13% of the apush test 1ish (who am I kidding?) summary

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Unit 5 (1844 – 1877)

Westward Expansion, Road to Civil War, Civil War, Reconstruction

13% of the APUSH Test

1ish (who am I kidding?) summary

Westward Expansion

John Gast’s American Progress

Leutz, Westward Course of Empire

Know the map of expansion (when we got different pieces of the US)

Conestoga wagon

Manifest Destiny

Groups flocking west

Mormons – Joseph Smith, Brigham Young,

Salt Lake

48ers and 49ers – what groups went west?

Election of 1844 (54,40 or fight, Oregon issue, who

ran, “dark horse” candidate, Tyler and TX)

James K. Polk (COIL - California, Oregon,

Independent Treasury, Lower Tariff)

Oregon territory dispute

Mexican American War (1846-1848) (“Mr. Polk’s War”)

Slidell Mission

Sending Zach Taylor (Rough & Ready) into

disputed territory / attack

Lincoln’s Spot Resolution & “Conscience


Transcendentalists’ response to war

Winfield Scot (Fuss & Feathers)


T. of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Wilmot Proviso (compare to Tallmadge


Free Soil Party

Compromise of 1850 – 4 parts, most controversial part

Fugitive Slave Law

7th of May Speech

How Douglas got it passed

Personal Liberty Laws

Gadsden Purchase (1853)

Off-continent expansion movements

Caleb Cushing (T. of Wanghia – 1844)

Clayton Bulwer Treaty (1850)

Ostend Manifesto (1854)

Matthew C. Perry (T. of Kangawa – 1854, starts Meji



Black Forties

Largest groups to immigrate – where did they come

in and where did they settle?


America Party (aka “Know Nothings”)

Road to Secession

1820-1850 – things weren’t so tense that they

couldn’t be resolved through compromise (Missouri Compromise – 1820- Nullification Crisis – 1832 – Turner’s Rebellion – Wilmot Proviso – Compromise of 1850)
1850ish – 1856ish, things get more tense

Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe) – effect of this book

Kansas Nebraska Act (1854) – who did it? Why? What did it say? How did it cause a ruckus?

Bleeding Kansas

Rival Governments, Border Ruffians, Sack of

Lawrence, Pottawatomie Massacre (John

Brown on the scene)

Lecompton Constitution

Election of 1856 (Fillmore – America Party, vs. Freemont – Republican, vs Buchannan – Dem)

1856ish – 1860ish – Very tense, looks like war is inevitable

Caning of Sumner (1856) (how does this show

sectionalism? Who does the picture appeal


Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857) – situation, Chief

Justice, importance, effect on the nation

Lincoln Douglas Debates – what were they doing? Freeport Doctrine

Harper’s Ferry – John Brown – what was he

doing??? How a polarizing figure?

Election of 1860 – who ran? What’s the deal with 2

democratic candidates? Republican


Crittenden Amendment (1860) – what was it?

Lincoln’s reaction?

South Carolina Secession
The War

Lincoln’s Goal

What began the war?

How was it “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s




How and why did Lincoln repurpose the war

Emancipation Proclamation (1863) what it did, why

he did it, effect

Antietam – what was it? Effect on foreign nations?

Gettysburg (Battle and Address)

New York City Draft Riots

Union strategies (Anaconda Plan, Total War)

Lincoln’s expansion of Presidential Power

Lincoln and Habeas Corpus

States Rights & the 10th amendment

Massachusetts 54th – how were black soldiers treated

during the war?

How the North ended the war

Cotton Diplomacy – what was it? Aimed at whom?

Why didn’t it work?

Union & Confederate advantages and disadvantages

Reconstruction Amendments


Freedman’s Bureau (what was their biggest area of


Various Ways the South tried to circumvent

reconstruction measures (literacy tests, poll

taxes, black codes, grandfather clauses)

How life wasn’t that different for the freedmen

(tenant farming & sharecropping)

Slaughterhouse Cases

Plessey vs. Ferguson

Lincoln’s reconstruction plan vs. Wade Davis

Lincoln’s 2nd inaugural

President Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson vs. Radical Republicans

reconstruction plans

Johnson’s “Swing Around the Circle”

“Seward’s Folly”

Thaddeus Stevens & Charles Sumner

Johnson’s impeachment
Military Reconstruction

Women and the 15th amendment

Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce

Scalawags & Carpetbaggers

President Ulysses S. Grant

Election of 1969

Major problems

Panic of 1873

End of Reconstruction / Election of 1876 / Rutherford B. Hayes
Be sure you know:

Black Codes vs. Jim Crow

Was Reconstruction successful?

Period 5: 1844-1877

As the nation expanded and its population grew, regional tensions, especially over slavery, led to civil war – the course and aftermath of which transformed American society.

    1. The US became more connected with the world as it pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western hemisphere and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries.

      1. Enthusiasm for U.S. territorial expansion, fueled by economic and national security interests and supported by claims of U.S. racial and cultural superiority, resulted in war, the opening of new markets, acquisition of new territory, and increased ideological conflicts.

        1. The idea of Manifest Destiny, which asserted U.S. power in the Western Hemisphere and supported U.S. expansion westward, was built on a belief in white racial superiority and a sense of American cultural superiority, and helped to shape the era’s political debates.

        2. The acquisition of new territory in the West and the U.S. victory in the Mexican-American War were accompanied by a heated controversy over allowing or forbidding slavery in newly acquired territories.

        3. The desire for access to western resources led to the environmental transformation of the region, new economic activities, and increased settlement in areas forcibly taken from American Indians.

        4. U.S. interest in expanding trade led to economic, diplomatic, and cultural initiatives westward to Asia.

      1. Westward expansion, migration to and within the United States, and the end of slavery reshaped North American boundaries and caused conflicts over American cultural identities, citizenship, and the question of extending and protecting rights for various groups of U.S. inhabitants.

        1. Substantial numbers of new international migrants — who often lived in ethnic communities and retained their religion, language, and customs — entered the country prior to the Civil War, giving rise to a major, often violent nativist movement that was strongly anti-Catholic and aimed at limiting immigrants’ cultural influence and political and economic power.

        2. Asian, African American, and white peoples sought new economic opportunities or religious refuge in the West, efforts that were boosted during and after the Civil War with the passage of new legislation promoting national economic development.

        3. As the territorial boundaries of the United States expanded and the migrant population increased, U.S. government interaction and conflict with Hispanics and American Indians increased, altering these groups’ cultures and ways of life and raising questions about their status and legal rights.

    1. Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.

      1. The institution of slavery and its attendant ideological debates, along with regional economic and demographic changes, territorial expansion in the 1840s and 1850s, and cultural differences between the North and the South, all intensified sectionalism.

        1. The North’s expanding economy and its increasing reliance on a free-labor manufacturing economy contrasted with the South’s dependence on an economic system characterized by slave-based agriculture and slow population growth.

        2. Abolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, adopting strategies of resistance ranging from fierce arguments against the institution and assistance in helping slaves escape to willingness to use violence to achieve their goals.

        3. States’ rights, nullification, and racist stereotyping provided the foundation for the Southern defense of slavery as a positive good.

      2. Repeated attempts at political compromise failed to calm tensions over slavery and often made sectional tensions worse, breaking down the trust between sectional leaders and culminating in the bitter election of 1860, followed by the secession of southern states.

        1. National leaders made a variety of proposals to resolve the issue of slavery in the territories, including the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision, but these ultimately failed to reduce sectional conflict.

        2. The second party system ended when the issues of slavery and anti-immigrant nativism weakened loyalties to the two major parties and fostered the emergence of sectional parties, most notably the Republican Party in the North and the Midwest.

        3. Lincoln’s election on a free soil platform in the election of 1860 led various Southern leaders to conclude that their states must secede from the Union, precipitating civil war.

    1. The Union victory in the Civil War and the contested Reconstruction of the South settled issues of slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the power of the federal government and citizenship issues.

      1. The North’s greater manpower and industrial resources, its leadership, and the decision for emancipation eventually led to the Union military victory over the Confederacy in the devastating Civil War.

        1. Both the Union and the Confederacy mobilized their economies and societies to wage the war even while facing considerable home front opposition.

        2. Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation changed the purpose of the war, enabling many African Americans to fight in the Union Army and helping prevent the Confederacy from gaining full diplomatic support from European powers.

        3. Although Confederate leadership showed initiative and daring early in the war, the Union ultimately succeeded due to improved military leadership, more effective strategies, key victories, greater resources, and the wartime destruction of the South’s environment and infrastructure.

      1. The Civil War and Reconstruction altered power relationships between the states and the federal government and among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, ending slavery and the notion of a divisible union but leaving unresolved questions of relative power and largely unchanged social and economic patterns.

        1. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, bringing about the war’s most dramatic social and economic change, but the exploitative and soil-intensive sharecropping system endured for several generations.

        2. Efforts by radical and moderate Republicans to reconstruct the defeated South changed the balance of power between Congress and the presidency and yielded some short-term successes, reuniting the union, opening up political opportunities and other leadership roles to former slaves, and temporarily rearranging the relationships between white and black people in the South.

        3. Radical Republicans’ efforts to change southern racial attitudes and culture and establish a base for their party in the South ultimately failed due both to determined southern resistance and to the North’s waning resolve.

      1. The constitutional changes of the Reconstruction period embodied a Northern idea of American identity and national purpose and led to conflicts over new definitions of citizenship, particularly regarding the rights of African Americans, women, and other minorities.

        1. Although citizenship, equal protection of the laws, and voting rights were granted to African Americans in the 14th and 15th Amendments, these rights were progressively stripped away through segregation, violence, Supreme Court decisions, and local political tactics.

        2. The women’s rights movement was both emboldened and divided over the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution.

        3. The Civil War Amendments established judicial principles that were stalled for many decades but eventually became the basis for court decisions upholding civil rights.

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