151 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA cooceins
a discussion on the beet means of opposing Luther. From this time he employed his pen for the cause of Romanism.
His one ambition was to meet Luther in a public disputation, and with the aid of Aleander he succeeded in being admitted to private negotiations with Luther. His polemical attacks and invectives overshot the mark oo that even the Roman Catholics disapproved of his actions. Though without friends or money; his zeal increased the more, and he never tired of fording ways to obstruct the cause of Luther. He even Controversy recommended the suppression of the with Luther. University of Wittenberg. In 1521 he offered his service to the pope, but nobody cared for him at Rome. It was not till 1522 that his fast treatise against Luther apneared De gratis aacramentorwn ltber unt6 Joannis Cochloi adversua aeaertionem M. Luthera (Strasburg). Luther replied with his Adveraua armatum virum Cocleum, which again was answered by Cochleeus in Adveraua cucullatum minotatcrum Wilcennbergenaem . . . . De aacrorurn gratis, iterum (1523).
In the autumn of 1523 he went to Rome as he did not feel himself safe at Frankfort, but returned early in 1524. Meanwhile his patrons and friends at Frankfort had joined the opposing party. Cochlaeue accompanied Campeggi, the papal nuncio, to the Convention of Regensburg as interpreter and member of the commission which discussed the reform of the clergy. His position at Frankfort becoming untenable, he fled to Cologne in 1525, and in 1526 received a canonry at St. Victor's in Mainz. He attended the Diet of Speyer in 1526, but his hope of holding a disputation with Luther was not fulfilled. Although Luther had ignored him after replying to his fast treatise, Cochlarus was indefatigable in writing polemical
Disappoint tracts against Luther and the Refor• ments of his oration. After the death of Hierony
Later Life. mus Emser in 1528 he went to Dresden as adviser and assistant of Duke George of Saxony in his literary feuds with Luther. He followed the duke to the Diet of Augsburg, and was one of the Roman' theologians commissioned to refute the Augsburg Confession. His attacks found little favor with the Romaniste, and Johann Eck became the chief author of the Confutatio. Cochls;m'a hope of receiving financial support from Rome proved illusory, and it became more and more difficult for him to get his numerous unsalable pamphlets printed. In 1534 or 1535 George of Saxony secured for him a canonry at Meissen. Subsequently he was provost of St. Severue at Erfurt until 1539. The death of George was a severe blow for him, and for the cause of Romaniem. As the progress of the Reformation in Saxony made it impossible for him to retain his eeclesisatical ofces, he accepted in 1539 a canonry from the cathedral chapter fn Breslau. King Fer dinand called him to the diets of Hagenau, Worms, and Regensburg, but here again he was ignored. He followed with zeal the preparations for the Council of Trent without being able to take part in it. He remained the same zealous champion of Roman Catholicism to the end, although he found
Cochlasus's Hietarid Humitarum libri xii. (Mainz, 1549) is still valuable, but the work which has made his name popular to the present is his history
of Luther, Commentaria de actia et
His Most scriptis Martini Lutheri Saxonia chroImportant nographiee ex ordine ab anno Domini Works. 1617 uaque ad annum. 161,6 inclusive
fAditer conscripts (Mainz, 1549). The
book became the model and source for many later
polemical productions, and the view expounded in
it that the whole Reformation was nothing but an
incidental jealousy between the Dominican and
Augustinian orders was believed even by intelli
gent men. (T. KOLDz.)
Btsraooasra:: U. de Weldige Cremsr, Ds Joannros Coeelai tern es sA'ipais. Munster, 1885; $. Otto. Jobannea CorAiaua der Humanist, Breslan. 1874; F. Oess, Johannn Codlaw der Geyner Lathers, 1Aipsio, 1888; M. 8p" Jobannes Corhkeas. Lebensbild, Olin, 1898; J. Koedin, Martin LudR,Vim, 2 vols., ib. 1903.
CODMAR, RODERT: Protestant Episcopal bishop' of Maine; b. in Boston, Mass., Dec. 30, 1859. He was educated at Harvard (B.A., 1882) and at the Harvard Law School, from which he. was graduated in 1885. After practising a few years, however, he determined to take orders, and accordingly studied at the General Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in .1894. After his ordination to the priesthood, h® was rwtor of St. John's, Roxbury, Mass., until 1900, when he was consecrated third bishop of the diocese of Maine.
CON, GEORGE ALBERT: American philosopher; b. at Mendon, N. Y., Mar. 26, 1862. He was graduated at Rochester University (B.A., 1884) and Boston University (Ph.D., 1891), and as traveling fellow of the latter institution spent the year 1890 91 at the University of Berlin. He was professor of philosophy in the University of Southern California 1889 90 and acting professor of philosophy in Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1891 93. Since the latter year he has been John Evans professor of philosophy in the same institution. He was lecturer on the psychology of religion in Boston University in 1900. He has written The Spiritual Life : Studies in the Science of Religion (New York, 1900); The Riligion of a Mature Mind (Chicago, 1902); and Education in Religion and Morals (1904).
COELDE, DIETRICH (Dietrich of Munster). See Fa"cls, SAINT, oF Assml, exD THE FasrrcwCAN ORDER.
C(ELE YRIA (" Hollow Syria "): The early name for the valley which separates the parallel ranges of Lebanon and Anti Lebanon. In later times the name came to have a wider application and to include the whole of southern Syria except Phenicia (of. Josephus, Ant., XIV. iv. 5). It therefore contained nearly all the cities of Decapolis within its limits. Though the name does not occur in the Bible, it is frequently mentioned in the Apocrypha (I Eed. ii. 24, 27, iv. 48, vi. 29; I Mace. x. 69; II Mace. viii. 8, x. 11) and by Josephus (Ant., XIII. iv. 2, XIV. ix. 5, xi. 4) and other writers. It hag
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
a legendary history of its own, attested by curious monuments. At Herak Nfih is shown the grave of Noah, one hundred and thirty two feet long; and on the opposite side of the plain is the tomb of the prophet Beth; while the temples at Baalbek (q.v.) have astonished the world for many centuries. Long before " Toi, King of Hamath," sent presents to David (II Sam. viii. 9 11), the Hittites of that region were sufficiently powerful to contend there for supremacy with the Pharaohs of Egypt.
This remarkable valley, now called el BiSkA.'a, " the deft," extends to the northeast, from Jubb Jentn, under Hermon, for about one hundred miles, having an average width of seven miles. Its surface as seen from above seems to be quite level; but this appearance is deceptive. It is, in fact, an elevated plateau rising gradually northward, until, at the northeast end, it is nearly four thousand feet above the level of the sea, a cold, rugged, and barren region. The northern end is drained by the Orontes, called el'Asy, " the rebellious," because its course is northward, contrary to the other rivers of Syria.. Its most southern source is at Lebweh, the Libo of the ancients. The main source is the copious fountain that flows out from under the cliffs of Lebanon, near Mughiirat al RShib. Passing below Hama'a Htirmul, a unique monument with hunting scenes carved upon its four sides, the Orontes irrigates the extensive plains of the Biblical Riblah (II Kings xxv. 6) and the equally fertile region around the small lake of Kedes. The shapeless ruins near Tell Neby Mindau may mark the site of the chief city of the Hittite kingdom. Issuing from the artificial lake of Hades, six miles south of Hums, the river pursues its winding course through the land of Hamath, past the extensive ruins of Apamea, and along the eastern foot hills of the Nusafrfyeh Mountains, where it turns westward, and, passing by Antioch, it enters the sea near the base of Mount CWus. The central and southern portions of the BukA'a are comparatively level, and their. fertility and beauty are entirely due to the abundance of water. Perennial streams descend from the mountains on either side, and copious fountains rise in tile plain itself, in such positions that the water can be conducted to all parts of its surface. The center and south of the BuU'a is drained by the LttAny, the ancient Leontes, one of the longest and largest rivers of Syria. It rises at 'Ain alf3111tfn, above Baalbek, and is joined, as it flows southward, by many tributaries, among them el BerdAny, which descends from snow crowned Lebanon, and the large remitting fountain near 'Anjar, that flows out from the very roots of AntiLebanon, near the site of the ancient Chalcis. Below Jub Jentn the LUny enters a profound gorge, along which it has worn its way through southern Lebanon to the sea, near Tyre. For the history see SYRIA.
Btslaoassrirre G. A. Smith,Historical Geography of the 11011/ Land, pp. 688 539, 553, London, 1897; W. 8mitb, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, p. 1071, London, 1878, and the literature under Saws.
C(ELICOLE, et"li cb'lf (" Heaven Worshipers ")
A name applied to a Christian sect extant in northern Africa in the time of Augustine (cf.
Epist., xliv., NPNF, i. 289). They doubtless owe their name to controversial polemics. They seem to have laid special stress on adoration of the deity without images, and to have been closely related to the Eastern Hypsietarians (q.v ) An edict of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius IL, 408 (Cod. Theodos., XVI. v. 43), awarded the houses of worship of the Coelicohe to the Catholic Church; and in the year following (409) it was further decreed that the Caelicolm must either adopt the Christian faith within a year or incur, in the contrary case, the penalty imposed upon heresy (Cal. Theodos., XVI. viii. 19). G. Klttaxlt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Scharer, in Sitaungabaiclde der Berliner Akademie, 1897, pp. 209 225; J. M. 8chr2Sekh, CArietlSche Kirchengeschichfe, vii. 442 444, Leipsio, 1780. COELLft, coin, DANIEL GEORG IKONRAD VON: German theologian; b. at Oerlinghausen, LippeDetmold, Dec. 21, 1788; d. at Breslau Feb. 17,1833. He was educated at Marburg, Tiibingen, and G6ttingen, and became privat docent at Marburg 1811, associate professor of theology 1816, and professor of theology at Breslau 1818. In a spirit of moderate rationalism he wrote Historische Beitrdge zur Erlduterung and Berichtiguung der Begri fe Pietiamus, Mysticismus and Fanatismtis (Halberstadt, 1830). His zeal for the union of the two leading Protestant denominations of Germany was shown by his Ideen Wier den inneren Zusammenhang der Glaubenseinigung and Glaube einigung (Leipsio, 1823). The celebration of the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession caused him and his friend David Schulz to publish their Ueber theologische Lehrfrei.heft auf den evangelischen Univernttilen and deren Beschrankung durch symbolwche Bucher (Breslau, 1830), in which they condemned the Confession as antiquated and advocated the preparation of a new creed. Their position was attacked by Schleiermacher, and they replied in their Zwei Antwortschreiben an Herrn D. Friedr. Schleiermacher (Leipsic, 1831), the controversy ending in a practical defeat for the older theologian. In addition to numerous contributions to periodicals and to his academic writings, Coelln edited the first volume and a half of the third edition of Wilhelm Monseher's Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmengeschichte (Cassel, 1832 34), but his chief work was the BibWche Theologie (ed. D. Schulz, 2 vole., Leipsic, 1836), which was long the standard on its subject, especially for the Old Testament.
Bmwomsrer: A memoir by D. Schulz was prefixed to the
Biblieche ThaConsult ADB, iv. 391. COEMGEN, kem1gen (]KEVIN), SAINT, OF GLEBDALOUGH: A very popular Irish hermit saint of the fifth century, whose story is given here as typical of those of his kind.* He is said to have
* With regard to the alleged histories of the early Irish saints the Bollandists remark (June, iii. 331, cm. hist. to life of 8. Molingus or Dayrgellue): "To such a degree are the same things related. of all Irish saints that it is difficult to believe them For example, baptism is received from an angel, future sanctity is foretold in boyhood, the hermit life is followed in a hollow tree, a forward woman showing her preference too boldly is flogged, and there in a wonderful power over the animal world."
188 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA o"oia"i Yria
died June 3, 618, at the age of 120 years. His parents were Christians and had their son educated by Petroc, a pious Briton, and by holy men in Ireland. When a young girl showed a liking for Cmmgen he flogged her with nettles. Finding a lonely valley with a lake overshadowed by mountains (Glendalough, County Wicklow, 8 m. n.w. of Rathdrum), he settled there, living in a hollow tree, and subsisting on herbs and water. Afterward he was admitted to the priesthood, and returned to Glendalough, were he founded a monastery. Then he withdrew some little distance, giving orders that no one should come to him, and spent four years in his new retreat in fasting and prayer. For a time he was prevailed upon to leave his hermit life and rejoin the monks in his monastery, but he soon returned to solitude. The birds and beasts were his familiar companions, " the branches and leaves of the trees sang sweet songs to him," and he received celestial visitors. Then he was seized with the desire of wandering, visited holy men in various parts of Ireland, and had in mind a longer journey, but gave it up on the advice of a hermit, who told him that " it was more becoming for him to fix himself in one place than to ramble here and there in his old age, as he could not but know that no bird could hatch her eggs while flying." So he went back to his hermitage. When the king of Ireland invaded Leinster Ceemgen advised the local king to fight for his country; and the invader was utterly defeated and slain. Remains of Cmmgen's monastery still exist in Glendalough and a cave is shown as " St. Caemgen's Bed."
BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASB, June, i. 303 313; Lanigan, Ecel. Hist., ii. 43 50; G. Petrie, The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland, pp. 170 174, 247 267, Dublin, 1845; J. Hesly. Ineula sanctorum pp. 414 eqq., Dublin, 1890.
CCENOBITES. See Moxesnclsnr.
COLT, STANTON: Ethical culturist; b.atColumbus, O., Aug. 11, 1857. He was graduated at Amherst in 1879, studied at Columbia and the University of Berlin (Ph.D., 1885), and after aotr ing as pastor of the South Place Chapel, London, E. C., in 1888 91, withdrew from the ministry, and in 1892 93 was head of the University Settlement in New York. Since 1897 he has been chairman of the Moral Instruction League, London, and was also lecturer for the West London Ethical Society in 1892 and 1906. In theology he denies the need of a belief in immortality or in supernatural beings, and would transform churches into ethical societies. He is editor of the weekly Ethical Review, and has written Neighbourhood Guilds (London, 1890) and Die ethischen Bewegungen in der Religion (Leipsic, 1890).
COKE, THOMAS: First Methodist bishop; b. at Brecon, Wales, Sept. 9, 1747; d. at sea on a voyage to Ceylon May 3, 1814. He studied at Jesus College, Oxford (B.A., 1768; M.A., 1770; D.C.L., 1775); took orders in the English Church and became curate at South Petherton, Somerset; fell under Methodist influences and in 1777 openly joined that body and attended the conference at Bristol. He gave much help to Wesley, who styled
him " his right hand "; in 1782 he became first president of the Irish conference; in 1784 he was set apart by Wesley at Bristol as " superintendent " for America. Wesley did not approve of the title bishop, which the American conference adopted in 1787 at Coke's instigation. The latter, with two elders, arrived in America, Nov., 1784, and proceeded to the famous Christmas conference at Baltimore, at which he ordained Francis Asbury as superintendent. With Asbury he drew up the Doctrines and Discipline for the Methodist Church in America. He made nine voyages to America (the last in 1803) and fulfilled his duties there energetically and well. He was a leader in England after Wesley's death (1791), and was indefatigable in the cause of missions. In 1813 he wished an appointment from the government as bishop of India and offered to return to the Established Church; when the proposal was rejected he furnished funds himself to establish a Methodist mission there, sailed with a band of helpers, but died on the voyage. His numerous publications include Extracts of the Journals of the Rev. Dr. Coke's Five Visits to America (London, 1793); a life of John Wesley (1792), prepared in collaboration with Henry Moors (see War, 1OHN); A Commentary on the Old arid New Testaments (6 vole., 1801 03); A History of the West Indies (3 vole., Liverpool, 1808 11).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lives were published by: S. Drew, New York, 1837, and J. W. Etheridge, London, 1860; of; L. Tyerman, Life and Times of John Wesley; vol_ iii., ib. 1871; W. Moister, T%e Fat%er of our Missions, ib. 1871; DNB, m. 247 249.
COLANI, o8"lla"ns', TIMOTHEE: French theologian; b. at Lem6, near Sains (190 m. n.e. of Paris), department of Aisne, Jan. 29, 1824; d. at Grindelwadd, Switzerland, Sept. 2, 1888. He was a son of the Reformed minister at LemA, and a zealous adherent of the Rweil, who brought him up in a narrow dogmatism which was enhanced by influences at Neuch&tel and by the Moravians of the Korathal. At the age of sixteen he went to Strasburg to study theology. Influenced by Reuse, he devoted himself to the study of the New Testament, and also studied philosophy, history, and literature. In 1845 he finished his academical studies and published a dissertation on KanVs religious philosophy. Two years later he obtained a theological licentiate by a treatise on the idea of the absolute. He was also a contributor to La R& formation au196&tne sincle, edited by Edmond Scherer at Geneva, which represented the individualistic ideas of Vinet.
He now considered it his duty to contribute to the regeneration of theological science in France. An impulse had already been given by the Strasburg faculty, but without lasting effect; and the orthodoxy. of a Grandpierre and Adolphe Monod had full sway. In 1849 Edmond Scherer, till then professor at the independent theological school in Geneva, published his two letters on criticism and faith, in which he pointed out a revision of church dogmas and the return to the original ideas of the Gospel as the task of modern theology. Coltini soon joined him and together they founded the
Coleridge Revue de thdologie d de philoeophie chritienne, which under Colani's direction became the organ of the " Strasburg School." From 1858 Colani preached often, and in vol: xiv. of the Revue he developed his ideas on the sermon. The attacks upon his manner of preaching induced him to publish first some of his discourses (L'Individualisme chr&ien, La Sacerdoce universal, LIdueatiion protestante), and afterward three collections, Sermons pr&Aks a Strasbourg (Strasburg, 1857), Nouveaux sermons (1860), and Quatre sermons pr&h6s d Nimes (1861).
The fame which Colani had acquired seemed to point him out for one of the first places in church or school; but the authorities were afraid to sanction officially his ideas. For this reason he had to support himself for years as private tutor. His appointment in 1861 as lecturer on French literature at the Protestant Seminary in Strasburg raised a storm of protest. Still greater and louder was the protest when, a few months later (May 15,1862), he was appointed pastor of the French congregation of St. Nicolas, and two years later professor of homiletics in the theological faculty and professor of philosophy at the Protestant seminary. in 1864 he was made doctor of theology after publishing his noteworthy work J&us Christ et lee croyances mesaianiquea de son temps (Strasburg, 1864). Toward the end of that year he commenced his lectures on homiletics, cateohetics, and liturgics in the theological faculty, and on philosophy at the Protestant seminary. His lectures, distinguished by scientific depth, keen judgment, and elegant form, attracted a large audience. In 1866 he resigned the pastorate to devote himself wholly to his two professorships. The war of 1870, however, compelled him to leave Strasburg; he joined Gambetta at Bordeaux, and devoted himself to politics. He now renounced theology, but took part as a lay delegate in the deliberations at the synod of the Reformed Church of France in 1872, and with great eloquence advocated Protestant liberty. For a time interested in an industrial undertaking at Royon, Colani founded in 1876 a literary journal, Le Courrier littftire, published at Paris. He afterward became sublibrarian of the Sorbonne, editor of the Gambettistic journal La Republique frangaiae, and contributor to La Nouvelle Revue. He was chosen as editor of Le Temps in 1888, but his death intervened. Over against the rationalistic and orthodox intellectualism Colani emphasized again the mystical and ethical element in Christianity; and against the principle of authority, the right of historical and inner criticism. He brought about a change of the Protestant theology of France in a strictly scientific sense. T. GamoLD.
BzzuoaaAPHi: A biographical mtioe may be fonad in rel, Strasburg, 1888, non. 40 eqq., and another by J. Reinach in a posthumous volume of Basis, Paris. 1895.
COLARBASUS, COLARBASIANB.See VALWTWUS AND HIS SCHOOL.
COLEMAN, LEIGHTON: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Delaware; b. at Philadelphia May 3, 1837; d at wihnington, DeL, Des 14, 1907. He was educated at the Protestant Episcopal Academy in his native city and the General
THE NEW scHAFF HERZOG
154 Theological Seminary, New York City, from which he was graduated in 1881. He was rector of St. Luke's, Bustleton, Pa. (1881 83), St. ,John's, Wilmington, Del. (1883 68), St. Mark's, Mauch Chunk, Pa. (1866 74), and Trinity Church, Toledo, O. (1874 79). From 1879 to 1887 he resided in England, and on his return to the United States was rector of the Church of the Redeemer, Sayre, Pa., in 1887 88. In the latter year he was consecrated bishop of Delaware. He was chairman of the American Church Temperance Society 1900 06 and frequently member of important ecclesiastical committees. In theology he was a Catholic Churchman, arid as such energetically maintained the cardinal doctrines of the Church and Christianity. He published: History of the Lehigh Valley (Philadelphia, 1868); History of the American Church (London, 1895); and Popular History of the American Church (1905).