15. How did Jefferson combine his duties as president and as party leader in his efforts to govern the country?

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15. How did Jefferson combine his duties as president and as party leader in his efforts to govern the country?
Jefferson believed in a weak federal government. He believed in states rights and wanted America to be an agrarian based society. By the end of Jefferson first term as President, about have the government jobs were in the hands of Republicans. He cut government expenditures, which helped the government pay off debt and weaken the federal government.
16. Why did Jefferson, despite his views on government spending, go to "war" with the pasha of Tripoli? What was the outcome?
Jefferson was against appeasement and paying tribute to the Barbary States. Jefferson stopped paying the pasha so the pasha ordered the flagpole of the American consulate to be chopped down-a symbol for war. Jefferson built up the navy and was able to make an agreement to end the payments of tribute but the US had to pay a ransom of $60,00 for the release of American prisoners.
17. What were the roots of Jefferson's conflict with the federal court system, and how did the case of Marbury v. Madison fit into the controversy?
Jefferson, having won control over the executive and legislative branches, looked with suspicion on the Federalist controlled judiciary. The Marbury v. Madison case made the judiciary branch stronger and Jefferson realized the threat the judiciary could pose on his policies. To reduce their power, he urged Congress to impeach judges. Even after Jefferson attempt, the judiciary remained a powerful force.
18. What method did Jefferson employ to bring the judiciary under Republican control, and what were the results?
Jefferson tired to impeach judges like Samuel Chase. Even though some judges were removed from power, the branch still remained strong in the government and more often then not, ruled on behalf of the centralizing, expanding polices the Republicans hoped to reverse.
19. Why was New Orleans "the one single spot" that made its possessor the "natural enemy" of the United States?
New Orleans was important to the U.S. because it was a frequently used port for trading. Whoever possessed New Orleans was a natural enemy to the U.S. because America wanted the city for themselves or last least trading privileges.
20. Which group in America was most concerned with the French possession of New Orleans, and how did this concern threaten Jefferson politically?
The group most concerned with the French possession was American shippers who feared the closing of the lower part of the Mississippi. The prospect of losing New Orleans would threaten the American economy and western expansion. This also gave Napoleon a launching point to invade of North America.
21. How were the negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase conducted, and what were the terms agreed on?
Jefferson sent Robert Livingston to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. Napoleon needed funds to wage is wars, and lost hope for his plans of an American Empire so he offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. By the terms of the treaty, the U.S. needed to pay $15 million to the French and France was given exclusive commercial privileges in the port of New Orleans.
22. What were the reasons behind Jefferson's reservations over the purchase of Louisiana, and how was he able to reason these doubts away?
Jefferson felt the President did not posses the authority to acquisition new land. He was able to justify his actions by saying purchasing the land was just a term of a treaty and the President has the right to make a treaty.
23. What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition, and what did the expedition accomplish?
The purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to gather geographic facts, cross the continent to the Pacific Ocean, and investigate prospects for trade with Indians. The expedition accomplished Lewis and Clark to make elaborate records of the geography and Indian civilizations they had observed along the way, and diaries recounting their experiences.

24. What was the reaction of the New England Federalists to the Louisiana Purchase, and what was their plan to overcome its effects?

The Federalists were outraged. With western expansion meant new states joining the Union and less power for the Federalists in New England. Their plan was to secede from the Union and establish a Northern Confederacy. To accomplish this, they would need support from New York. New York refused to support secession.
25. What were the circumstances that led to the duel between Hamilton and Burr?
Burr accepted a federalist proposal to become a candidate for governor of New York and also supported succession. Hamilton accused Burr of treason. Burr lost the election and blamed his defeat on Hamilton so he challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton was shot and later died of his wounds.
26. What was the "Burr conspiracy," and what was its outcome?
The Burr Conspiracy was when Aaron Burr attempted to detach from the union with the American South West and capture Mexico from the Spanish to start a western empire that Burr would rule. Burr’s partner, James Wilkinson, told Jefferson of Burr’s plan. He was brought to Richmond for trial. Burr was acquitted for his crimes
27. How do the records kept by Lewis and Clark reflect the purpose of their expedition?
Their purpose was to map out the rest of the continent and interact with the Native Americans. They made very detailed maps and wrote elabrote diaries on the tribes they meet.
28. Why was America important to both sides in the conflict between England and France, and what role did the Americans hope to play in the struggle?
America was important to both England and France because the U.S. controlled a large proportion of trade between Europe and the West Indies. America tired to remain neutral but was forced to intervene because the British navy practicing impressment of American sailors.

29. How did each belligerent nation attempt to prevent America from trading with the other, why was one more successful than the other, and what was the American response?

The French tried to prevent Americans from trading with the British through the Continental System, which was designed to close the European continent to British trade by declaring that if you traded with Britain you were an enemy of France.. Britain tried to prevent Americans from trading with France by introducing the orders in council, which called for a blockade of the European coast. This called for any goods being shipped to France to be carried in British vessels or in neutral vessels stopping at British ports. Americans were caught in the middle of these two orders and primarily feared the British as the dominant naval power at the time. The issue of impressment also drew the attention of Americans.

30. What was Jefferson's response to the Chesapeake-Leopard affair, and why did he take this action?

Jefferson was determined to maintain peace. He expelled all British warships from American waters so as to prevent future incidents. He also sent James Monroe to demand to the British government to repeal impressment. Jefferson did this to prevent another expensive war.

31. How did the embargo affect the election of 1808, and what was the response of the new president to diplomatic problems that the embargo had addressed?

The Embargo Act was hurting the federalists, however they still ran strong in the election of 1808 and James Madison was elected president. The repeal of the Embargo Act came quickly as it was becoming a political liability, instead it was replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act which reopened trade with all nations, excluding Britain and France. Madison supported the repeal, however he threatened to reinstitute an embargo against Britain unless Britain repealed trade restrictions on American shipping.

32. How did conditions in the West heighten the tension between the United States and Britain?

The British authorities were preparing for defense in Canada. After the Chesapeake-Leopard incident there was a resurgence of anti-British feeling, and the British feared an American invasion of Canada. The British were also allying themselves with the Indians in the process, and were providing them with supplies.

33. What was Tecumseh's attitude toward the treaties previously negotiated between the United States and various Indian tribes? How did he plan to prevent the expansion of white settlements?

He argued that Americans had gained no real entitlement to the lands they had negotiated treaties over. The land belonged to the Indians as a whole, and to be ceded over required the consent of all the tribes. He planned to prevent white expansion through a united force of resistance among all of the tribes.

34. Why did Americans blame the British for Indian uprisings on the frontier, and what did the frontier settlers see as the best solution to the problem?

The Americans blamed the British because they had British agents in Canada that were encouraging the rebellions and supplying them. The frontier settlers believed the best solution was to drive the British out of Canada and annex the land to the United States.

35. Why did Americans want to wrest control of Florida from the Spanish? What attempts were made to do this before 1812? Which attempts were successful, and which failed?

They wanted to take control because it was a threat to the white settlements in the Southern United States. Slaves escaped across the Florida border and Indians launched frequent revolts. In 1810, American settlers in West Florida seized Baton Rouge and gained the support of Madison in annexing the captured territory as well as planning for the capture of the rest of Florida.

36. Who were the "War Hawks," and why were they able to exert such influence on America's drift toward war?

They were representatives eager for war with Britain. They were able to exert such influence because their main leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky, became speaker of the house in 1811, and filled committees with those who shared his beliefs. Madison hoped for peace, however all the pressure led him to declare war on June 18th, 1812.

37. What were the relative successes and failures of the American military during the first year of the war?

In the beginning there were many defeats for the Americans in Canada and Detroit, with a few minor successes on sea, as the British fleet was temporarily distracted with Napoleon. The United States achieved most of their successes on the Great Lakes. Americans first took Lake Ontario, then they burned York, the capital of Canada.

38. How did America's fortunes of war change during 1813 and early 1814, and what were the results of this change?

The American’s fortunes changed for the worse, as Napoleon surrendered and Britain began to focus of an invasion of the United States. An American militia at Washington was quickly dispersed, and Washington was burned, including the White House.

39. What were the plan and purpose of the British invasion of the United States in 1814? What was the result?

The plan was to burn Washington in retaliation for the burning of York, which the Americans had burned in 1813. The purpose was to defeat the Americans and secure their lands in Canada.

40. Why did New England oppose the War of 1812? Prior to 1814, what did the New England states do to hinder the war effort?

The New Englanders were frustrated that the war was dragging on with no success, and on top of that the New England population was a majority of Federalists, who already opposed the federal government which was dominated by Republicans. The New England states were opposing the Republicans, who were constantly criticizing and embarrassing the administration, primarily through Daniel Webster.

41. What caused the leaders of New England to regard the War of 1812 as a threat to their future as a meaningful force in the United States? What did they propose to remedy this situation?

The leaders of New England proposed a plan for a Federalist secession. They wanted to escape the tyranny of slaveholders and backwoodsmen.

42. What effect did the Hartford Convention have on the Federalist Party?

The Hartford Convention showed the Federalists that they had an overwhelming majority of moderates who did not have a burning desire to secede from the nation. They believed the federal government would have to accept their grievances because of how badly the war effort was going and how desperate the government was becoming. However, news of Jackson’s victory at New Orleans came at the wrong time, and that led to the failure of the secession effort, and therefore a death blow to the federalist party.

43. What was the background to peace negotiations at Ghent? What did both sides initially demand, and why did they finally agree on the terms they did?

Before the War of 1812 began there had been peace talks between Britain in the United States. Initially, the Americans wanted the British to renounce impressment and the cession of Canada to the United States. The British initially wanted the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest. They agreed to the return of all captured land and commissions were planned to settle boundary of the United States and Canada. They hastily agreed to these terms so as to bring the war to a close.

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