37. Enlightenment thinker Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, which professed the idea of a government ruled by popular sovereignty, and that the government was responsible for protecting man’s natural rights.
38. Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses (attacks against the Catholic Church), started the Protestant Reformation.
39. Strengthen Athenian democracy, build commercial empire, glorify Athens: goals of Pericles during Athens’ Golden Age.
40. Effects of Crusades include expansion of trade, decline of feudalism, increased religious intolerance & decline of pope’s power.
41. The peoples who overran Italy and Rome in the 4th Century AD spoke Germanic languages.
relinquished any right to that power – In effect, that would be the price of the protection they sought from a strong government.
43. Roman law was important in establishing the notion of “innocence until proven guilty”.
44. The militaristic dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power after the ideals of the French Revolution (including the freedoms of speech and religion, and equal justice under the rule of law), came to a crushing end as a result of the Reign of Terror.
45. The only “civilizing” and “unifying” force in Western Europe during the Middle Ages was the Christian Church.
46. The Industrial Revolution began in England.
47. Mass production was made possible and profitable with the innovation of “interchangeable parts”, first introduced to the industrial world by Eli Whitney who used interchangeable parts in guns.
48. Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
49. Because England had so many colonies around the globe, it used to be said that “the sun never sets on the British Empire.”
50. The Jews were the first people to introduce monotheism, and to worship their one god wherever they traveled.
51. The authors of The Communist Manifesto are Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
53. The Roman Empire continued to thrive after 476 AD and the fall of the city of Rome, because the capital had already been moved to the eastern city, Constantinople – The Eastern Empire was called the Byzantine Empire.
54. A government in which leaders rule by divine authority is called a theocracy.
55. Russia suffered a civil war that led to the Communist Revolution that saw Lenin emerge as the USSR’s first Soviet Premier.
56. Manors were large estates owned by lords in the Middle Ages.
57. The four M.A.I.N. causes of World War I are Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism.
58. Guilds were professional organizations of artisans – the precursor to modern-day unions.
59. WWI was preceded by an arms race between Germany and Great Britian.
60. 80,000 British troops suffered from shell-shock during and after WWI.
61. As a result of WWI, 8 million troops died and 21 million troops were wounded.
62. Manors were large estates owned by lords in the Middle Ages.
63. Artisans are workers who make goods using their hands; for example, blacksmiths or masonry workers.
64. Population increased during High Middle Ages because: peace and stability, new technologies, and better food production.
65. The caste system was the rigid social system in ancient India that determined occupation and status in society.
66. Crusades were a series of religious wars: European Christians unsuccessfully tried to recapture Jerusalem from Muslims.
67. The Industrial Revolution was ushered in by many new technologies and the invention of the steam engine in considered the catalyst of change by most historians and economists.
68 Charlemagne was the Great Frankish king who was crowned Emperor of Rome in 800 AD, establishing the first empire in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
69. The Nile River was the biggest influence on the development of Egyptian civilization.
70. The revolutionary shift of the Neolithic Revolution was from hunting and gathering food to raising crops.
71. Muhammad is the prophet of Allah, and of Islam – The Koran is the Islamic holy book.
72. Sumerians developed cuneiform, a form of writing using wedge-shaped symbols pressed into tablets of clay.
73. Members of The Black Hand, a Serbian militaristic group seeking national independence, are responsible for the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife. This act of terrorism is considered the “spark” that touched off the beginning of WWI.
74. The United States entered WWI (on the side of the Allies), in 1917 after Russia pulled out due to the Communist Revolution that brought the reign of Nicolas II to an end.
75. Culture is the term that refers to the way of life of a people.
76. WWI has also been referred to as, “The Great War”, “The War to End all Wars”, and “The War of the Nations.”
77. A heretic is a person whose opinions and beliefs go against the opinions of the church.
78. US soldiers were only in actual combat for a total of seven and a half months, yet there were 116,000 killed and over 200,000 wounded in battle.
79. Patronage was the system in the Roman Republic that allowed the patricians to maintain their power even though they made up only 10% of the Roman population.
80. The dominating system of politics, economics and military during the Middle Ages was feudalism.
88. Hammurabi was the Babylonian King who established the world’s first written code of laws.
89. On October 31, 1999, Pope John Paul II posthumously pardoned Galileo for speaking out against church when he posted his 95 Thesis on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral.
90. The Industrial Revolution started in England around 1733 with the first cotton mill.
91. Vasco da Gama discovered a quick sea route to India, making trade much more profitable, and ushering in the system of mercantilism.
92. City-states of Ancient Greek (e.g., Athens, Sparta, Syracuse, etc.), fought one another over trade routes, resources,, and territorial disputes, but they banded together to ward off the common invading enemy of Persia. Their united efforts at the battle of Thermopopalae gained a modern audience with the release of the film, 300.
93. Solon was the Greek leader who began democratic reforms that led to a democracy in Athens.
94. Cleopatra was the Egyptian queen who divided Roman rulers through her affairs with Caesar and Anthony.
95. Urban II was the pope who organized the first Crusade to recapture the Holy Land from the Turks.
96. Henry II was the English king who established “common law” in England during Medieval times.
97. The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation did nothing to improve the status of women in European society.
98. A ziggurat is a massive stepped tower in Sumer on which a temple was built.
99. Augustus was the Roman emperor who encouraged trade by building highway system and established a common coinage.
100. Without history there is no civilization; More food = more people; Money = power. DO NOT FORGET!!!