1. Research findings indicate that exercise is associated with
a. increases in energy and alertness
b. changing a bad mood
c. decreases in fatigue and anger
*d. all of the above
e. a and c
2. Some ________ of Americans have depression and __________ have stress reactions.
*a. 17 million; 11 million
b. 5 million; 7 million
c. 1 million; 3 million
d. 6 million; 8 million
e. 600,000; 800,000
3. The nature of the conclusions from the National Institute of Mental Health regarding exercise and mental health was
4. Which of the following statements was (were) conclusion(s) derived from the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on physical activity and mental health?
a. Physical fitness is positively associated with mental health.
b. Males and females benefit equally from exercise.
c. Long-term exercise is usually associated with reductions in traits such as neuroticism and anxiety.
5. Research investigating the relationship between exercise and quality of life has revealed that
a. older adults who exercise report greater life satisfaction and physical health
b. physically active individuals report more stamina and positive attitudes about work
c. there were no differences in reported quality of life between college students who participated in an endurance conditioning program and a comparable control group
d. all of the above
*e. a and b
6. According to research studies, the "runner's high" is experienced by approximately what percentage of runners?
7. The relationship between exercise and hardiness has recently been investigated. A hardy personality style is characterized by
a. a sense of personal control over external events
b. a sense of commitment and purpose in daily life
c. the flexibility to adapt to unexpected changes in life
8. The feelings characterizing the "runner's high" are similar to the concept of
a. inner peace
d. peripheral narrowing
9. Which of the following regarding the relationship between exercise and depression is (are) true?
a. The positive effects are seen across age, health status, and gender.
b. Both aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise are associated with reductions in depression.
c. Reductions in depression after exercise do not depend on fitness levels.
10. According to a study by Greist and colleagues on the effects of exercise and psychotherapy on depression,
a. time-limited psychotherapy produced the greatest reduction in depression
b. time-unlimited therapy produced greater reductions in depression than running
*c. running produced greater reductions in depression than either time-limited or time-unlimited psychotherapy
d. a and c
e. none of the above
11. Which of the following is (are) true?
a. Aerobic exercise is associated with more consistent reductions in state anxiety than anaerobic exercise is.
b. The anxiety reduction after exercise occurs regardless of intensity and duration of the exercise.
c. Activities such as weightlifting and yoga have been found to be associated with positive psychological well-being.
e. a and b
12. Researchers have found that exercise reduces state anxiety for approximately
a. 24 hours
b. 30 minutes
c. 12 hours
*d. 2 to 6 hours
e. 8 to 10 hours
13. Which of the following conditions is generally not related to positive changes in mood?
a. closed and predictable activities
c. rhythmic and repetitive movements
d. abdominal breathing
*e. interpersonal competition
14. Various research studies have indicated that regular physical activity is associated with
a. positive mental health
b. infrequent symptoms of anxiety and depression
c. reduced probability of hypertension and coronary heart disease
15. Aerobic exercise refers to physical activity that
a. is less than 10 minutes in duration
b. does not use oxygen
*c. increases pulmonary and cardiovascular fitness
e. b and c
16. The primary measure of mood in sport and exercise is the
*a. Profile of Mood States
b. Positive Affect–Negative Affect Scale
c. mood alteration scale
d. affective checklist
e. Cognitive–Affective Profile
17. Exercise is related to increased quality of life as measured by
a. increased feelings of enjoyment
b. decreased feelings of stress
c. decreased levels of self-confidence
18. Some new research on the relationship between exercise and psychological well-being among HIV-1 populations showed that
a. anaerobic exercise produced the most positive psychological benefits
*b. both aerobic and weight-training exercise produced positive psychological benefits
c. aerobic exercise had no effect on psychological well-being
19. A recent study has investigated the relationship between exercise and multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that exercise produced
a. less pain and fatigue
b. better sexual functioning
c. higher levels of energy and vigor
20. If exercise is used as an adjunct to traditional therapy, then which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Anaerobic activities appear to produce the most positive psychological effects.
*b. A precise diagnosis of the problem and individually tailored program of exercise should be employed.
c. Exercise therapy can be used for both underweight and obese patients.
d. a and b
21. The results of studies investigating the relationship of exercise and changes in self-concept have been inconsistent. The main reason for this is that
*a. self-concept is a multidimensional construct
b. there were not enough subjects in the studies
c. self-concept cannot be measured through paper-and-pencil tests
22. The "runner's high" has been described as
a. complete joy in the run
b. a very alert mind
c. freedom from worry and guilt
23. Which of the following is (are) true regarding the relationship between exercise and self-esteem?
a. Positive changes have been found only with individuals initially lower in self-esteem.
b. Positive changes in self-esteem through exercise last only one to two months.
*c. Positive changes in self-esteem related to exercise have been found in normal populations.
24. According to Ismail and Young's study on the effects of a fitness program on middle-aged men, exercise
a. improves fitness levels
b. increases self-confidence
c. increases anxiety
25. A negative addiction to exercise can result in
b. strains on interpersonal relationships
c. decrease in work productivity
26. The term "positive addiction to exercise" was coined by
27. If a person feels withdrawal symptoms after 24 to 36 hours without exercise, then the individual is considered
a. positively addicted to exercise
*b. negatively addicted to exercise
28. Which of the following psychological explanations has NOT been put forth to help describe the positive relationship between exercise and psychological well-being?
a. enhanced feelings of control
*c. positive changes in personality
d. positive social interactions
e. feelings of competency
29. Which of the following physiological explanations has NOT been put forth to help describe the positive relationship between exercise and psychological well-being?
a. increases in cerebral blood flow
b. reductions in muscle tension
c. structural changes in the brain
d. increases in endorphins
*e. decreased maximal oxygen consumption to the tissues
30. What conclusion have researchers reached concerning the effects of exercise on cognitive functioning?
a. Intense exercise bouts enhance cognitive functioning.
b. Overall, there is a moderate relationship between exercise and improved cognitive functioning.
c. Exercise programs conducted over longer periods are associated with gains in cognitive functioning.
*d. b and c
31. It is predicted that what illness or disease will be the second-leading cause of death after heart disease by 2020?
a. anxiety neurosis
c. skin cancer
d. abdominal cancer
e. pancreatic cancer
32. Depression is seen most in
a. older adults
*b. girls and women
c. boys and men
d. African American males
e. African American females
33. Recent research on the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive functioning indicates that
*a. the effects were largest on tasks involving executive control
b. the effects occur more in males than in females
c. effects were largest after exercise training exceeded 60 minutes
34. According to research on the use of mirrors during exercise for women indicates that an exercise room should have
*a. no mirrors
b. two mirrors
c. three mirrors
d. four mirrors
35. The effect of exercise on cancer indicates
a. exercise can cause breast cancer to disappear
b. exercise can be beneficial for breast cancer patients
c. exercise can be beneficial to non-breast-cancer patients