Concluded that the guilty officer was Major Walsin Esterhazy, not Dreyfus.
The army covered it up, and transferred him to Tunisia.
Things got very quiet.
2nd April, 1840 to 29th September 1902
Influential novelist in the naturalist tradition.
Wrote a letter to the French President, Felix Fore.
Two Days Later:
11th January 1898
Esterhazy had been court-martialled, but the court publicly found him innocent.
13th January 1898
“J’accuse!” published in the daily paper L’Aurore
Run by Ernest Vaughan and Georges Clemenceau.
Published radical material that criticized the regime of Napoeleon III.
Ran “J’accuse!” on the front page.
Accused government and military of anti-semitism.
Implied criticism of the media for being anti-semitic.
Still, it was the press that published “J’accuse!”
(I wonder sometimes: Is there such a thing as “the press” or “the media” or even “the people”?)
Zola charged with libel against the government.
Wound up fleeing to England for his safety
Political right and the Catholic church charged the case to be evidence of a conspiracy between Jews and Freemasons designed to damage the prestige of the army, and therefore of France.
Covered by hundreds of the world’s journalists.
London Times: “Zola’s true crime has been in daring to rise to defend the truth and civil liberty…and for that courageous defense of the primordial rights of the citizen, he will be honored wherever men have souls that are free…”
Trial was confused, farcical, and seen as an attempt by the government to suppress the truth of the Dreyfus Affair.
Media opinion swung over to Dreyfus
Public opinion swung with it.
Dreyfus eventually pardoned in September 1899, and able to return to France.
Exonerated in 1906.
Consequences: The Republic
Inspired moderate republicans, radicals, and socialists to work together.
Conduct of the army and the Catholic hierarchy seen as utterly deplorable.
“Given the obligation which befalls me to recall the struggle waged by Zola on behalf of truth and justice, is it possible for me to remain silent concerning those men so passionately bent on destroying an innocent man?...How might I remove them from your sight when it is mine to show you Zola rising up, weak and unarmed, before them?
“Let us envy Zola: he has honoured his country and the world with an immense body of work and a great deed…His destiny and his courage combined to endow him with the greatest of fates. He was a moment in the conscience of humanity.”
A dress military parade was organized and held on July 21st, 1906.
It was to honour Dreyfus, who had been publicly stripped of his rank and dignity.
United Kingdom, France, Russia enter into the Triple Entente
4th June 1908
His remains were transferred to The Pantheon where the greatest citizens of the republic are interred.
Dreyfus attended the ceremony.
At the ceremony, a right wing journalist named Gregori pulled out a revolver.
He fired two shots at Dreyfus before being taken down.
Dreyfus was wounded, but survived.
Gregori was charged with attempted murder.
Right-wing newspapers praised the attempted murder as a “gesture for France.”