87 A New Way Of Seeing 1880 IN THE SHADOW of a pile of limestone in the south of France called Mont Sainte-Victoire, art turned and faced the 20th century. There, Paul Céézanne painstakingly replaced conventional systems of light, shade, line and perspective with a new visual vocabulary. The mountain was his favorite subject, and he painted it more than 60 times. In works from 1880 on, the near and the far merge, transforming spatial voids into animate planes, transforming static reality into a network of visual energy. Céézanne substituted the perspective created by line with a backward-forward pulsation of color that made the two-dimensional canvas vibrate with the three-dimensional fullness of nature. The surface of a painting would henceforth no longer be merely a window through which reality could be observed. Céézanne would make it a reality unto itself, one he saw as both classic and transcendent. Artists would now be free to develop new modes of expression. As Pablo Picasso later observed, he was "the father of us all."