1. Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone secreted in both males and females?



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incorrect?

a. Women generally have a lower sweat rate for the same exercise and heat stress.

b. Women have a larger number of active sweat glands than men.

c. Women produce less sweat per gland.

d. a and b

*e. All of these are correct.
Title: Sex Differences

47. Bone loss associated with secondary amenorrhea is totally reversible with resumption of a normal menstrual cycle.

a. true

*b. false


Title: Sex Differences

48. Women have a delayed onset of sweating and dilation of the skin during the luteal phase of the menestrual cycle and this does not affect performance until core temp approaches 40 ºC.

*a. true

b. false
Title: Sex Differences

49. There is a strong connection among each of the three components of the female athlete triad: disordered eating, secondary amenorrhea, and bone mineral disorders.

*a. true


b. false
Title: Sex Differences

50. Women experience the same relative increase in maximal oxygen uptake as men do with cardiorespiratory endurance training.

*a. true

b. false
Title: Sex Differences

51. Research indicates no significant differences in resistance to muscular fatigue between men and women.

a. true


*b. false
Title: Sex Differences

52. While some female athletes continue to train and compete during pregnancy, aerobic exercise training during pregnancy is generally not recommended because of increased risks to the developing fetus.

a. true

*b. false


Title: Sex Differences

53. Most female athletes experience significant performance decrements during the flow phase of the menstrual cycle.

a. true

*b. false


Title: Sex Differences

54. A female athlete who is amenorrheic cannot become pregnant.

a. true

*b. false


Title: Sex Differences

55. Female athletes appear to be at increased risk for eating disorders when compared to women in the general population.

*a. true

b. false
Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

56. The medical term for cessation of normal menses is ____________________.

a. amenorrhea
Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

57. The loss of fat-free mass that occurs with aging in both men and women is associated with decreased physical activity as well as decreased __________________ levels.

a. testosterone


Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

58. A disease characterized by an increase in bone porosity and a decrease in bone mineral content is _____________________.

a. osteoporosis


Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

59. An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging is called _______________________.

a. bulimia nervosa


Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

60. The increase in muscle mass with growth is associated with the hormone _______________________.

a. testosterone


Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

61. The increase in body fat in females is primarily due to the hormone _______________.

a. estrogen


Type: F

Title: Sex Differences

62. The two most commonly diagnosed eating disorders are ____________________ and _______________.

a. anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa


Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

63. Highly trained female distance runners run the marathon at a pace that is approximately 10% slower than highly trained male distance runners. List at least four physiological factors that might explain this difference, and then explain in some detail how each factor might exert its influence. As an example, if you think that leg length is a critical factor, then list leg length and explain how it could affect this difference.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

64. List three major physiological concerns associated with exercise during pregnancy.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

65. Discuss the potential causes of menstrual dysfunction in female athletes.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

66. Discuss the potential impact of prolonged menstrual dysfunction on risk for osteoporosis.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

67. List and discuss the apparent interrelationships between the three main components of the female athlete triad.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

68. Differentiate between the meaning of the terms eating disorder and disordered eating.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

69. How does body composition of females compare with that of males? How do male and female athletes differ from male and female nonathletes?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

70. What are the roles of testosterone and estrogen in the development of strength, FFM, and fat mass?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

71. How does women’s upper body strength compare with men’s? Lower body strength? FFM? Can women gain strength with resistance training? Explain why or why not.
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

72. What differences in V\od\O2max exist between average females and males? Between highly trained males and females? What can explain these differences?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

73. What cardiovascular differences exist between females and males with respect to submaximal exercise? Maximal exercise?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

74. How does the menstrual cycle influence athletic performance?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

75. What risks are associated with training during pregnancy? How can these be avoided?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

76. What are the effects of amenorrhea on bone mineral? How does exercise training affect bone mineral?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

77. What is the female athlete triad? What factors are involved and how does the triad develop?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

78. How do women differ from men in their exercise response when exposed to intense heat and humidity? To cold? To altitude?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

79. What is the primary reason that some female athletes in intense training stop menstruating for intervals of several months to several years?
Type: E

Title: Sex Differences

80. What are the two major eating disorders, and what is the level of risk for elite female athletes having these eating disorders? How does this vary by sport?
Type: MT

Title: Sex Differences

81. Match each of the following terms with the most appropriate definition or descriptive phrase.

a. anorexia nervosa = characterized by amenorrhea, a distorted body image, and intense fear of gaining weight

b. lipoprotein lipase = considered the "gate keeper" for fat storage in the adipose tissue

c. estrogen = stimulates increased bone growth and fat deposition in females during adolescence

d. primary amenorrhea = absence of menarche in women 18 years of age or older

e. eumenorrhea = normal menstrual function

f. secondary amenorrhea = absence of menstruation that occurs in a woman with previously normal menstrual function

g. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) = decreased release of this hormone by the hypothalamus may play an important role in menstrual dysfunction



h. osteoporosis = characterized by increased bone porosity; increases risk of bone fracture
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