1071 Battle of Manzikert Byzantium looses most of Anatolia 1075 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem



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1071 Battle of Manzikert - Byzantium looses most of Anatolia

1075 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem.



1095 March - Byzantium delegation asks for Urban's help against the Turks

  • July 29 Colomon becomes King of Hungary

  • Nov 18 Council of Clermont begins

  • Nov 27 Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at Clermont

  • Dec 1 Count Raymond St. Gilles of Toulouse takes the cross

1096 Fatimids retake Jerusalem from Seldjuks

  • spring first wave (People's Crusade) leaves; 3 armies don't make it past Hungary

  • spring, summer massacres of Jews

  • August 1 - Peter the Hermit and Walter Sansavoir reach Constantinople

  • Aug, Emperor Alexius of Constantinople shipped the Peasants' Crusade over the Bosporus

1096-1099 First Crusade

  • August 15, official start of First Crusade as set by Pope Urban II

  • Late Summer, 1096: First Crusade leaders were departing Europe

  • October 6, 1096 armies under Peter and Walter destroyed at Nicaea by Kilij Arslan

  • Oct 21 Kilij Arslan victorious at Civetot

  • Fall 1096 leaders (and armies) of the second wave (official First Crusade) arrive at staggered times at Constantinople.

  • Alexius I Comnenus asks for and receives oaths of fealty and promises to return lands formerly under Byzantine control

1097 Jan Crusaders in Constantinople riot

  • April 1097 crusaders cross the Bosporus

  • May 6 - Crusaders reach Micaea

  • May 21 Crusaders defeat Kilij Arslan outside Nicaea

  • June 19, 1097 Nicaea surrenders to Byzantium (not the crusaders)

  • June 26-28, 1097 crusaders head into Asia Minor

  • July 1, 1097 Turks under Kilij Arslan unsuccessfully attack the crusaders at Dorlyaeum

  • July- Crusaders capture Iconium

  • Aug - Battle of Heraclea - crusader vicrtory

  • Aug - Crusaders capture Tarsus

  • Sep - Balwin leaves main force to capture Edessa.

  • Emperor Henry IV returns to Germany from Italy

  • October 21, 1097 crusaders reach Antioch, which is ruled by Yaghi-Suyan

1098 Early Feb 1098: Emperor Alexius' General Tacitius left the siege of Antioch

  • early February 1098 Muslim relief force under Kerbogha (Karbuqa) of Mosul heading to Antioch

  • February 6, 1098 Baldwin reaches Edessa (al-Ruha to Arabs) whose prince is Thoros

  • March 9, 1098 Thoros killed in riot

  • March 10, 1098 Baldwin takes control of Edessa. Start of the first Latin settlement in the East

  • Mar 21 Robert of Molesme founds Cîteaux Abbey

  • Jun 1, 1098: Stephen of Blois & a large group of French left the siege of Antioch

  • Jun 3 Crusaders take Antioch

  • June 2-3, 1098 Firuz, a garrison captain of Edessa, lets crusaders into city; Yaghi-Suyan flees; crusaders take city

  • Jun 5-9, 1098: Kerbogha arrived before Antioch & besieged the besiegers in Antioch

  • June 14, 1098 Peter Bartholomew, crusaders believe they have found the Holy Lance

  • June 28, 1098 crusaders attack besiegers and win; they then decide to wait out the summer before continuing

  • August 1, 1098 Adhémar of Le Puy dies, exacerbating crusaders' leadership problems

  • Sep 15 - Tancred leaves siege.

  • mid-Nov armies of Raymond of St. Gilles and Robert of Flanders arrive at Ma'arat en Nu'man (rank-and-file force the march)

  • Nov 27-Dec 11, 1098: Crusaders captured M'arrat-an-Numan; army restless for Jerusalem

  • December 11-12, 1098 Ma'arat en Nu'man falls to the crusaders, crusaders practice cannibalism at Ma'arra

1099 Jan 5 Henry V elected King of the Romans

  • Jan 13, rank-and-file force Raymond to continue to Jerusalem led the first contingent away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem

  • February 14, 1099 Raymond began the desultory siege of Arqah, near Tripoli

  • February/March 1099 rank-and-file at Antioch force continuance to Jerusalem

  • Late Mar, 1099: Godfrey and Robert of Flanders joined the siege of Arqah

  • May 13, 1099 Raymond finally gave up on Arqah; all present marched to Jerusalem

  • June 6, 1099 Tancred seizes Bethelham

  • June 7, 1099 most of the crusaders arrive at Jerusalem

  • Jun 13, 1099: Crusaders failed to take Jerusalem by storm

  • July 8, 1099 penitential procession of crusaders around Jerusalem

  • July 15, 1099 Godfrey breached the walls of Jerusalem near Herod's Gate

  • July 19, 1099 Pope Urban II dies, never hearing news of capture of Jerusalem

  • July 22, 1099 Godfrey elected ruler of settlement at Jerusalem "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre"

  • Jul 29 Pope Urban dies

  • August 11-12, 1099 crusaders defeat Egyptian army at Ashdod

  • Aug 12, 1099: Crusaders beat back the Fatimids at Ascalon

  • Aug 13 Cardinal Rainer elected as Pope Paschal II

  • al-Harawi of Damascus leads group of refugees to Baghdad to protest lack of action by leaders



1100 July 18 - Godfrey of Bouillon dies.

  • Aug - Danishmend captures Bohemund

  • Sep - Baldwin becomes the first king of Jerusalem

  • Nov 15, Pope Paschal II preaches crusade; threatens deserters and those with unfulfilled crusade vows with excommunication

1101 next wave of crusaders defeated in Asia Minor

  • Aug - William of nevers smashed at heraclea

  • Sep - Armies of Bavaria and Aquitaine defeated at Heraclea

  • Baldwin defeats Egyptian Saad el Dawleh

1102 Raymond destroys Moslem army.

  • Baldwin defeated by Egyptian army.

  • May 27 - Baldwin defeats Egyptians.

1103 Tancred takes Laodicia from Byzantines.

1104 Baldwin takes Acre, Muslims defeat Franks at Harran, stopping (momentarily at least) their eastward drive

1105 Third battle of Ramleh - Baldwin defeats Egyptians.

1108 two coalitions, both of Franks and Muslims, fight near Tel Bashir

1109 Tripoli falls to the crusaders after 2000 days of siege

1110 Beirut and Saida seized by crusaders

1111 riot in Baghdad organized by Ibn al-Khashab (Aleppo's qadi) to try to get help against the Franks

1112 Muslims prevent Franks from seizing Tyre

1113 Order of St. John (the Hospitallers) starts recognized by the papacy as an independent group

1115 spring Muslims and Franks in Syria together fight Muhammad Ibn Malikshah, Seldjuk sultan

1116-1117 Baldwin's expedition to Eilat.

1118-31: Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem

1118 Baldwin's failed expedition to Egypt

1118-9: Hugh of Payns created the Order of the Temple

1119 Franks defeated at Sarmada by Ilghazi of Aleppo

1120 Order of the Knights Templar begins

1124 July Franks seize Tyre and so occupy the coast to Ascalon

1125 in Beirut, peasants revolt. Ibn al-Khashab killed by member(s) of the Assassins

  • Batttle of Azaz - Baldwin II defeats Moslem

1127 Zangi becomes ruler of Mosul

1128 Frankish attempt to seize Damascus fails, Zangi gets control of Aleppo

1131 nobles revolt in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (the first such revolt)

1131-43: Fulk of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

1135 Zangi unsuccessful in attempt to take Damascus

1137 King Fulk of Jerusalem captured by Zangi and released

1139 Zangi besieges Damascus

1140 Damascus and Jerusalem ally against Zangi

1143-63: Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem

1144 Zangi seizes Edessa, ending the first (of four) crusader states in the mideast

1145 Dec, : Pope Eugenius III issued Quantum praedecessores to initiate the Second Crusade

1146 Crusader's successful raid on Bosra

  • March 31 - Bernard of Clairvaux active in preaching the crusade

  • Sep 15 - Zangi murdered (reportedly by a slave), his son Nur al-Din inherits Aleppo

147-1149 the Second Crusade, includes crusades in Spain, the eastern border of Germany as well as the middle east

1147 Sep - German emperor Conrad III reaches Constantinople

  • Oct - Conrad's crusade reduced by two-thirds.

  • Oct 25 - Conrad reaches Dorylaeum

1148 Jan 8 - Battle at Antiocheia - Turks and Louis VII indecisive.

Feb - crusaders reach byzantine city Attalia.

  • July 24-28 - crusaders under Conrad of Germany and Louis VII of France besiege Damascus, giving up after Nur al-Din arrives.

1149 Jul 15, : Dedication of the Crusader Church of the Holy Sepulchre

1153 Aug 19 - Baldwin captures city of Ashkelon.

1154 Nur al-Din gets Damascus, unifying the parts of Syria that are Muslim

1156 Reynald plunders Cyprus.

1159 Emperor Manual led an army to Antioch to punish Reynald.

1160s: Series of invasions by Crusaders into Egypt

1163-74: Almaric, King of Jerusalem

1163 Almaric attacks Pelusium in Egypt, unsuccessful

1163-1169 Nur al-Din's general Shirkuh fights for control of Egypt for Nur al-Din

1168 Crusaders capture Tanis and massacre people.

1169 Shirkuh gets control of Egypt, becomes vizier, then dies within two months; he is succeeded by Saladin, his nephew

Oct - Damietta attacked by crusaders and Byzantine fleet.

1170 Nur al-Din gets control of Mosul upon brother's death

1171 Saladin declares Fatimid control of Egypt is over and becomes sole ruler;

1174-85: Baldwin IV, King of Jerusalem

1174 Nur al-Din dies, power struggle ensues for control of his son

  • Oct, 1174: Saladin took Damascus

1176 Battle of Myriocephalum - Emperor Manuel Comnenus crushed by Turk Kilij Arslan.

1177 Nov - Crusader army defeated Saladin at Mont Gisard

1179 Saladin routes Crusaders

1181 Reynald breaks truce by attacking Muslim merchants.

1183 Oct - Saladin besieges Krak

  • Dec 4 - Leper King Baldwin drives Saladin from Krak.

  • Saladin seizes Aleppo, reuniting Egypt and Syria

1185 Saladin officially controls Egypt and Damascus, Aleppo and Mosul

1185-6: Baldwin V, King of Jerusalem

1186-94: Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem

1187 Reynald attacks caravan with Saladin's sister.

  • July 1 - Saladin captures city of Tiberias.

  • July 4, Saladin defeats armies of the Frankish states at the Battle of Hattin

  • July 29 - Saladin captures Sidon.

  • Sep 20-Oct 2, siege of Jerusalem, Saladin retakes city and most of the land leaving the Franks only Tyre, Tripoli, and Antioch

1188 Jan 21 - Henry II of England and Philip Augustus of France meet to plan crusade.

  • Sep - Saladin agrees to truce with Bohemond of Antioch

1189-1192 Third Crusade, major Franks were Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick I (the Holy Roman Emperor)

1189:May, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) left Europe on the Third Crusade

1190 June 10 - Frederick I dies crossing the river Goksu

1191 April 20 Philip Augustus arrives in Acre.

  • May - Richard conquers Cyprus.

  • June 7 - Richard arrives in Acri.

  • Jul 12, Acre falls to Richard and Philip, who then decide who will rule Jerusalem (between Guy and Conrad),

  • Aug 3 - Philip then leaves and Richard seizes Arsuf and Jaffa, refortifies Ascalon

  • Sep 7, 1191: Richard met Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf

  • Nov-Dec 1191: Richard's Crusaders marched toward Jerusalem but turned back to the coast

1192 Jan - Richard begins negotiations with Saladin.

  • Jun - Richard's Crusaders marched again toward Jerusalem but turned back again

  • Aug 1 - Richard successfully defends Jaffa.

  • September 2 - Richard and Saladin sign a treaty, ending their fighting

  • October 9 - Richard leaves the mideast

1193 Mar 3, Saladin dies, several years of civil war follow, until his brother al-Adil, takes control

1197 spring Frederick I's son, Henry VI goes on crusade

  • September 28, Henry VI dies

1198-1224: Albert of Buxtehude expanded the Baltic Crusades

1198 July 1, Henry VI's nobles reach a treaty with Muslims and leave

  • Aug 1198: Pope Innocent III called the Fourth Crusade

  • Order of Teutonic Knights begins (Acre is their main base)

1199: Political Crusade against Markward of Anweiler

  • April - King Richard dies.

1202-1204 Fourth Crusade

1202: Nov 10 - Venetians and Crusaders sacked Zara, a Christian port on the Dalmatian Coast

1203 June 24 - Crusaders arrive at Constantinople

  • July 17, crusaders take Constantinople, put Alexius IV on the throne

1204 late January Murzuphlus seizes throne and tries to expel crusaders

1208: Pope Innocent III called the Albigensian Crusade

1209-1229 Albigensian crusade in southern France against Cathar heretics

1212 Children's Crusade

1213 Pope Innocent III begins planning the Fifth Crusade

1215 Dec Pope Innocent III calling Fifth Crusade during Fourth Lateran Council, imposition of a crusade tax (on Church estates)

1216 July 16, Innocent III dies, planning continued by successor, Pope Honorius III

1217-1218 Andrew II of Hungary tries for Acre

1217-1221 Fifth Crusade, consists of various attacks on Egypt

1217 Dec : Fifth Crusaders attacked Mount Tabor

1218 Jan - Kind Andrew of Hungry returns home.

May : Fifth Crusaders began the siege of Damietta

1219-1221 crusade in Egypt led by Cardinal Pelagius; he seized Damietta and tried to take Cairo, defeated by al-Kamil, Egypt's sultan

1219 Francis of Assisi fails to convert al-Kamil, sultan of Egypt

1221 Aug : Fifth Crusade, in the Nile Delta, surrendered

1227 Genghis Khan dies; ensuing wars for succession lessen Mongol threat for a time
1228-1229 Sixth Crusade Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, while under papal interdict, crusades in Egypt;

1228 Jun : Emperor Frederick II, King of Jerusalem through marriage to Isabell (Yolanda), sailed East on the Sixth Crusade

1229 Feb 18 - Al-Kamil surrendered Jerusalem to Emperor Frederick II

1230 Teutonic Knights start attacking Prussia

1235 Byzantines have retaken Asia Minor

1239-1241 Theobald of Champage and Richard of Cornwall lead a small crusade

1240s: Popes Gregory IX and Innocent IV called Political Crusades against Emperor Frederick II

1244 Franks lose Jerusalem for the final time

1245 Pope Innocent IV sends missionaries to Mongols; other negotiations follow

1247 Louis IX plans crusade; Frederick keeps al-Kamil's son, Ayyub, informed of plans

1248-1254 Seventh Crusade or Crusade of St. Louis attacks Egypt.

1248: King Louis IX departed for the Holy Land on the Seventh Crusade

1248-1250 Louis IX invades Egypt; seizes Damietta, defeated and captured at Mansurah; released for ransom (and Damietta)

1248-1250 end of Ayyubid dynasty, Mamluks now control Egypt

1251 Möngke, grandson of Genghis Khan, controls Mongols

1254 Apr, Louis departed the Holy Land

1258 Feb Mongols under Hülegü (Genghis Khan's grandson) take Baghdad, kill the last 'Abbasid caliph; the population is massacred

1259 December Qutuz becomes leader of Egypt in coup

1260 January Mongols under Hülegü take Aleppo

  • March 1, Mongols under Hülegü take Damascus

  • Möngke dies; Hülegü returns to fight for succession

  • September 3, 1260 battle of 'Ayn Jalut: Mamluks under Qutuz defeat Mongols

  • September 8, 1260 Mamluks take Damascus

  • October 23, 1260 Baybars kills Qutuz and becomes sultan; he controls Cairo without a fight but there is some conflict

1261 July 25, Byzantines recapture Constantinople, end of Latin Empire

1265 Hülegü dies

1268 May 18, Baybars seizes Antioch (formerly allied to Mongols) Baybars seizes Jaffa

1270 Eighth Crusade: Louis IX attacks Tunis

  • Jul, Louis IX's Last Crusade; Louis died in North Africa

  • Aug 25, Louis IX dies near Tunis

1277 Baybars is poisoned and dies; Qalawun becomes sultan

1289 April 26 or 27, Qalawun, the Mamluk sultan, retakes Tripoli from Franks

1290 Nov Qalawun dies; his son Khalil assumes power

1291 June 17, Khalil retakes Acre, ending what we are defining as the Great Crusades; crusaders fall back to Cyprus


1307 Oct : King Philip IV surpessed the Templars in France

1330-1523: Hospitallers continued crusade action from Rhodes

1334: Crusader navy defeated Turkish pirates in the Gulf of Edremit

1334-1402: Crusaders held the port of Smyrna

1365: Crusaders under Peter I of Cyprus sacked Alexandria

1396: Crusade of Nicopolis

1426: Egyptians gained control over Cyprus

1492: Fall of Granada and the appearance at subsequent celebrations of a Genoese ship's captain with odd ideas about sailing to India

1798: Fall of Hospitallers on Malta to Napoleon

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