1. Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone secreted in both males and females?



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Title: Sex Differences

1. Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone secreted in both males and females?

a. estrogen

*b. follicle-stimulating hormone

c. testosterone

d. a and c are correct

e. All of these are correct.
Title: Sex Differences

2. Women were first allowed to officially compete in marathon events in

a. 1930

b. 1945


c. 1960

*d. 1970


e. 1980
Title: Sex Differences

3. Which of the following is true regarding testosterone?

a. It increases bone formation.

b. It increases muscle mass.

c. It stimulates erythropoietin by the kidneys.

*d. All of these are correct.


Title: Sex Differences

4. Which enzyme is considered the gatekeeper for storing fat in adipose tissue?

a. amylolipase

b. lipoprotease

*c. lipoprotein lipase

d. phosphorylase


Title: Sex Differences

5. Which of the following is the major transporter of triglycerides in blood?

*a. chylomicrons

b. HDL


c. LDL

d. VLDL
Title: Sex Differences

6. The primary reason(s) women deposit fat more in the hip and thigh area than in other areas is

a. lipoprotein lipase is high in the hip and thigh area

b. lipolytic activity is high in the hip and thigh area

c. this fat is needed for reproductive function

*d. a and c

e. All of these are correct.


Title: Sex Differences

7. Females, when compared to males of similar weight at full maturity (i.e., college age), generally have

a. greater fat-free weight and less fat weight

b. less fat-free weight and less fat weight

c. greater fat-free weight and greater weight

*d. less fat-free weight and greater fat weight


Title: Sex Differences

8. A woman's increase in muscle mass with resistance training is generally _______________ that seen in men.

*a. smaller than

b. similar to

c. greater than
Title: Sex Differences

9. Women are generally weaker than men because of their

a. lower fat mass

*b. smaller muscle mass

c. higher fat mass

d. greater muscle mass


Title: Sex Differences

10. Males and females are approximately the same height and weight until the age of

a. 5 to 7 years

*b. 10 to 14 years

c. 15 to 17 years

d. They are never the same.


Title: Sex Differences

11. Lower body strength differences between men and women disappear or are significantly reduced when the data are expressed

a. as absolute strength

b. strength relative to body weight

*c. strength relative to FFM

d. Males are always stronger regardless of how data are expressed.


Title: Sex Differences

12. The changes in FFM that occur with strength training

a. are gender specific—males demonstrate greater increases

b. are attributable only to neural factors in females

*c. are similar between the sexes

d. None of these is correct.


Title: Sex Differences

13. Women can experience major increases in muscular strength with resistance training as a result of

a. a conversion of slow- to fast-twitch fibers

b. an increased capillary-to-muscle-fiber ratio

c. a large increase in muscle mass

*d. improved neural factors


Title: Sex Differences

14. Research shows that females have

*a. a greater resistance to fatigue compared to men

b. a smaller muscle fiber cross-sectional area than men, but a larger total muscle mass

c. a higher percentage of their muscle mass in the upper body compared to the lower body

d. a higher stroke volume but similar cardiac output compared to men


Title: Sex Differences

15. Compared to men, women have a higher heart rate response for any absolute level of submaximal cycle ergometer exercise because of their

a. larger blood volume

b. higher maximum heart rate

c. higher stroke volume

*d. smaller left ventricle


Title: Sex Differences

16. When comparing the cardiovascular responses of women and men to a given absolute or relative submaximal exercise workload,

a. women generally have lower HRs and higher stroke volumes than men

*b. women generally have lower stroke volumes and higher HRs than men

c. women have lower stroke volumes and higher HRs during exercise at a given absolute workload, but the responses of men and women to the same relative workload do not differ

d. the responses of women do not differ significantly from those of men


Title: Sex Differences

17. Likely contributor(s) to the sex specific difference in maximal oxygen consumption is (are)

a. lower hemoglobin

b. lower arterial oxygen content

c. reduced muscle oxidative potential

*d. All of these are correct.


Title: Sex Differences

18. What are the respiratory differences between males and females?

*a. There is no difference in breathing frequency between males and females when power output is expressed as relative power.

b. Tidal volume is generally smaller in females at the same relative power output but is higher at absolute power outputs.

c. Ventilatory volumes are generally larger in females at relative and absolute power outputs.

d. All of these are respiratory differences between males and females.


Title: Sex Differences

19. The average male reaches peak V\od\O2max between the ages of

a. 12 and 15 years

*b. 17 and 21 years

c. 25 and 30 years

d. 10 and 15 years


Title: Sex Differences

20. Factors that probably contribute to lower V\od\O2max values (expressed as ml · kg–1 · min–1 for women than for men include

a. smaller plasma volume

b. lower hemoglobin levels

c. higher percentage of body fat

*d. all of these

e. none of these
Title: Sex Differences

21. Which of the following statements is true?

a. At the same absolute submax work rates, lactate threshold occurs at a higher absolute power output in females.

*b. At the same absolute submax work rates, females are usually working at a higher percent V\od\O2max.

c. Lactate threshold appears to be higher in males even when both males and females are trained equally and the data expressed as percent V\od\O2max.

d. Peak lactate concentrations are generally higher in females.


Title: Sex Differences

22. In both males and females, cardiorespiratory changes that occur with endurance training include

a. increases in end diastolic volume

b. decreases in end systolic volume

c. increases in blood volume

d. a and c

*e. All of these are correct.
Title: Sex Differences

23. Saltin and Rowell suggest that the major limitation(s) to V\od\O2max is (are)

a. oxygen transport to working muscles

b. increased muscle blood flow

c. increased capillary density

*d. All of these are correct.


Title: Sex Differences

24. With cardiorespiratory training, males and females experience the same relative increase in V\od\O2max, which is

*a. 15 to 20%

b. 20 to 30%

c. 10 to 20%

d. 25 to 30%


Title: Sex Differences

25. In sporting events where performances can be compared, generally women are outperformed by men in events such as

a. 400-meter freestyle

b. shot put

c. 800-meter freestyle

*d. most events in which upper body strength is required

e. b and c
Title: Sex Differences

26. The follicular phase of the menstrual cycle includes

a. the menstrual phase

b. the proliferative phase

*c. the menstrual and proliferative phases

d. the secretory phase

e. the proliferative and secretory phases
Title: Sex Differences

27. Which of the following is the best or most appropriate response?

a. Physical training delays menarche.

*b. Menarche occurs later in trained athletes.

c. Menstrual dysfunction occurs as a result of training at young age.

d. Research shows performance declines in the flow phase of the menstrual cycle.


Title: Sex Differences

28. Abnormally infrequent menstruation or menses occuring at intervals longer than 35 days is

a. eumenorrhea

b. amenorrhea

*c. oligomenorrhea

d. primary amenorrhea

e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

29. Normal menstrual function is termed

*a. eumenorrhea

b. amenorrhea

c. oligomenorrhea

d. primary amenorrhea

e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

30. Which of the following is not considered a menstrual dysfunction?

*a. eumenorrhea

b. amenorrhea

c. oligomenorrhea

d. primary amenorrhea

e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

31. Absence of menstruation is termed

a. eumenorrhea

*b. amenorrhea

c. oligomenorrhea

d. primary amenorrhea

e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

32. Absence of menarche in females 16 years of age and older is termed

a. eumenorrhea

b. amenorrhea

c. oligomenorrhea

*d. primary amenorrhea

e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

33. Normal menstrual function followed by a lack of menstruation for periods of 3 to 6 months or longer is termed

a. eumenorrhea

b. amenorrhea

c. oligomenorrhea

d. primary amenorrhea

*e. secondary amenorrhea
Title: Sex Differences

34. Which of the following is not associated with the development of secondary amenorrhea?

a. disordered eating

*b. high percentage of body fat

c. psychological stress

d. high-intensity physical training


Title: Sex Differences

35. Which of the following is recognized as the primary cause of secondary amenorrhea?

a. history of menstrual dysfunction

b. high quantity or intensity of training

c. low body weight or body fat

*d. energy deficit through inadequate nutrtion and disordered eating


Title: Sex Differences

36. Reports of reduced uterine blood flow during exercise while pregnant

a. are directly related to exercise intensity

b. are directly related to exercise duration

c. clearly lead to fetal hypoxia

*d. a and b

e. All of these are correct.
Title: Sex Differences

37. Possible risks to the pregnant athlete include

a. fetal hypoxia

b. fetal hyperthermia

c. decreased carbohydrate supply to the fetus

*d. All of these are correct.


Title: Sex Differences

38. Supine exercise beyond the first trimester may

*a. decrease venous return

b. increase cardiac output

c. decrease the health benefits of the exercise

d. increase stroke volume

e. None of these is correct.
Title: Sex Differences

39. Which of the following should be avoided during pregnancy?

a. supine exercise beyond the first trimester

b. scuba diving throughout the entire pregnancy

c. exercise at altitudes in excess of 6000 feet

d. prolonged periods of motionless standing beyond the first trimester

*e. All of these are correct.
Title: Sex Differences

40. Which of the following is not a contributing factor to osteoporosis?

a. estrogen deficiency

*b. inadequate non-weight bearing exercise

c. inadequate calcium intake

d. those with amenorrhea or anorexia nervosa


Title: Sex Differences

41. Estrogen alone has been prescribed to reverse the degenerative effects of osteoporosis, but it can have which side effect?

*a. increased risk of endometrial cancer

b. increased risk of stroke

c. increased risk of heart attack

d. increased risk of breast cancer


Title: Sex Differences

42. Reference to patterns of eating that are not considered normal but do not meet the specific diagnostic criteria for a given disorder is

a. eating disorder

*b. disordered eating

c. dieting disorder

d. self-reported disorder


Title: Sex Differences

43. Which of the following is not a characteristic of anorexia nervosa?

a. distorted body image

b. refusal to maintain more than the minimal normal weight based on age and height

*c. recurrent episodes of binge eating

d. intense fear of gaining weight


Title: Sex Differences

44. It appears that the female athlete triad starts with

a. secondary amenorrhea

b. bone mineral disorders

c. primary amenorrhea

*d. disordered eating


Title: Sex Differences

45. Which of the following factors appear(s) to have negative effects on the maintenance of bone density in women?

a. inadequate physical activity

b. inadequate dietary calcium intake

c. excess body weight

d. amenorrhea

*e. all except c (excess body weight)
Title: Sex Differences

46. Which of the following is


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