Such

modern handbooks as J. Fehr's German revision of

M. R. A. Henrion's Histoire des ordres religieuz

(Brussels, 1838) under the title of Geachichle der

M6nchsorden (2 voLs., Tiibingen, 1845) or M. Heim­

bueher's Orders and Kongregationen der lcatholischen

%irche (2 vole., Paderborn, 1896 97) are more or

less dependent on Helyot's work, which, despite

its occasional lack of critical insight, is a product of

laudable diligence. (O. Zrscr

BrsLxOaewPar: H. Hurter, Nomencldtot literarius recen­timia theolopia catJwiica, ii. 838 837, Innsbruck, 1881; Helmbucher, Order and %nprepationen, i. 22, 370; RL, vi. 17590.


ess; b. at Liverpool Sept. 25, 1793; d. at Dublin

May 16, 1835. She was the daughter of George

Browns, a merchant of Liverpool, who removed

to North Wales in 1800. She received her educa­

tion under her mother's care, and early began

'writing verse, publishing her first volume in 1808.

In 1812 she married Captain Alfred Hemans, an

Irish gentleman who had served in Spain; but she

separated from him in 1818, after the birth of her

fifth son, and never saw him again. In 1828 she

removed from North Wales to Liverpool, and in

1831 she went to Dublin to live. While lacking in

depth, her poetry is marked by a certain pleasing

sweetness and naturalness, which is particularly

noticeable in some of her best lyrics, e.g., The Graves

of a Household, The Treasures of the Deep, and The

Homes of England. As a hymn writer she occupies

a subordinate position. Perhaps her best known

hymn is Calm on the bosom of thy God. She pub­

lished some twenty volumes of verse, the most im­

portant being The Forest Sanctuary (London, 1825);

Records o f Women (1828); Songs o f the Affections

(Edinburgh, 1830); Hymns for Childhood (Dublin,

1834); National Lyrics and Songs for Music (1834);

and Scenes and Hymns of Life (Edinburgh, 1834).

Her works were edited, with a Memoir by her sister

Mrs. Hughes (7 vole., London, 1839), also her

Poetical Works, with a Memoir, by W. M. Roaetti

(ib. 1873).

Baraooawrax: Besides the Memoirs in the collections, ut sup., consult: H. F. Chorley, Memorials of Mrs. Hemana, 2 vole., London 1838; idem The Authors of England, ib. 1838; Mrs. R. Lawrence, The Last Autumn at a Favorite Residence, Liverpool, 1838; DNB, aav. 352 383; Julian, Hymnology. PP. b09 510.

HEMERLI (not HEMMERLIIP), FELIX: Swiss canonist, an advocate of reform in the Church; b.



at Zurich probably Sept. 11, 1388; d. at Lucerne

before 1464. He descended from an old and well­

to do family, and in 1406 was matriculated at the

University of Erfurt. Soon afterward, in 1408 or

earlier, he appeared in Bologna, where he seems to

have remained until 1412. In the beginning of that

year he was chosen canon of the chapter of St.

Felix and Regula in Zurich. In 1413 he was

matriculated a second time in Erfurt, remaining

there until he obtained the degree of bachelor from

the faculty of canon law, probably in 1418. He was

present at the Council of Constance. Probably at

the end of 1421 he became provost of St. Ursus at

Soleure and began his activity there with necessary

reforms. In 1423 he reentered the University of

Bologna to complete his studies, and associated with

Johannes Andreas de Calderinis, and famous canon­

ists like Petrus Aristotiles, Salicetus, Antonius de

Albergatis; and Lamola. In 1424 he was made

doctor of canon law. He was in Zurich from 1427

till 1454, and in 1428 became cantor of the cathedral.

In 1429 he appears also as canon of St. Maurice in

Zofingen. He quarreled with his chapter, and many

censures, both just and unjust, were hurled at him.

Even his life was in danger. After the citizens of

Zurich had concluded peace with the confederates,

they invited the latter to a great festival in the

middle of Feb., 1454. On this occasion, probably

at the instigation of Gundolfinger, vicar of the

cathedral church in Constance, whom Hemerli had

provoked, the confederates captured the canon and

delivered him over to Gundolfinger, who im­

prisoned him in the castle of Gottlieben, and

later in Meraburg. Then he was handed over to

the people of Lucerne, who imprisoned him in a

tower, and afterward in the Franciscan monastery

where he died.

Hemerli fought with much courage against the

ignorance, stupidity, and immorality of the clergy,

not halting before the highest authorities of the

Church. He attacked the abuses of the Church,

and wrote against the Lollards and mendicant

friars, establishing his literary fame by a treatise,

Contra validos mendicdntes (1438), which was edited

later in German by Nicholas of Wyle under the title

Von den ver»a6genden Bettlem (possibly in Transla­

tion oder Tutschungen etlicher Bilcher, Esslingen,

1478 ?, Augsburg, 1536). In De libertate ecclesi­

astics he approved the efforts of the Council of

Basel to abolish the celibacy of the clergy. Of his

legal works may be mentioned Tractatus de matri.­

monio, De emptione et venditione unius pro viginti,

and Processes judiciaries. His principal work is his

great political Dialogus de nobilitate, in which he

vehemently attacked the enemies of his native city,

the people of the canton of Schwyz. In 1452 he

wrote the story of his sufferings in his Passionale.

During his captivity he wrote Registrum qeerele,

a solemn assertion of his innocence and a vehement

accusation against Gundolfinger, and a Dialogea

de consolations inique suppressorum. Most of his

writings were first edited by Sebastian Brant in 1497

(Basel). They were nearly all merely occasional

tracts, lack breadth of view, profundity, and con­

sistency, and aim at sensational effect, with a

predilection for scandalous stories. Therefore

Hemerli's admonitions had little influence toward promoting a real reformation. (A. SCnNEIDER.)

BIBwoaRAPHy: B. Reber, Felix Hemmerlin von Zfamich, Zurich, 1846; F. Fials, Dr. Felix Hemmerlin ale Probet doe 3. Uraendiftes au Solothurn, Soleure, 1857; J. J. V6geli, Zum Veratdndnia van . . . Hrimmerlis Schritten, Zurich, 1873; O. Lorenz, DGQ, i. 78, 119 121, ii. 405, Berlin, 1886; A. Schneider, Der Zttrcher %anonikua and Kantor Magiater Felix Hemmerlin, Zurich, 1888.

HEMMINGGSEN, NIELS (Nicolaus Heinmingii): Danish theologian; b. at Erindlev, island of Lolland, Denmark, June 4, 1513; d. at Roskilde, Zealand, May 23, 1600. He studied under the humanist Niels Black at Roskilde, and at the age of twenty­four went to Wittenberg, where he was graduated B.D., and became a devoted follower of Melanch­thon. In 1542 he returned to Denmark, and was appointed privat docent at the University of Copen­hagen; in 1543 he became instructor in Greek, and in 1545 lecturer in Hebrew and professor of dia­lectics; in 1553 he was appointed professor of theology.

In 1555 he published his De methodis, the second volume of which treats of hermeneutics and rhetoric. His Enchirldion theologicum appeared in 1557, and became popular in Denmark and abroad as a hand­book of dogmatics and ethics. He was a pro­nounced adherent of Melanchthon, and he considers his own work merely an aid to the deeper under­standing of Melauchthon's opus sacrosanetum. His Enchiridion consists of four parts, the first treating of the covenant of grace and the kingdom of Christ; the second, of man's duties toward God, dwelling especially on the ten commandments; the third, of the three articles of faith, the Lord's Prayer, and the importance of traditional teachings; and the fourth, of the public and private duties of a Christian. Of still greater importance from an ethical point of view is his De loge naturm apodictica methodes (Witten­berg, 1562).

When the waves of Crypto Calvinism reached Denmark Hemmingsen was called upon to defend the Lutheran conception of the Lord's Supper, which he did in his Tavle om Herrens Nadvere (" Table of the Lord's Supper "); in consequence of this he came to be regarded as the foremost theologian in Denmark. In 1569 he was entrusted with the task of drafting the twenty five articles of religion to which every foreigner who settled in Denmark had to conform; and in the following year he published his Livsens Vej (" The Path of Life "), a compendium of the teachings he himself followed during his long nareer.

When at the very summit of his greatness Hem­mingsen published (1572 and 1574) certain writings which displayed a leaning toward Crypto Calvinism, and King Frederick II. forbade him to engage in any disputations concerning the Lord's Supper. Repeated accusations on the part of the duke and duchess of Saxony, who were related to the king, compelled Frederick II. further to demand that he renounce his Crypto Calvinistic tendencies alto­gether; and he had to retract his utterances publicly. The accusations continued;' and the king finally deposed Hemmingsen. On July 29, 1579, he was dismissed from his professorship, and ordered to leave Copenhagen. He went to Roskilde, where for



twenty years he occupied himself with studies,

officiating also as protector of the cathedral there.

Upon the death of Frederick II. he again ventured

to publish his writings, and his commentary on the

Gospel of St. John, accompanied by a Tractatus

de gratis universali (Copenhagen, 1591), showed

that he was no adherent of Calvin as far as the

latter's teachings of predestination were concerned.

In 1599, however, he wrote some Spbrgsmaal

og Svar om Alterens Sakramente (" Questions and

Answers concerning the Lord's Supper "), which

proved that his conceptions of the Lord's Supper

were more Calvinistic than Lutheran.


BIHwOGBAPnr7: E. Pontokopidan AnnaUs eodesim

Danie~. vol. iii., Copenhagen, 1747; H. Roerdam, %i~= Unioeraiteta Historie 165'7 1621, ii. 425 sqq., ib. 1869 sqq.; J. H. Paulli, Niels Hemmingsem Pastoradtheolopie, ib. 1851.


b. at Chester, S. C., April 18, 1852. He was edu­

cated at the University of South Carolina, the Uni­

versity of Virginia (B.A., 1871), and the Presby­

terian Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C.

(1874). He was tutor in Hebrew there (1874 78),

fellow in Greek at Johns Hopkins University (1878­

1879), professor of Greek and Latin at South­

western Presbyterian University, Clarksville, Tenn.

(1879 82), and professor of Biblical literature in

Columbia Seminary (1882f 85). He was pastor of

the Second Presbyterian Church at Louisville, Ky.

(1885 99), and from 1893 to the present time he has

held a professorship in the Louisville Presbyterian

(now Kentucky Presbyterian) Theological Semi­

nary. He contributed to Moses and His Recent

Critics (New York, 1889) the essay entitled Validity

and Bearing o f the Testimony o f Christ and His

Apostles to the Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch.

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