1. Study Sources a and B. Source a



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1. Study Sources A and B.

SOURCE A

The following is adapted from a book on the foreign policy of the People’s Republic of China after 1976.



Major changes have taken place in China’s domestic politics and foreign policy since 1976. In 1978, the Chinese government concluded a Sino-Japanese peace and friendship treaty that included an anti-hegemonic clause. That same year, China and the U.S. established formal diplomatic relations and in the joint communiqué, both sides reaffirmed the principle of anti-hegemony.

Source: J. Cheng, ‘The Evolution of China’s Foreign Policy in the Post Mao Era: From Anti-Hegemony to Modernization Diplomacy’ in J. Cheng, ed., China: Modernization in the 1980s (Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1989), p.161.

SOURCE B

The following text is an extract from the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People’s Republic of China signed in 1978.



The Contracting Parties shall develop lasting relations of peace and friendship between the two countries on the basis of mutual respect for the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-intervention in each other's internal affairs, mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.

In accordance with the aforementioned principles and the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Contracting Parties affirm that, in their mutual relations, they will use peaceful means to settle all disputes and will refrain from the use of force or the threats of the use thereof.



Source: Created by editing the text ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan) (http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/china/treaty78.html) (Accessed on 14 July 2014).


(a)

What was the leading principle of the diplomacy of the People’s Republic of China after 1976, as reflected in Source A? Identify one clue from Source A to support your answer. (1+1 mark)


(b)

Did the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1978 between the People’s Republic of China and Japan reflect the principle you identified in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (4 marks)


(c)

Do Sources A and B adequately reflect the diplomatic relations between the People’s Republic of China and her Asian neighbours during the period 1976-2000? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)

Question 1

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

Leading principle of the diplomacy of the PRC after 1976

[1+1 mark]




Leading principle (paraphrasing is necessary):

  • Avoiding the appearance of a single dominating force in the international community


Clue:

  • Both Japan and the U.S. agreed with China on the principle of anti-hegemony.




[1 mark]


[1 mark]

(b)

Whether the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1978 between the PRC and Japan reflect the principle identified in part (a)

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Well-explained answer with due reference to the Source
Whether the treaty reflected the principle of anti-hegemony:

  • Yes

  • Clues:

    • “….develop lasting relations of peace and friendship between the two countries on the basis of mutual respect for the principles of sovereignty ….”

    • “….they will use peaceful means to settle all disputes and will refrain from the use of force or the threats of the use thereof”


Explanation:

  • By promising to resort to peaceful means and mutual respect for various peaceful principles, the two signatories agreed to settle any future conflict by peaceful negotiation on equal basis, without one country subjugating the other under military or political force.




[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Whether Sources A and B adequately reflect the diplomatic relations between the PRC and her Asian neighbours during the period 1976-2000.

[7 marks]




L1 Rough answer, merely a narration of diplomatic history between the two countries

L2 Lopsided answer focusing merely on either usefulness or limitations

L3 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source A) In 1978, the People’s Republic of China formalized its relations with Japan, and they agreed with each other on the principle of anti-hegemony.

  • (Source B) The treaty of 1978 specified the settling of Sino-Japanese conflicts by peaceful means and the pledge to mutual respect of sovereign, territorial integrity, non-aggression, non-intervention and peaceful coexistence.


Limitations, e.g.:

Sources A and B fail to reflect the following:



  • The dispute of sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands, as well as the disagreement on the Japanese editing of History textbooks concerning the Japanese invasion of China from 1937 to 1945 periodically worsened the diplomatic relations between the PRC and Japan.

  • The territorial disputes over certain islands in the South China Sea with Vietnam

[max. 2]

[max. 4]

[max. 7]



2. Study Sources C and D.

SOURCE C

The following text is quoted from CPC General Secretary Hu Yaobang’s report to the 12th CPC Congress in 1982.



“Our adherence to an independent foreign policy accords with discharging out lofty international duty to safeguard world peace and promote human progress. In the 33 years since the founding of our People’s Republic, we have shown the world by deeds that China never attaches itself to any big power or group of powers and never yields to pressure from any big power.”

Source: “The 12th National Congress – Beijing Review website” (http://www.bjreview.com.cn/90th/2011-04/12/content_357550_13.htm) (Accessed on 14 July 2014).
SOURCE D

The following text is adapted from a book on Japan’s foreign policy with China.



Since ‘normalization’ there have undoubtedly been significant gains in political, economic and cultural relationships between China and Japan. The first accomplishment was the ‘normalization’ of diplomatic relations itself. As a result, hostilities ceased and recognition was accorded to differences in institutional and political systems. There has also been remarkable increase in two-way visitor traffic, growing from 9,000 in 1972 to over two million in 1998. By 1998, the number of Chinese students who studied in Japan reached thirty thousand. [In economy], both China and Japan [have contributed] to development and stability in the Asian region.

Source: T. Kojima, ‘Japan’s China Policy’ in P. Drysdale and D. Zhang, ed., Japan and China: Rivalry or Cooperation in East Asia? (Canberra: Paragon Printers, 2000), p.38.


(a)

Identify the main objective of the foreign policy of the People’s Republic of China during the early 1980s, as reflected in Source C. Support your answer with relevant clues from Source C. (1+2 marks)


(b)

Refer to Source D. What was the author’s attitude towards the development of Sino-Japanese relations from the early 1970s to the late 1990s? Explain your answer with reference to Source D and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)


(c)

What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources C and D in reflecting the development of Sino-Japanese relations during the second half of the 20th century? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)

Question 2

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

Main objective of the foreign policy of the PRC during the 1980s

[1+2 marks]




Main objective:

  • To maintain diplomatic independence


Clues:

  • “our adherence to an independent foreign policy”

  • “never attaches itself to any big power or groups of powers and never yields to pressure from any big power”




[1 mark]


[2 marks,

1 mark

each]

(b)

Author’s attitude towards the development of Sino-Japanese relations from the early 1970s to the late 1990s

[4 marks]




L1 Rough answer attempting to summarize the Source without elaboration on author’s attitude

L2 Well-explained answer able to elaborate on author’s attitude
Author’s attitude:

  • Positive / approving

  • Clues:

    • “…there have undoubtedly been significant gains in political, economic and cultural relationships between China and Japan.”

    • “The first accomplishment was …”


Explanation:

  • The Source one-sidedly mentioned various political, economic and cultural benefits brought by the normalization of diplomatic relations between the PRC and Japan.

  • The PRC was undergoing the Reform and Opening Up period and opened herself for more political, economic and cultural contacts with Japan, which had experienced a few decades of economic growth and boom (from the 1950s to 1970s). It was, therefore, a period for the PRC to absorb the successful experience of Japan through building a cooperative relationship.



[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Usefulness and limitations of Sources C and D in reflecting the development of Sino-Japanese relations during the 2nd half of the 20th century

[6 marks]




L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source C) The PRC did not yield to any country in the 1980s. This was due to the PRC’s “adherence to an independent foreign policy” as said by Hu Yaobang in 1982. This principle also applied to Sino-Japanese relations in the same period.

  • (Source D) The PRC experienced steady progress in political, economic and cultural relationships with Japan during the period 1972-1998. Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations were formalized; military hostilities ceased; mutual differences were respected; two-way visitor traffic increased; and academic exchange flourished.


Limitations, e.g.:

Sources C and D fail to reflect the following:



  • The Sino-Japanese territorial dispute over the Diaoyu Islands, and

  • The intermittently worsening Sino-Japanese relations due to the Japanese Prime Minister’s visit to the Yasukuni Shrine and the Japanese government’s attempt at cleansing the history of Japanese invasion of China from school textbooks.

[max. 3]

[max. 6]


3. Study Sources E and F.

SOURCE E

The following text is adapted from a book published in the early 1980s on the status of China in world politics.




In 1977, Sino-Japanese trade was greater than that with the Soviet Union and the European Economic Community. China also sought technical and financial collaboration with Japan for the development of some of the major industrial projects involving investments of over $6 billion. It is likewise interesting to consider the help sought by the Chinese from Japan for a) the construction of world’s largest and most modern steelworks; b) the construction of three giant integrated lead-zinc production plants; c) the joint development of jet aircraft engines.

Source: H. Kapur, The Awakening Giant: China’s Ascension in World Politics (Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff & Noordhoff, 1981), pp.145-146.

SOURCE F

The following text is adapted from a book published in the early 1990s on the modernization of the People’s Republic of China.




Since 1979, China has been determined to develop its modernization program and to establish a socialist China with a modern economy and political stability. To reach this goal, China has to open itself to the outside world and strengthen its foreign relations. The Four Modernizations are a premise for the open door policy, the purpose of which is to attract foreign capital, expand trade and develop science and technology. The establishment of special economic zones and the opening of 14 coastal cities are major steps in opening the country to the outside world.

Source: K. Liao, Antiforeignism and Modernization in China (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1990), p.239.


(a)

What kind of relationship did the People’s Republic of China foster with Japan in 1977? Support your answer with relevant clues from Source E. (1+2 marks)


(b)

Refer to Source F. Did the People’s Republic of China foster the same relationship as you identified in part (a) with other countries after 1979? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (4 marks)


(c)

During the period 1976-2000, the relationships between the People’s Republic of China and its Asian neighbours were solely based on economic motives.” Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)



Question 3

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

Kind of relationship fostered by the PRC with Japan in 1977

[1+2 marks]




Kind of relationship:

  • Trading partners / economically cooperative relationship


Clues (any two):

  • “Sino-Japanese trade was greater than that with the Soviet Union and the European Economic Community…”

  • “China also sought technical and financial collaboration with Japan …”

  • “the help sought by the Chinese from Japan for … c) the joint development of jet aircraft engines”





[1 mark]
[2 marks,

1mark

each]

(b)

Whether the PRC fostered the same relationship with other countries after 1979

[4 marks]




L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Comprehensive answer with due reference to the Source
Whether the PRC fostered the same relationship with other countries:

  • Yes

  • Clues:

    • “…. the open door policy, the purpose of which is to attract foreign capital, expand trade….”

    • “The establishment of special economic zones and the opening of 14 coastal cities are major steps in opening the country to the outside world.”


Explanation:

  • Since the beginning of the Reform and Opening Up, the PRC opened her door to attract foreign investment from various Asian and non-Asian countries.

  • Since 1978, the PRC showed determination to establish strong economic ties with Asian neighbours through industrial, commercial and financial activities, and took these as the basis of diplomatic relations.




[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

During the period 1976-2000, the relationships between the People’s Republic of China and its Asian neighbours were solely based on economic motives.” Do you agree?

[7 marks]




L1 Rough answer, unable to express any stance on the statement; merely narrating the development of diplomatic relations in the given period

L2 Able to express stance on the statement but fail to justify the stance; lopsided to either the Sources or one’s own knowledge

L3 Able to express and justify the stance; comprehensive answer covering both the Sources and one’s own knowledge
Based on economic motives, e.g.:

  • (Source E) The PRC strengthened its trading relationship with Japan in order to absorb Japanese experience and technology in building steelworks, lead-zinc production plans and jet aircraft engines, as well as facilitate the grander scheme of Reform and Opening Up.

  • (Source F) The PRC strengthened its foreign relations with its neighbours and opened its door to international trade since the Reform and Opening Up, in order to attract foreign capital, expand trade and development science and technology, which were all for the economic well-being of the PRC.

  • (own knowledge) The diplomatic relations between the PRC and Southeast Asian nations were based on the economic motive of purchasing various raw materials from Southeast Asian countries (e.g. rubber from Malaysia) for the development of the flourishing Chinese industries.


Based on other motives, e.g.:

  • (own knowledge) The PRC’s involvement in the ASEAN was also based on the motive of extending its principle of anti-hegemony, i.e. avoiding the rise of a single predominant power in the Asia-Pacific Region. This was out of strategic and national security considerations.

  • (own knowledge) The PRC’s relationships with all Asian neighbours were also based on the political motive of having all Asian neighbours recognize the “one China” principle, i.e. excluding the possibility of any country building formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan.


[max. 2]
[max. 4]
[max. 7]


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