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HEDWIG, h6d'vig, SAINT: Duchess and patron saint of Silesia; b. at the castle of Andechs (22 m. s.w. of Munich) c. 1174; d. at Trebnitz (15 m. n.n.e. of Breslau), Silesia, Oct. 13 (15 ?), 1243. She was the daughter of Berthold, count of Andechs and duke of Meran (Dalmatia). Of her sisters, Gertrude became. the wife of Andrew, king of Hungary, and the mother of St. Elizabeth (q.v.), while Agnes was given in marriage to Philip Au­gustus of France, a marriage subsequently annulled by Pope Innocent III. At the age of twelve Hed­wig was married to Henry I. of Silesia, who followed his father on the ducal throne in 1202. Henry, a mighty warrior, made his duchy independent and extended his boundaries by conquests in Upper Silesia, Poland, and the modern Galicia. Under the influence largely of his German wife he opened his territories to the Teutonic culture and fostered especially the spread of religious institutions. In 1203 nuns from Bamberg were transplanted to Treb­nitz, in 1210 the Augustinian canons were estab­lished at Kamentz, and in 1222 a Cistercian founda­tion was begun at Heinrichau; the Franciscans were summoned by Hedwig to Goldberg and Krossen, and the Dominicans established themselves in Breslau and other places. Hedwig bore her hus­band six children, of whom the eldest son, Henry, succeeded his father in the duchy in 1238, and perished at Wahlstatt in battle against the Mongols in 1241. In 1209 Hedwig retired to the convent at Trebnitz, where she passed more than thirty years in rigorous asceticism and the practise of charity, departing only in 1227 to tend her husband in grievous illness, and again in 1229 when she secured the release of her husband from the hands of Conrad of Masovia. Hedwig was buried in the convent church at Trebnitz, which speedily became a popular place of devotion owing to the wide fame and love which her benefactions had brought her. She was canonized by Clement IV. in Mar., 1267, and the fifteenth of October was made her festival day. In 1268 her bones were translated to a chapel expressly erected near the convent church of Treb­nitz, where her skull was shown for a long time as a venerated relic to Silesian and Polish pilgrims. The monastic chronicles of the life of St. Hedwig, while revealing the usual workings of the monkish imagination, nevertheless outline a life of extreme devotion and wide spread charity. [To be dis­tinguished from St. Hedwig is Hedwig (d. at Cracow, 1399), daughter of Louis, king of Hungary and Poland, who succeeded her father on the throne of Poland in 1384. In 1386 she married Jagello, grand duke of Lithuania, and had a prom­inent part in the conversion of that land.]


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The early anonymous life, written at the end of the thirteenth century, with commentary, is in ASH, Oct., viii. 198 270. Consult: A. Knoblich, .Lebena­gesclsi" der Landespa&onin Schtesiena, der hziligen Red­wig, Breslau, 1860; F. .X. Gbrlieh, Das Leben der heUigen Hedwig, ib. 1854; C. Grundhagen, Bedtrdge zur Geeckichte der Hedwigslegenden, ib. 1863; further literature in Pott­hast, Wegweiaer, pp. 1362 83.
HEERBRAND, hAr'brdnt, JACOB: German Prot­estant theologian; b. at Giengen (26 m. e.s.e. of Stuttgart), Swabia, Aug. 12, 1521; d. at Tubingen

May 22, 1600. He was educated at the school at Ulm, and at the universities of Wittenberg (M.A., 1543) and Tiibingen (D.Theol., 1550). He con­sidered it the greatest fortune of his life to have been for five years (1538 13) the pupil of Luther and Melanehthon (Oratio funebris in obitum P. Mel­anthonis, iv.). The Wittenberg student wit styled the diligent scholar the Swabian night owl. In 1543 he entered the service of the Wurttemberg Church and accepted a diaconate at Tiibingen, in order to continue his studies. For refusing to accept the Interim he was removed from his office, along with Erhard Schnepf (q.v.), on Nov. 11, 1548, but remained in Tiibingen to study Hebrew under Oswald Schreckenfuchs, in company with Jakob Andreg. On Feb. 11, 1551, he became pastor at Herrenberg, near Ehingen, where Johann Brenz was then sojourning. In June, 1551, Heerbrand, with the most eminent theologians of the country, subscribed to the Confessio Wirtembergica, and in Mar., 1552, with Brenz and Jakob Beurlin (qq.v.), he was sent to defend it at the Council of Trent. Heerbrand eagerly cooperated with the Swabians in their efforts to allay the Osiandrian controversies (1552 53), and in May, 1554, he was sent to a con­ference of theologians at Naumburg. On the invi­tation of the margrave of Baden Pforzheim he went to Pforzheim in Sept., 1556, as pastor and director of the State Church, which had just been reformed on the basis of the W urttemberg agenda. In Sept., 1557, he returned to Tiibingen as professor of the­ology, a position which he retained for forty years, being the last pupil of the Wittenberg Reform­ers to occupy this chair. He was at the same time superintendent of the stipendium, and eight times rector of the university. In 1590 he succeeded Andre& as chancellor of the university and provost of the cathedral church. He was a frequent festival orator at great academic ceremonies e.g., at the memorial service in honor of Melanchthon in 1560, and at the university jubilee in 1578. On Jan. 5, 1599, he resigned his offices because of infirmity.

Heerbrand's sermons are distinguished by con­formity to Scripture, lucid arrangement, and power­ful, often vernacular, expression. As a dogmatician he exerted a wide influence through his disputa­tions and through his extensively circulated Compendium theologize methodi quutesstionibus tractatum (Tubingen, 1573, and often), which recommended itself by its luminous exposition, scholarly treat­ment, and moderation. During the negotiations of the Tubingen theologians with the Patriarch Jere­miah of Constantinople, it was translated by Martin Crusius into Greek, and sent to Constantinople, Alexandria, Greece, and Asia. Heerbrand evinced remarkable literary activity in the contest with the Roman Catholic theologians; with the Dominician Peter a Soto, in vindication of the Confessio Wirtem­bergica in 1561, with Melchior Zanger, of Ehingen­Rottenburg, with E. Gotthard of Passau, with J. B. Fickler of Salzburg, with Wilhelm Lindanus, bishop of Ruremond, with the Polish Stanislas Socolocius, with the Freiburg professors F. Lorichius and Mi­chael Hager, and especially with the Jesuits Hein­rich Blissemius of Prague and GrAtZ, Gregory of Valencia at Ingolstadt, Sigmund Ernhofer of


Vienna, and Georg Scherer of Gr$tz. Heerbrand

showed conclusively that the ultimate aim of the

Jesuit party's literary activity was calumny of Prot­

estantism, adulation of Roman Catholic princes,

and subversion of religious peace (Refutatio crassis­

simorum errorum, ii. 17; Apologia explicationis,

p. 55). G. BOssERT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: There is no extended biography. Consult: Melchior Adam, Vitro Germanorum eheoloporum pp  W sqq., Heidelberg, 1620 K. WeiaeAckei, Lehrer 'und Un­terrrocht an der evangelisden theologischen PakulM der Uni• roereitat Tibingen, pp. 19 eqq., Tabingen, 1877; J. Loserth. Die Reformation and Gegeweformation in den innerti8terei­chischen Ldndern, Stuttgart, 1898. On the Compendium consult: G. C. Storr, De compendiie theologici dogmatic, Tubingen, 1795; W. Gass, Gaschiehte der protsetantischen Dotmaatik, i. 77, Berlin, 1854; H. L. J. Heppe, Dogmattk des deutschsn Protsstantismw, i. 123 eqq., Marburg, 1856; G. Frank, Gesrhichte der protestantUchen Theolopis, i. 244, Leipsic, 1882.

HEERMANN, JOHANN: German Evangelical preacher, poet, and author of religious tracts; b. at Raudten (43 m. n.w. of Breslau), Lower Silesia, Oct. 11, 1585; d. at Lissa (42 m. s.s.W. Of Posen), Poland, Feb. 27, 1647. He studied in his native town as well as at Fraustadt, Breslau, and Brieg, where he supported himself by coaching young noblemen. In 1609 he entered the University of Strasburg, but in 1610 he returned to his home, and in the following year was appointed pastor at Ksben. His ill health, combined with domestic trouble and the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War, forced him to resign his pastorate in 1638, whereupon he took up his residence in Lissa, and devoted himself to liter­ary pursuits. As early as his student days at Brieg he had essayed German and Latin poetry with con­siderable success; and in 1624 he published &volume of Latin poems entitled Epigrammatum lZelli novem, a book which is still of value as containing data for the history of his life. Some of these Latin verses were translated into German by Tobias Petermann, and published under the title Geistliche Buhlscha ft (1651). As a German poet Heermann belonged to the school of Martin Opitz, and he was one of the first to apply the latter's system of versification. He marks the transition from the objective hymns of the Reformation to the subjectivity of the Pietists, and is the best religious poet between Luther and Paul Gerhardt. His most important hymn collections are: Das Schluss Glocklein (1616); Exercitium pietatis (1630); and Devota musica cordis (1630), which appeared in several editions. His fame as a writer of religious tracts is based on his publications Of passion sermons, such as the Crux Christi (1618) and the Heptalogus Christi (1619); and of funeral sermons, such as Christiante ewavaaias status (1620), and Schola mortis (1628). He also wrote Predigten fiber die Sonn  and Festtags Evan­gelien (1624), and was the author of Presceptorum moralium et sentendiartem libri tres (1644), and of the posthumous Erquickstunden (1656).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Waekernagel, J Heermanns geisaiche Lieder, Stuttgart, 1856; K. F. Ledderhose, Dag Leben J. Heermanns, Heidelberg, 1876; K. Goedeke, Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutsden DichtuW, iii. 166 sqq.. Dresden, 1886.

HEFELE, h6'fe le, KARL JOSEPH: German Roman Catholic prelate and ecclesiastical historian;

b. at Unterkochen (45 m. e. of Stuttgart), Wiirt­temherg, Mar. 15, 1809; d. at Rottenburg (25 m. s.w. of Stuttgart), Wiirttemberg, Early Life June 5, 1893. From 1827 to 1832 and Liter  he studied at Tiibingen, and then for ary Work. a year, at the clerical seminary of Rot­tenburg, being ordained priest Aug.10, 1833. After holding certain minor posts, he was called, when M6hler went to Munich, to teach church history at Tilbingen (as privat docent 1836, adjunct professor 1837, and professor 1840). His theological education fell in the period of the renaissance of Roman Catholic learning in Germany, when the influence of the eighteenth century philosophy was passing away and being replaced by a generous rivalry between Catholics and Protestants to make the most of their respective doctrines, and, on the Catholic side, to look more deeply into the per­manently valuable treasures of the past. Drey and Hirscher were among his teachers; but he owed most to MOhler, who gave him his impulse toward historical work. His first literary work consisted of reviews in the Theologische Quartalschrift from 1834 on, which show his conception of the unity of church history as the development of God's great plan for the world. His first substantive work was a history of the introduction of Christianity into southwestern Germany (Tilbingen, 1837). His edition of the Apostolic Fathers with introduction and notes (1839; revised and improved eds. 1842, 1847, 1855) was a meritorious work. That of the Epistle of Barnabas (1840) led the way to a more correct appreciation of this ancient document, which Hefele ascribed, not to the apostle, but to the first decades of the second century. The new school of Roman Catholic historians founded by M6hler had set out to vindicate the claims of their Church against both philosophers and Protestants; and Hefele labored zealously at this task in his occasional articles, as well as in his monograph on Cardinal Ximenes (1844). Following Ranks and Leo, he emphasized the secular character of the Spanish Inquisition, without sufficient regard to its fatal influence on the political and spiritual develop­ment of Spain, displaying a good deal of partizan zeal. He took a brief part in political action as a member of the Wiirttemberg House of Deputies from 1842 to 1845 years of conflict, in which a church party made its first efforts to vindicate ecclesiastical liberty against a government which disregarded it. But another way of defending the Church was more in harmony with his nature. He brought up generations of students in his view of the Church, its unity, its past, and its connection between head and members. He was an admirable teacher, attracting students to him by clearness, freshness, and definiteness, as well as by a kindly willingness to be helpful, and he was highly es­teemed by his colleagues. Meantime his literary activity was uninterrupted. To the Theologische Qtuartalschrift, of which he was one of the editors from 1839, and to the Neue Si,,, he contributed a variety of articles, some of which he worked Over for his Beitruge zur Kirchengeschichte, Ar­chaolOgie and Liturgik (2 vols., 1864).

But all his other work yields precedence to



his magnum opus, the Concaiengeschichte, the fruit

of years of study (7 vole., Freiburg, 185: 74,

2d ed., vole. i. vi., viii. ix., 1873 90; Eng. transl.

of vols. i., ii., and part of iii. to the Second

Council of Nicma, 787 by W. R. Clark, 5 vols.,

Edinburgh, 1883 96). The contents of the work

are as follows: Vol. i. goes to the Synod of Gan­

gra; ii., from 381 to the year 553; iii., to the year

813; iv., to 1073; v., to the year 1250; vi., to the

year 1409; viii., from 1434 to 1520; ix., to

the year 1536. It is universally admired for

the breadth of its survey of the field, and for

the relatively complete use of its material and

unprejudiced historical attitude. The work, of

course, is not everywhere based on

The the same thorough critical examma^

Concilien  tion, and has in places already be­

geschichte. come antiquated. But it marks a

new stage in the study of conciliar

action, which in Hefele's hands broadened out into

a history of the Church and of the development of


The book placed him in the first rank of Roman

Catholic scholars, and in 1868 won him a place as

consultor on the commission to arrange for the ap­

proaching Vatican Council. He spent a part of

1869 in Rome on this business, and

The returned thither the next year to take

Vatican part in the council as bishop of Rotten­

Council. burg. On his arrival in Rome, he at

once took ,a prominent place as a leader

of the antiinfallibilist minority. His solid learning

and his courage did much to hold them together,

and he took part in all their important moves, sup­

porting them also by a small book on the question

of Honorius published in Naples. It discussed the

questions whether Honorius (q.v.) had declared as

de fide a heretical proposition ex cathedra, and

whether a general council, claiming the right to

judge him, had condemned him as a heretic. It

attracted great attention, and greatly displeased

the majority, calling forth several counterblasts.

In the debate of May 17 Hefele delivered an im­

pressive speech, voted non placet in the decisive

session of July 13, and supported Haynald's pro­

posal at a meeting of the minority on the 17th to

repeat this vote in the public session of the following

day; when this fell through, he signed the solemn

protest of the minority to the pope, and left Rome

before the final vote was taken. The neat few

months were full of doubt and difficulty for him.

He had at first decided not to proclaim the new

dogma in his diocese; but at last, after giving up

hope of concerted action on the part of the bishops

in the minority, and under pressure from the nuncio

at Munich and the Ultramontane party in his

diocese, he published it on Apr. 10, 1871. He

explained his position clearly, saying that he did

not regret the stand he had taken at the Council,

and expressing a hope that future conciliar treat­

ment of the parts of the program left unfinished

might remove the misgivings which had forced him

to take it. On the ground that an authoritative

exposition of the definition was still lacking, he

gave one of his own which softened it as much as

possible. His submission was received with bitter

reproaches by the Old Catholics and by others, and unworthy motives were freely imputed. But there is no doubt that it was only the logical outcome of a life devoted to maintaining the unity of the Church, to which he felt bound to bring even this costly sacrifice. His remaining years were spent in untiring work in his diocese, to which he had restored peace by his decision. This left him little time for writing, though he succeeded in completing the revision of the first four volumes for the new edition of his great work, which was completed by the addition of two more volumes by Cardinal Hergenr6ther. He left behind him in WOrttemberg the memory of an unselfish, lovable personality, revered far beyond the bounds of his own Church.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: No complete biography has yet appeared.

Consult A. Werfer, in Deutachlande Episkopat in Lebene­bildern, iv. 2, W9rzburg, 1875; Funk, in TQS, laavi. 1 aqq. ; Deutachea Volkeblatt, 1893, nos. 127 129 ; and Gran Gott, vol. a., nos. 4 6. Other phases of Hefele's activities are discussed in: J. Friedrich, tieachichte des vatikaniechen %onzile, vol. i iii., part 2, Bonn, 1877 97; H. Roth, Dr. K. J. von He/ele, 1894.

HEGEL, h6'ge1, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH: German philosopher; b. at Stuttgart Aug. 27, 1770;

d. in Berlin Nov. 14, 1831. He studied Life. philosophy and theology at Ttbingen 1788 93, and lived as a private tutor, first at Bern 1793 96, then at Frankfort 1797 1801. In 1801 he settled at Jena as lecturer on philosophy in the university, and Schelling's coeditor of the Kritisches Journal der Philosophie. He was at that time fully agreed with Schelling (q.v.); and their journal, of which he wrote the larger part, was the organ of the system of identity a philosophy which attempted to represent matter and mind, nature and spirit, world and God, as identical. How­ever, this alliance did not last long, and after Schelling's departure for W iirzburg in 1803 it turned into philosophical antagonism. After the battle of Jena (1806), Hegel removed to Bamberg, where for some time he edited the Bamberger Zeitung. From 1808 to 1816 he was rector of the Aegidien gymna­sium at Nuremberg. In the latter year he was appointed professor of philosophy at Heidelberg; and in 1818 he was called to Fichte's chair at the University of Berlin. It was here that he made himself the dominant figure in the philosophical world, and established the school of philosophy known as Hegelianism. By his defense of eating political institutions he attained to great political influence in Prussia.

The impression which Hegel made in Germany was at one time almost overpowering. His philoso 

phy swept away all other philosophies, Philosophy. and before he died it began to make

itself felt as an actual power both in State and Church. However, four years after his death a controversy was raised among his followers by Strauss's Leben Jesu (Tabingen, 1835), and fur­ther embittered by Strauss's Christliche Glattbens­lehre (1840), with the result that the Hegelian school was divided into three groups, called the right, the left, and the center. The adherents of the right (G. A. Gabler, H. T. W. Hinrichs, K. T. Goschel) repre­sented supernaturalism; those of the left (Strauss,


Ludwig Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer) naturalism; while those of the center (J. K. Rosenkranz, J. E. Erdman, W. Vatke) represented a mediating tendency. The basis of the division was the ambi­guity in Hegel's philosophy, and the apparent con­tradiction between his personal religious belief and his system of pantheism (see PANTHEISM, § 7; and IDEALISM, II., § 16). Hegel's pantheism (he avoided the word) was idealistic; and he called his phi­losophy .the system of the Absolute Idea. Since existence is rational, logic becomes metaphysics; and his philosophy is, therefore, a system of logic interpreted ontologically. He employs the dialectic method, and proceeds from thesis through antithesis to synthesis, from the positive through the negative to the absolute. The intuitional knowledge of the absolute spirit is at the same time the highest form of truth and the highest form of existence.

Religion Hegel defines as truth, but in the lowest form in which truth can be held by the human mind.

In Christianity this form of truth has Religious found its highest, its absolute expres 

Views. sion, having passed through the stages

of one sided objectivity and one sided

subjectivity in the ante Christian religions. On the

first stage God is considered an object, a part of

nature, a natural being (Lamaism, Buddhism, Brah­

manism); on the second he is considered as subject,

wholly distinguished from nature (Judaism, Greek

and Roman polytheism); but only in Christianity

does he become true spirit. The Hegelian idea, how­

ever, of God as spirit, is somewhat ambiguous (for

instance, with respect to the question of person­

ality); and the specially Christian question, whether

the appearance of Christ in the history of mankind

is a natural event to be explained like any other

event, or whether it is a miracle, the divine incarna­

tion by which creation is saved, is left unanswered.

Both views have been developed from Hegelian

premises; and the great boast of Hegel's earliest

pupils, that in his philosophy faith and science had

become fully reconciled, proved empty as soon as the

actual application began. It is a very characteristic

circumstance that his Philosophy of Religion was

edited by Marheineke as evidence of the author's

conservative orthodoxy, and then by Bruno Bauer

as proof of his revolutionary radicalism.

In Germany, where Hegel's influence has long since waned, there are now few thinkers who could

be called Hegelians. Perhaps the best Works late representatives of Hegelianism in and Germany are Kuno Fischer and Adolf

Influence. Lasson. It may be said that Hegel

was first introduced to English read­ers by Hutchison Stirling, in Ids Secret of Hegel (London, 1865; 3d ed., 1898). Since then the number of English and American thinkers who fol­low Hegel more or less closely has grown, until now the so called neo Hegelian school is practically dominant.

Hegel's principal works are: Die Pltdnnorneno­logie des Geistes (Bamberg, 1807; Eng. transl. by W. T. Harris, in Journal of Speculative Philosophy, vol. ii., 1868); Die Wissensehaft der Logik (2 vols. in 3, Nuremberg, 1812 16; Eng. tranal. The Subjec­tive Logic of Hegel, London, 1855; Eneyclopddie der



philosophischen Wissenschaften (Heidelberg, 1817),

which is the systematic presentation of Hegel's sys­

tem; Grundlinien der Philosophic des Reehts (Berlin,

1821; Eng. tranal., Philosophy of Right, London,

1896); and his lectures included in his Werke (18

vols., Berlin, 1832 1840), from which have been

translated Lectures on the Philosophy o f History,

(3 vols., London, 1895), Lectures on the History

of Philosophy (3 vols., 1892 1896), and Lectures

on the Philosophy o f Religion (3 vols., 1895). From

Hegel's Encyclopddie W. Wallace has translated

Logic (Oxford, 1874; enlarged ed., 2 vols., 1892­

1894) and Philosophy o f Mind (1894). His literary

remains are to be published by the Soci6tk des

amis de 1'Universitk de Paris; vol. i., the Vie de

Jesus, ed. P. Roques, appeared Jena, 1906, and

his Theologische Jugendachriften, ed. H. Nohl, Til­

bingen, 1907.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Rosenkranz, G. W. F. Hegela Leben, Berlin, 1844; R. R. Ham Hegel and seine Zeit, Berlin, 1857; E. Caird, Hegel, Edinburgh, 1901. On Hegel's philosophy consult: K. P. Fischer, Speculative Character­istik and Kritik des hepeiachen Systems, Erlangen, 1845; C. von Orelli, Spinoza's Leben and Lehre, nebat einem Abrias der . . . hegelachen Philosophic, Aarau, 1850; T. C. Sandars, Hegel's Philosophy of Right, London, 1855; A. Vdra, L'HEuglianiane et la philosophic, Paris, 1861; idem, Introduction d la philosophic de HEpel, ib. 1865; K. Rosenkranz, Hegel ala deutscher Nat onalphilosoph, Leipsic, 1870; W. Graham, Idealism, London, 1872 (re­lates Berkeley and Hegel); C. Herrmann, Hegel and die logische Frape der Philoaophie in der Gepenwart, Leipsic, 1878; A. Beth, The Development from Kant to Hegel, Lon­don, 1882; idem, Hepelianiem and Personality, Edinburgh, 1893; J. s. Kedney, Hegel's ffsthetice, Chicago, 1885; G. s. Morris, Hegel's Philosophy of the State and of History, ib. 1887; P. Barth, Die Geschichtsphilosophie Hepela and der Hepelianer bie auf Marx and Hartmann, Leiprie, 1890; W. T. Harris, Hegel's Logic, Chicago, 1890; idem, Hepel's Doctrine of Reftection, New York, 1891; B. C. Burt, Hegel's Theory of Right, Duties and Religion, Ann Harbor, 1893; D. G. Ritchie, Darwin and Hegel, London, 1894; W. Wallace, Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel's Philoso­phy, Oxford, 1894; F. L. Luqueer, Hegel as Educator. New York, 1896; R. Eucken, in The Monist, vii (1897), 321 339; J. B. Baillie, Hegel's Logic, London, 1901; Kuno Fischer, Hepele Leben, Werke and Lahre, 2 vole., Heidel­berg, 1901; J. E. MeTaggart, Studies in Hegelian Cosmology, Cambridge, 1901; J. G. Hibben, Hegel's Logic, New York, 1902; R. Mackintosh, Hegel and Hepelianiam, Edinburgh, 1903; and the works on the history of modern philosophy. An excellent bibliography may be found in J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, iii. 1, pp. 243 249. HEGESIPPUS, hej"e sip'pvs: An. ecclesiastical writer of the second century. As to his life little is known except what Eusebius tells. This in­cludes nothing as to his birth or place of residence, though Eusebius concludes from his writings that he was of Jewish origin; and an Oriental residence is indicated by his coming to Rome by sea and stopping at Corinth on the way. He is mentioned under Hadrian as, with Justin, a prominent cham­pion of the faith against the rising Gnosticism. Giving the list of bishops of Rome under Antoni­nus Pius, Eusebius remarks that Hegesippus ac­cording to his own account was in Rome under Anicetus and remained there until the episcopate of Eleutherus (Hilt. eccl., IV., xi. 7); but this is ar• error, for in chap. xxii. he quotes the passage of Hegesippus, which proves only that he lived to the time of Eleutherus, not that he stayed in Rome that long. Under Marcus Aurelius he is named once more at the head of the contemporary ortho 



dox writers; and the Chronicon Pasehale asserts that he died under Commodus.

Eusebius quotes him frequently as a witness of the true faith, and always from one work, known as Upomnematd, and composed of five books, writ­ten at different times and fused into unity in the course of their development. A careful examina­tion of what Eusebius tells of it and what he quotes from it leads to the conclusion that it was not a history in any strict sense of the word, but rather a historical apology, purporting to contain a true account of the traditions received from the apos­tles. It is evident that no regular historical order was observed from the fact that the story of the life and death of James was in the fifth book of the work, which contained plenty of material from the second century, and even past the middle of it. It is a free setting down of the writer's own reminiscences, following no definite order, though penetrated throughout by the same design and the same beliefs. The result, then, according to Euse­bius, is a series of narratives and pictures from church history, reaching from the apostle James to the pontificate of Eleutherus in Rome. They include the death of James; the choice of his suc­cessor Symeon; accounts of the insurgent leader Thebuthis and of the sons of David and kinsmen of Jesus in Galilee, with their fate under Domitian; the martyrdom of Symeon under Trajan; and in­formation about the Church of the period when Hegesippus wrote, especially in Corinth and Rome  the tradition of doctrine and the episcopate, ref­utation of heresies, and something about Jewish sects and Jewish Christian literature. What he tells of his own time has historical authority in the strict sense; his relation of .earlier events has con­ditional value as a sometimes obscure tradition, but substantive importance as reflecting the ideas entertained about that period in the middle of the second century. The purpose of his writing is clear enough. It is simply to demonstrate the unity of faith in the churches of the leading cities and their bishops, both past and present. The particular cause of his writing the work is the ex­istence of heresy, which he reprobates not only for its contradiction of the true doctrine, but for its external and  despicable origin. Its appearance on the scene seems to him so dangerous that conflict with it is not merely the purpose of his book, but the task of his life.

When it is remembered that the heresies of the time professed to be legitimate deductions from primitive Christianity, the full significance of the inquiries of Hegesippus into the state of the Church and its traditions in the different great cities is dis­cerned. The public, secure, historical tradition of the faith in the line of episcopal succession must serve to put out of court the claims of obscure, cryptic sects; and the imposing unity of the Church's faith as handed down from generation to generation will form a striking contrast to the va­ried line of heretics who follow each other through the years, alike only in being different. Among the early Jewish heretics are Thebuthis, Simon and his party, Cleobius, Dositheus, Gortbmus, and Mas­botheus. These form the first generation; in the

second appear the followers of Menandrianus, Marcion, Carpocrates, Valentinian, Basilides, 'and Saturnilus. In opposition to these stand out the person and the work of Hegesippus, important historically as a type, with the emphasis he lays upon the catholic unity of the churches, held fast by their tradition and their mutual relations, and of the episcopate, as all these things were in the middle of the second century.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A full list of literature is given by E. C.

Richardson, in ANB, Bibliographical Synopsis, pp. 111­112. The fragments are collected in M. J. Routh, in Re­liquia sacra, i. 203 284, Oxford, 1846; Eng. tranel. may be found in ANF viii. 762 765; ef. also D. Boor, in T U, v. 2, 1889. Consult: Jerome, De vir. ill., xxii.; Fabricius­Harlee, Bibliotheca Grdca vii. 158 160, Hamburg, 1801; J. Donaldson, History of Christian Literature, iii. 182 213, London, 1866; A. Hilgenfeld, in ZHT, xix (1876), 177­229; W. Sanday,. The Gospels in the Second Century, pp. 138 145, London, 1876; H. Dannreuther, Du Temoignage d'Hggtsippe Bur l'gglise chrctienne, Nantes, 1878; F. Over­beek Ueber die Anfdnge der Kirchengeechichtechreibung, pp. 6 13 17 22, Basel, 1892; Ceilfier, Auteure sacra, i. 330, 473 475 iii. 200; KrUger, History, pp. 145 146; Harnack LiUeratur, i. 144, 483 eqq., 845, II. i. 311 eqq.; Schaff, Christian Church, 742=744; DCB, ii. 875 878; KL, v. 1584 85; and in general the church histories on the period.

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