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1 Nouns

FOCUS A noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

The simple subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about. Often, the simple subject is a noun. Here are some examples of nouns.

Persons man, scientist, Galileo, Marie Curie

Places city, Europe, fields, Gulf of Mexico

Things map, lamp, spark plug

Ideas imagination, kindness, century, answer

Notice that some nouns are more than one word.

Link to Speaking and Writing

A precise noun gives a clear message without wasting words. How was a noun used to edit this sentence?

Guided Practice

A. Identify the nouns in the sentences.

1. The Renaissance was an exciting time in Europe.

2. Many great thinkers lived in Italy.

3. Galileo Galilei had both curiosity and imagination.

4. This man gained great fame for his ideas.

5. Scientists of the time wondered about the stars.

6. Galileo invented the telescope.

B. 7. -12. Tell whether each noun in A names a person a place, a thing, or an idea.


Remember that a noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

Use precise nouns to express clear messages.


Independent Practice

C. Identifying Nouns List the nouns from the sentences. 13. How does blood move through the body?

14. A scientist in London studied this question.

Model blood, body

15. William Harvey was doctor to the king of England.

16. Dr. Harvey looked closely at the heart throughout his career.

17. The heart is a pump, Harvey decided after much thought.

18. This pump makes blood move through arteries and veins.

19. This man worked without a microscope.

20. Harvey published a book in Frankfurt about his work.

21. Many people around the world read about his ideas.

D. 22.-30. Classifying Nouns Write each noun you listed in C. Label it person, place, thing, or idea.

22. How does blood move through the body?

Model blood-thing body- thing

E. Revising: Using Precise Nouns Rewrite each sentence, using exact nouns to express a clear message.

31. The boy entered his place.

Model Joe entered his workshop.

32. The boy got out his science equipment.

33. He used it to look at some liquid.

34. He saw some life forms in the liquid.

35. A small, furry animal that lived with him climbed on some furniture.

36. It knocked over a tall glass container.

37. Some smelly stuff spilled into some dustlike stuff.

38. The boy saw a sudden change in the dusty powder.

39. The room in which he conducted experiments was filled with scientific odds and ends.

40. He looked at the dusty stuff through a magnifying device.

Application -Writing

Profile Imagine that you are a reporter for your community newspaper. You have just visited the scientist in the photograph. Write a profile of the scientist for your newspaper. Describe who she is, where she works, and what she has done. Use precise nouns.


2 Common and Proper Nouns

FOCUS A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea.

A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing.

Compare the words in color in this sentence.

1. Frank Dobie, the writer, has studied cowboys.

The word writer is a common noun because it refers to any person of a certain category. The name Frank Dobie is a proper noun because it refers to one particular person. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. Here are more examples of common nouns and proper nouns.

Common Nouns




Proper Nouns

Kathryn Whitmire


San Jacinto River

The same word may be a proper noun in one sentence and a common noun in another. Capitalizing proper nouns helps prevent confusion.

2. The Tigers won the World Series in 1984.

3. We saw the tigers in the zoo.

Guided Practice

A. Identify the nouns. Tell whether each one is common or proper.

1. Texas is a very large state.

2. Only Alaska is larger.

3. Corpus Christi touches the Gulf of Mexico.

4. Ports and beaches line the shore.

5. Alonso Alvarez de Pineda of Spain mapped the coast of Texas.


Use a common noun to name any person, place, thing, or idea.

Use a proper noun to name a particular person, place, or thing.

Capitalize all proper nouns.


Independent Practice

B. Identifying Common and Proper Nouns Write the nouns in each sentence, and label each one common or proper.

6. New York is one of the oldest cities in America.

MODEL New York proper cities-common America-proper

7. Henry Hudson claimed the region for the Netherlands.

8. Explorers from England later took over the area.

9. The first governor of the colony was George Clinton.

10. New York State has beautiful valleys and lakes.

11. Niagara Falls attracts many tourists.

12. Lake Placid is a popular town for vacations.

13. The Olympic Games once took place there.

14. The professional basketball team from New York City is called the Knicks.

15. That name is short for the Knickerbockers.

16. The capital of the state is Albany.

C. Proofreading: Capitalizing Proper Nouns Write the sentence in each pair that has the proper noun. Use capital letters where they are needed.

17. Jim drives a mustang.

The mustang is grazing in the meadow.

Model Jim drives a Mustang

18. The boat raced through the waters of bass lake.

We caught a bluegill and some bass in the lake.

19. The vacation was a treat for cliff.

The boys peered over the cliff.

20. Up ahead was a big bend in the road.

The family passed through big bend on their vacation.

21. My aunt grew up in that small white house.

American presidents live in the white house.

22. We can cross the lake in our boat, the sea trout.

During our trip, I caught a sea trout.

Application- Writing

Description Imagine that you are a travel writer. Write a description of an important building, bridge, or sight in your area. Tell travelers where it is located and how it is used. Give some details about its history. Use common and proper nouns.


3 Capitalization of Proper Nouns

FOCUS Each important word in a proper noun beg-ins with a capital letter.

Remember that a proper noun begins with a capital letter. If a proper noun has more than one word, capitalize the first word and all other important words. Do not capitalize a word such as of, and, in, or the unless it is the first word in the title of a book or other work.

Alice The Living Sea Bay of Biscayne

The chart shows some kinds of nouns that must be capitalized.

Types of Nouns Examples

Names of people and pets Martin Luther King, Amy Hill, Americans, Spot

Names of days, months, and Saturday May, Columbus Day, Fourth of July, Cinco

holidays de Mayo

Names of particular places Texas, Lake Erie, Gulf of Mexico, Astrodome

Names of particular things and Pulitzer Prize, Houston Gazette, Titanic, the

events Civil War, the Alamo

Names of clubs, businesses, Sierra Club, Mi Casa, Lakeville

and organizations Dance Corps

Guided Practice

A. Identify the proper nouns. Tell which letters should be capitalized,

1. The friends of the sea is a club in my town.

2. The club meets in the pacific building every tuesday.

3. On june 15, mario pinza spoke to the group.

4. He is dean of anza college.

5. He talked about fish life in the mediterranean sea.

6. On memorial day the club made a trip to monterey bay.

7. We visited gus's shell and fish shop on drew lane.



In a proper noun that has more than one word, capitalize the first word and all other important words.

Capitalize all the kinds of nouns listed on the chart.

Independent Practice

B. Proofreading: Capitalizing Proper Nouns Write the sentences. Capitalize the proper nouns correctly.

8. Jacques cousteau was born on june 11, 1910, in france.

Model Jacques Cousteau was born on June 11, 1910, in France.

9. During world war II he served on the warship dupleix.

10. Later he received a medal from the legion of honor.

11. In 1945 cousteau set up the undersea research group.

12. The group explored sunken ships built by the ancient greeks and romans.

13. His movie world without sun won an academy award.

14. His television series "the undersea world of jacques cousteau" showed his undersea adventures.

C. Completing a Registration Form Make up information to complete the following form. Write the appropriate information next to each numeral.

Application - Writing

Poster Write a paragraph for a poster advertising a trip being organized by the Friends of the Sea. Tell where the group will go, when it will go, and how people can get information about the trip. Remember to capitalize all proper nouns.


4 Abbreviations

Focus An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word.

When you write lists and addresses or fill out forms, you can abbreviate, or shorten, certain words. Abbreviations usually begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Most titles for people are abbreviated.

Mister: Mr. Doctor: Dr. Reverend: Rev.

Senator: Sen. Junior: Jr. Senior: Sr.

Honorable: Hon. Professor: Prof.

An initial is the first letter of a name and is used in place of the complete name. It is capitalized and followed by a period.

Leslie Marie Fane: L. M. Fane James Jay Troy: J. J. Troy

Common Abbreviations

Days Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat.

Months Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. (May, June, and July are

never abbreviated.)

Businesses Company: Co. Incorporated: Inc. Corporation: Corp. Department: Dept.

Kinds of Street: St. Avenue: Ave. Road: Rd. Route: Rt./Rte.

streets Boulevard: Blvd. Drive: Dr. Lane: Ln.

Times "before noon": A.M. "after noon": P.m.

The United States Postal Service has a special set of abbreviations for the states. You will find the state postal abbreviations on page 56 of the Writer's Handbook.

Guided Practice

A. Give the abbreviations or initials for these groups of words. Give initials only for first and middle names.

1. John Foster Dulles Street 4. October 10

2. Sunday 5. Mister John Louis Best

3. Senator Jay Long 6. 8:00 in the morning



Use an abbreviation, or a shortened form of a word, to save space when you write lists and addresses or fill out forms.

To write an initial, use the first letter of a name followed by a period­

Independent Practice

B. Writing Abbreviations and Initials Write each group of words, using abbreviations or initials.

7. Alan Drive

Model Alan Dr.

8. Mister Evan Carr

9. Monday, April 10

10. Reverend Dale Kay

11. Kelly Road

12. 9:00 in the evening

13. Poe Avenue

C. Using Abbreviations and Initials in Sentences Write the sentences, using abbreviations for any words that can be abbreviated. Use initials only in place of middle names.

14. James Peter Hanes built a robot.

Model James P. Hanes built a robot.

15. Leah Joyce Hunley invented a folding bicycle.

16. Doctor Joseph Luce helped her.

17. He works at the corner of Robin Avenue and Black Boulevard.

18. A science fair will take place on Tuesday, November 13.

19. The fair will last from 9:00 in the morning until 5:00 in the afternoon.

20. Mister Leonard Collins thinks that Professor Albertine Corona's soil tester will win first prize.

Application - Writing

Catalogue Entry Write a poster announcement for an imaginary invention. Tell what your invention looks like, what it does, and when it will be available. Space will be limited, so use initials and abbreviations wherever you can.


5 Singular and Plural Nouns


  • A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea.

  • A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.

Remember that nouns name people, places, things, and ideas. All nouns and pronouns have number: they are either singular or plural.

Singular painter ship sail

Plural painters ships sails

You can turn most singular nouns into plural nouns by adding s or es. Sometimes the spelling of the noun changes. The rule for forming a plural noun depends on how the singular form ends.

Forming Plural Nouns

Singular Ending Rule Examples

s, ss, ch, sh, x, Add es, gas-gases grass-grasses

and z lunch-lunches wish- wishes

fox-foxes waltz-waltzes

consonant + y Change y to i guppy---guppies

and add es. baby-babies

vowel + y Add s. turkey turkeys boy-boys

Guided Practice

A. Tell whether the underlined nouns are singular or plural.

1. Joe and his friends went to England.

2. Buses and trains carried them from _city to city.

3. The boys visited many museums.

4. They saw many pictures and sculptures.

5. Their favorite paintings were in the Tate Gallery.



End most plural nouns with s or es.

Follow the rules in the chart to form most plural nouns.

Independent Practice

B. Identifying Nouns as Singular or Plural Write each underlined noun and label it singular or plural.

6. J.M.W Turner was a great painter.

Model J.M.W Turner –singular painter- singular

7. He created many paintings of the canals in Venice.

8. Houses, boats, and workers appear in the mist.

9. Turner also did a great many drawings of rivers in France and England.

10. Some of the pictures show castles and churches.

11. Some have puppies and other animals in them.

12. Sometimes, girls are seen strolling in patches of sunlight.

C. Proofreading: Spelling Plural Nouns Correctly Find the spelling error in each sentence. Write the misspelled word correctly. ,

13. Sue has many hobbys.

Model hobbies

14. Painting landscapes is among her favorite activitys.

15. Beachs can be wonderful places to paint pictures.

16. You need brushs, a sketch.pad, and some paints.

17. Look for shells, sea creatures, and butterflys.

18. Are there gulls in the sky or boates in the water?

19. A bush with berrys makes a good subject.

20. Painting by the sea has problems as well as joyes.

21. Colores change, and waves never stand still.

22. Sue could spend dayes wrestling with such problems.

Application- Writing and Speaking

Description Discuss the painting with a classmate and compare it with other pictures you have seen. Then write a paragraph describing the painting for someone who has never seen it. Use at least five plural nouns.


More Plural Nouns

FOCUS The plural forms of some nouns follow special rules.

Remember that the spellings of most plural nouns depend on how the singular forms end. The chart shows how to form some plural nouns that follow special rules.

Forming Plural Nouns

Singular Ending Rule Examples

most words that Add s. chief-chiefs

end in f or fe reef-reefs

some words that Change f to v calf-calves

end in f or fe and add s or es. knife-knives

consonant + o Add s or es. auto-autos potato-potatoes

vowel + o Add s. radio--radios

Not all plural nouns end in s or es. Some words, such as deer and trout, are spelled the same way in the singular and the plural. Other nouns change spelling completely when they are made plural.

Singular man woman child tooth mouse

Plural men women children teeth mice

Guided Practice

A. Spell the plural form of each noun.

1. woman 3. hoof 5. piano 7. half 9. stereo

2. solo 4. tooth 6. hero 8. shelf 10. life


Follow the rules in the chart to form some plural nouns.

Memorize the spellings of nouns that change completely when the plural is formed.


Independent Practice

B. Forming Plural Nouns Write the plural form of each noun. Use a dictionary for help if you wish.

11. pant

Model pants

12. muff

13. scarf

14. goose

15. tomato

16. man

17. rodeo

18. foot

19. ox

20. studio

21. child

22. moose

23. scissors

C. Proofreading: Spelling Plural Nouns Correctly Find the misspelled word in each sentence and write it correctly.

24. Winter has come to the land where the deers live.

Model deer

25. The leafs have fallen from the trees.

26. Wolfs hunt in the cold for rabbits.

27. Mouses scurry through the snow, looking for crumbs.

28. We saw two video showing winter on the plains.

29. The people's tooth are chattering in the cold.

30. One of the womens spots a bear on a distant ridge.

31. They have not seen a bear that large in all of their lifes.

32. The bear was over eight foots tall.

33. The men sharpen their knifes before the hunt.

34. One knife broke into two halfs.

35. Four of the mans went to hunt for the bear.

36. A flock of gooses flew over their heads.

37. Everyone wore scarfs to help them stay warm.

38. All of the childs stayed at home.

D. Using Plural Nouns in Sentences Write a sentence

using the plural form of each noun below. Use a dictionary for help in spelling the plural forms.

39. roof

Model I saw the sun glinting off the roofs.

40. elf

41. soprano

42. echo

43. safe

44. hero

45. sheep

46. gulf

47. goose

Application -Writing

Science Report Write a report for your class about how several wild animals, such as wolves and deer, spend the winter. Find information in an encyclopedia or in a library book. Tell how the animals find food, where they live, and what they do. Use at least five plural nouns.


7 Possessive Nouns

FOCUS A possessive noun shows ownership or possession.

In the sentences below, the words in color are possessive nouns.

1. Andy's backpack is filled with supplies.

2. The pack's straps are very sturdy.

In the first sentence, the possessive noun shows that the backpack belongs to Andy. In the second sentence, the possessive noun shows that the straps are part of the pack.

Forming Possessive Nouns

Rule Examples

To form the possessive of most singular a frog's legs

nouns, add an apostrophe and the letters, a boat's oars

even if the noun already ends in s. Mr. Harris's glasses

To form the possessive of plural nouns the owls' hoots

that end in s, add only an apostrophe. the Ameses' house

To form the possessive of plural nouns the children's toys

that do not end in s, add 's. the sheep's tails

Link to Speaking and Writing

Use possessive nouns to make your sentences more direct. How do the changes improve this sentence?

Guided Practice

A. Identify each possessive noun. Tell whether it is singular or plural.

1. Andy's family is going camping.

2. Mrs. Jones packed the family members' tents.

3. Tess's tent is green.

4. The next six days' weather should be dry.



  • Use a possessive noun to show ownership or possession.

  • Use possessive nouns to make sentences more direct.

Independent Practice

B. Identifying Possessive Nouns Write the possessive noun from each sentence. Label it singular or plural.

5. The boys saw an animal's footprints.

Model animal's-singular

6. They followed the tracks to the river's edge.

7. John pointed Andy's flashlight into a cave.

8. A little bear cub's eyes shone in the light.

9. Suddenly a roar caught the boys' attention.

10. Andy and John ran back to the Browns' campsite.

C. Forming Possessive Nouns Write the possessive form of each noun. Label the possessive nouns singular or plural. Some nouns may be singular or plural.

11. eagles

Model eagles'-plural

12. field

13. sheep

14. foxes

15. parents

16. grass

17. men

18. oxen

19. fish

20. Alice

21. girls

D. Revising: Using Possessive Nouns in Sentences Use a possessive noun to make each sentence more direct. Write the new sentence.

22. Yellowstone is the largest park in Wyoming.

Model Yellowstone is Wyoming's largest park.

23. The parks of America are a national treasure.

24. Some of the most beautiful scenery of the country is in Yellowstone National Park.

25. Visitors come to see the many geysers of the park.

26. Early explorers described the beauty of the region.

Application - Writing

Travel Brochure Write a travel brochure about Jim's Campground for people planning a vacation in the area. Describe the campground in a way that will make them want to stay there. Use at least four possessive nouns.


8 Appositives

FOCUS An appositive identifies or renames the word or words that precede it.

An appositive can be a single word, or it can be a phrase. The words in color in these sentences are appositives.

1. The sun, a medium-sized star, gives us light and heat.

2. The second planet from the sun, Venus, is very hot.

3. We, the students of Oakview Middle School, like astronomy.

Notice the comma before and after the appositive in each sentence. Do not use commas, however, if the appositive is needed to complete the meaning of the word or words it follows.

4. The planet Earth is the third planet in our solar system.

If an appositive comes at the end of a sentence, replace the second comma with end punctuation.

5. In the sky we saw Mars , the "red planet. "

Guided Practice

A, Identify the appositive in each sentence and the word or words that it renames.

1. Earth, our home, has just one moon.

2. A red moon, the harvest moon, is often seen in autumn.

3. Moon craters, a puzzle to scientists, may be dead volcanoes.

4. You, a student of astronomy, will find this interesting.

5. One crater, Copernicus, is larger than Rhode Island.


Use an appositive after a word or words to identify or rename them.


Independent Practice

B. Identifying Appositives Write each sentence. Underline the appositive. Underline twice the word or words it renames.

6. Astronomy, the study of stars, is an old science.

Model Astronomy, the study of stars, is an old science.

7. Ptolemy, an ancient astronomer, studied the night sky.

8. This man, an important thinker, wrote some famous books.

9. He said the sun moved around the Earth, our own planet.

10. Copernicus, a Polish scientist, had a different idea.

11. He, a bold thinker, believed Earth and the other planets moved around the sun.

C. Proofreading: Using Commas with Appositives Write each sentence correctly. Use commas where they are needed.

12. Yesterday Monday was Manuel's birthday.

Model Yesterday, Monday, was Manuel's birthday.

13. Mr. Marquez Manuel's father brought home a box.

14. In the box was a telescope Manuel's birthday present.

15. Manuel an amateur astronomer was excited.

16. He set up the telescope a shiny white tube.

17. He looked for Saturn a planet with rings.

18. The rings several flat disks were too dim to see.

D. Revising: Adding Details to Sentences Rewrite the sentences, using appositives to add information.

19. Their ship was fast.

Model Their ship, the Flash, was fast.

20. The three scientists were flying to a planet.

21. A meteor hurled toward their spaceship.

22. Dr. Winkle stared through the window.

23. He could see the stars.

24. How could the ship survive the meteor?

Application -Writing and Speaking

Science Fantasy Imagine that you are a scientist traveling to one of the planets. Describe your trip for a radio audience back on Earth. Tell what you see, hear, and feel. Present your report to the class as a radio broadcast. Use appositives to add interesting details.


Building Vocabulary

Compound Words: Word Teams

Many nouns as well as other kinds of words are formed by joining two or more smaller words. These words are called compound words.

One kind of compound word is written as one word. This is called a closed compound.

bullfrog groundhog

rosebud evergreen

A second kind of compound is written as two words. The words, however, are used together as one word. This kind of compound is called an open compound.

boa constrictor home run blue whale

In a third kind of compound, the smaller words are connected by hyphens. This kind of compound word is called a hyphenated compound.

blue-green thirty-six jack-in-the-box

New compound words enter the language all the time. As a writer, you can create compound words to express new ideas. For example, you can combine nouns, color words, or words that appeal to the senses to name or describe things as you see them. Notice the new compounds used in these sentences.

1. The swallow queen chirped her song.

2. The bird spread its gray-gold wings.

3. The butterfly landed on the dew-damp grass.


Reading Practice

Read each sentence. Write the compound word. Then write closed, open, or hyphenated to tell what kind of compound word it is.

1. My bookcase is full of books about insects.

2. Insects live everywhere.

3. They are found at seashores and in mountains and forests.

4. Insects are six-legged creatures.

5. Farmers wage a never-ending battle against some insects.

6. Pest-eating insects are helpful to people.

7. The dragonfly eats many mosquitoes.

8. The praying mantis gets rid of harmful insects.

9. Insects visit plants and become pollen carriers.

10. The firefly is a kind of beetle.

11. It is often called a lightning bug.

12. People use honey and wax made by honeybees.

13. These bees are excellent housekeepers.

14. Silk comes from cocoons made by silkworms.

15. Some scientists use fruit flies in their studies.

Writing Practice

Use the words below to make your own compound words. Then use each compound word in a sentence.

16. eating

17. moon

18. eye

19. news

20. talk

21. house

22. pink

23. dog

24. writer

25. weed

26. plane

27. flower


Look through a newspaper or a book for compound words. List the words you find in three columns, titled closed compounds, open compounds, and hyphenated compounds. Time yourself as you write your list. Keep reading until you have listed a total of 50 words. You may be surprised by how quickly you complete your list.


Language Enrichment


Use what you know about nouns to do these activities.

Name Mobiles

Write the name of a state or a country in 9-by-12-inch letters. Cut out the letters and write a topic, such as famous people, cities, mountains, products, or songs, on each letter. Then write nouns to fit under each topic. Punch holes at the top and the bottom of each letter, and tie the letters together with yarn or string. Hang your mobile in the classroom.

Rhyme Time

Have you ever seen a bug's mugs or a sheep's jeeps? Write down between 5 and 10 rhyming possessives and illustrate them. Share your drawings with some of your classmates, and see if they can guess what the rhyming possessives are.

What's It All About?

Think of a topic you would like to write about. List at least 10 nouns that you would use in your writing. Exchange papers with a classmate. See how quickly the classmate can guess the topic.




In this unit you learned that nouns do more than name people, places, things, or ideas. They can show whether something is a particular thing or a general thing. They can tell whether something is singular or plural. Nouns can show who or what owns something. They can also be used next to other nouns to add information.

Using Nouns in Your Writing Using clear nouns can make your writing crisp and easy to understand. Nouns help your reader focus on the main ideas, characters, or settings you are describing. Pay close attention to the nouns you use as you do these activities.

Danger at Sea

Study the picture. Then describe it, using as much detail as you can. Name each item in the picture with a clear, precise noun. Name feelings you think characters in the picture might have.

Tall Tale Towns

You learned about compound words on the Building Vocabulary pages. Many town names are compound words. Have you ever been to Baconrind Creek, Montana, or Fiddletown, California?

Look on a United States map or on a state map for interesting names that are compound words. Choose one name and write your own tall tale explaining how the town got the name. Use your imagination!


2 Unit Checkup

Think Back

• What things did you learn about a descriptive paragraph in this unit? What did you do to write one?

• Look at the writing you did in this unit. How did nouns help you express your ideas?

Think Ahead

• How will what you learned about a descriptive paragraph help you observe with your senses?

• How will observing details carefully help you write a descriptive paragraph?

• What is one way you can use nouns to improve your writing?

Descriptive Paragraphs pages 62-64

Read the descriptive paragraph. Then follow the directions.

Savannah is an old city built near the river. Warehouses line the riverbank. Behind them are steep flights of cool stone steps worn smooth by the flooding river. These lead to the street shops. Further back are gracious squares of private homes. In the center of each square is a green, grassy park like an emerald set within a ring.

1. Write the topic sentence. 3. Write one comparison.

2. Write one sensory detail. 4. Write whether the description is in

time order, space order, or order of importance.

Observing Details page 65

Write whether each detail appeals to the sense of sight, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.

5. In the forest the evergreens seem to reach to the clouds.

6. The spongy moss is a soft cushion for our feet.

7. In every tree busy birds chirp and tweet like a thousand flute players.

8. The buttery scent of fish cooking brings us back to reality.

9. As we bite into each salty morsel, we talk about the day's events.


Using Precise Words page 66

Write each sentence, replacing the underlined word with one or more precise words.

10. Jenny and Doug ran onto the beach.

11. They laid their things down on the sand.

12. "This sand is hot!" shouted Doug, jumping up and down.

13. The two children dove into the icy water.

14. They played in the water for nearly an hour.

The Writing Process pages 67-76

Write the letter of the correct response to each question.

15. To gather information for a description of a place, what is the best thing for a writer to do?

a. Ask people b. Read about the place.

about the place. c. Visit the place.

16. When writing a topic sentence, what should you do?

a. Include several details. b. Include one important detail.

c. Prepare the audience for the description.

17. Your descriptive paragraph of a place could be published in a

a. guidebook. b. catalogue. c. textbook.

Nouns pages 80-81

List the nouns from the sentences.

18. When people think of deserts, they probably think of miles and miles of the same thing.

19. The landscape of the desert is, however, always changing.

20. Sand piles up on itself to form enormous dunes.

21. In the spring the desert comes to life as flowers bloom everywhere.

22. Cactuses form fantastic shapes, and some of them even produce colorful blossoms.

Common and Proper Nouns pages 82-83

Write the nouns, and label each one common or proper.

23. In 1988 there was a terrible fire in Yellowstone National Park.

24. Firefighters from all over the United States came together to fight the blaze.

25. An area almost as large as the state of Massachusetts burned in just a few weeks.

26. The flames from this huge fire threatened many homes.

27. The geyser Old Faithful continued to shoot water into the air.


Capitalization of Proper Nouns pages 84-85

Write the sentences. Capitalize the proper nouns correctly.

28. On thursday night we are going to seaside park to see the meteor showers.

29. There are meteor showers all year, but the perseid meteor showers come during the second week of august every year.

30. The name perseid comes from the latin name perseus.

31. My friend betsy read about the meteor showers in the sunday tribune.

32. I called the hayden planetarium in new york, new york, to get more information about meteors.

Abbreviations pages 86-87

Write the sentences, using abbreviation when appropriate. Use initials only in place of middle names.

33. Doctor Ostroff is going to a conference. He wrote himself a note that read "Friday, at 2:30 in the afternoon," so he wouldn't forget.

34. He is a member of the Susan Ann Smith Institute for Marine Biologists.

35. The Institute has gotten the support of Senator Schwartz and Reverend Akdag and is trying to convince Mister Louis Greenwald to support it too.

36. Helaine Kathryn Blanchord posted a sign in the lobby that read "Breakfast will be served at 7:30 in the morning on Saturday, February 10 for all members of the institute."

37. Members of the institute send their yearly dues to this address: Susan Ann Smith Institute, 1414 Bay Avenue, New York, New York, 10025.

Singular and Plural Nouns pages 88-89

Write each underlined noun and label it singular or plural.

38. Nature provides us with many different colors and shades.

39. The azure sky is decorated by fleecy white clouds and the golden disk of the _sun.

40. Sandy beaches lapped by the glassy green ocean are trimmed in frothy white foam.

41. Deserts at sunset seem to be painted with gold, rose, and blue colors.

42. Trees and grass are tender green against the gray and brown rocks on the hill.


More Plural Nouns pages 90-91

Find the misspelled word in each sentence and write it correctly.

43. Danny packed two loafs of whole wheat bread and a thermos of juice in his knapsack.

44. The hiking trail had plenty of bushs loaded with edible berries.

45. Danny and his friend Burt had two-way radices in case they needed to speak to one another on the trail.

46. The trail would take the two boys through two countys.

47. After their nature hike Danny and Burt wrote reportes for their botany teacher.

Possessive Nouns pages 92-93

Write the possessive form of each noun. Label the possessive nouns singular or plural. Some nouns may be singular or plural.

48. planets 51. dish 54. Alexis

49. garden 52. mesa 55. chief

50. women 53. cranberries 56. deer

Appositives pages 94-95

Write each sentence. Underline the appositive once. Underline twice the word or words it renames.

57. Robert Hutchings Goddard, the father of modern rocket science, lived in Worcester, Massachusetts.

58. Goddard, a physicist, was born in 1882 and lived until 1945.

59. He was the first to launch a liquid-fuel rocket, the predecessor of rockets still in use today.

60. Solid rocket fuel, a later development, powers most modern rockets.

61. Today at Cape Canaveral, which used to be called Cape Kennedy, rocket launchings are a common event.

62. Space travel, a dream in Goddard's time, has become a reality.

Compound Words: Word Teams pages 96-97

Read each sentence. Write the compound word. Then write closed, open, or hyphenated to tell what kind of compound word it is.

63. At sunrise we left for our fishing trip.

64. A school bus took us to the lake.

65. We put our ice chests over by the tents.

66. Donny and I used an entire bottle of insect-repellent lotion.

67. Clarissa won a prize for catching sixteen walleyed pike.


1-2 Cumulative Review

Four Kinds of Sentences pages 30-31

For each sentence, write declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

1. The mid-1960's brought the launch of the communications satellite Telstar.

2. What wonders Telstar and similar satellites have brought to the eyes of viewers!

3. Have you ever seen a television program broadcast "live via satellite"?

4. Look for those words at the beginning of news broadcasts from faraway countries.

5. The 1988 Summer Olympic Games came to us live from halfway around the world by satellite.

6. Are today's communications satellites more advanced than Telstar?

7. Hundreds of communication satellites are in orbit around our planet.

8. NASA is responsible for launching most of the satellites for companies in the United States.

9. Please change the station and turn up the volume on the radio.

10. Did the news broadcaster say anything about next week's launch?

Subjects and Predicates pages 32-33

Write each sentence. Draw a vertical line between the complete subject and the complete predicate. Underline the simple subject once. Then underline the simple predicate twice.

11. The sixth-grade students from our middle school visited the television studio.

12. The manager of the television station spoke to our group about careers in television.

13. A few volunteers helped to run a television camera during a rehearsal of a news broadcast.

14. Others sat at the news anchor desk.

15. We watched them on the television monitor.

16. The television studio was a great place to visit!


Compound Subjects pages 42-43

Write the complete subject of each sentence. Underline each simple subject once, and underline the connecting word twice.

17. Painters and sculptors express their thoughts through their art.

18. Oil paints and watercolors are two choices artists have.

19. Blues or greens can give pictures a cool, peaceful feeling.

20. Clay and stone work equally well for large heads or figures.

21. Both potters and sculptors use a special kind of clay.

22. Beginners and experienced artists alike get pleasure from creating art out of raw materials.

23. Museums and art galleries display artists' work. . ,

Compound Predicates pages 44-45

Write the compound predicate from each sentence. Underline the connecting word.

24. People have come together and lived in groups for many centuries.

25. Southwest American Indians built and lived in apartment houses in the faces of cliffs.

26. The ruins of one of these apartment buildings amaze and impress modern visitors to Mesa Verde in Colorado.

27. Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, is huge and could hold almost 300 families.

28. The residents of Pueblo Bonito raised cotton, grew corn, and mined turquoise for jewelry.

Compound Sentences pages 46-47

Write simple or compound for each sentence.

29. Amateur radio operators send and receive messages; they are called "hams."

30. Ham radio operators often get messages through to people in disaster areas.

31. The hams send messages from relatives, or they help lost people find one another.

32. Storms and earthquakes frequently knock down telephone wires, but hams don't need wires.

33. Hams can talk to other hams in many other countries all around the world.

34. Many ham radio operators make friends with other hams in countries hundreds of miles away.


Avoiding Sentence Fragments and Run-on Sentences pages 48-49

Rewrite each sentence fragment as a complete sentence. Rewrite each run-on sentence as one or more sentences. Use the correct punctuation and capitalization.

35. When you write a friendly letter.

36. You should always write a return address on the envelope you never know when the letter itself might get lost.

37. A business letter should be typed if at all possible a friendly letter need not be typed.

38. When you think about it, in fact, a typed letter.

39. Use a comma after a greeting capitalize the first letter of the word "Dear."

40. I'm waiting for a letter from Aunt June has the mail come yet?

41. The last word in the closing.

42. A business letter should always be written on white or ivory paper other colors are all right for personal letters.

43. I wrote a letter to a company asking for a refund the refund arrived today.

44. Six weeks to receive a response.

45. Most companies are very busy it takes that long for them to process a request.

Common and Proper Nouns pages 82-83

Write the nouns. Use capital letters where they are needed.

46. Except for the dead sea, all seas and oceans contain about the same amount of salt.

47. The worldwide cruise of the ship HMS challenger provided that information.

48. The atlantic ocean is just about as salty as the pacific ocean and the indian ocean.

49. Among the saltiest bodies of water is the great salt lake in northern utah.

50. The dead sea is a smaller salty lake located between israel and jordan in the middle east.

51. The mediterranean sea is bordered by three continents: africa, europe, and asia.

52. Ships can enter through the strait of gibraltar and exit through the suez canal.


Possessive Nouns pages 92-93

Write the possessive form of each noun. Label the possessive nouns singular or plural.

53. Mr. Mendez 63. grade

54. sun 64. sock

55. peaches 65. trucks

56. plates 66. star

57. children 67. leaf

58. knife 68. Annette

59. program 69. necklaces

60, sky 70. lunch

61. captains 71. soil

62. corral 72. mountains

Appositives pages 94-95

Write each sentence. Underline the appositive phrase once. Underline twice the word or words it renames.

73. The Old Man of the Mountains, a natural rock formation, is an amazing sight to see.

74. It is the perfect profile of a man's face formed in stone on a mountainside in the White Mountains, a New Hampshire mountain range.

75. The 40-foot-high head, a series of five separate ledges, rises 1,200 feet above Profile Lake.

76. This lake, a clear and deep oval, was once known as "The Old Man's Wash Bowl."

77. Near the Old Man of the Mountains is a large recreation area, Franconia North State Park.

78. The Flume, a series of spectacular waterfalls, is only a few miles from the Old Man of the Mountains.

79. The park ranger, Jack Bartwick, said he would take us on an exciting tour.

80. The expedition, a hike through the mountains, will last about four hours.

81. We will have to pack some supplies, food, water, and other necessities.


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