1) In your view, how and to what extent has the right to development been implemented and realized, at the national, regional and international levels?
The Government of Mexico is actively working to guarantee the full enjoyment of human rights for all individuals, including the right to development. As explained in the National Development Plan 2013 – 2018, in order to crystallize a democratic state, Mexico recognizes that all institutions and authorities need to adopt a respectful stance towards ensuring human rights for all people. Therefore, since the beginning of the current administration, several law reforms have been implemented in order to guarantee human rights for all individuals in the country, including the right to development.
The Mexican Ministry of Social Development has progressed towards the full enjoyment of the right to development. First, social policy has been substantially redirected towards a comprehensive approach that focuses on guaranteeing the protection of human rights of individuals as a priority. Second, several changes have been made within the social programs in order to increase availability as well as to include a broader range of services, the latest being financial inclusion and productive capacities by redesigning the social inclusion program called PROSPERA. Lastly, the Ministry, with the support of other 18 federal institutions, has enforced a National Crusade against Hunger, in which 7.1 million people suffering from extreme and food poverty have been the primary target, seeking to alleviate their ailments and providing a social protection floor with the aim to eradicate hunger.
The National Development Plan guides the implementation of national targets in Mexico, such as promoting inclusiveness. In addition, to accomplish our development goals and targets at the national level, the Mexican system of international development cooperation was strengthened by the enactment of the International Development Cooperation Law (LCID) in 2011.
The LCID establishes and regulates the necessary tools to transfer and receive cooperation and it sets the basis on which the country’s cooperation system must work, including the Mexican Agency for International Development Cooperation (AMEXCID). The main function of this Agency is to arrange, coordinate and promote the actions and policies of IDC with all the Mexican Ministries. The LCID and AMEXCID have been key to improve the development cooperation of Mexico, supporting the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and its role will be fundamental for the implementation of the new SDGs at the national, regional and global levels.
For Mexico, the MDGs represented an opportunity to count with an agenda of priorities to pave the path for national development. Besides guiding our public policy actions for the past 15 years, our commitment in accomplishing the MDGs enabled our country to build and strengthen new statistical capacities, create innovative mechanisms for coordination and evaluation, as well as pioneer monitoring systems internationally known as an example of best practices.
Mexico’s commitment and leadership on implementing the MDGs has been remarkable. It has accomplished 37 of the 51 indicators (72.5 per cent) that the country agreed to focus in since the beginning of the negotiations. The latest MDG’s implementation report showed important advances in poverty eradication. Notably, the proportion of the population with an income below the international poverty line fell from 9.3% in 1989 to 3.7% in 2014.
Monitoring progress on the MDGs has become an opportunity to set mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating Mexico’s public policy and has contributed to change the working dynamic of the government institutions in becoming aware of their actions and in improving our national public policy. According to the Human Development Index, Mexico achieved a development of 0.757, placing the country in place 71 of 187 analyzed countries.
At the regional level, Regional UN Commissions have played an important role by working as intergovernmental platforms that promote discussions among countries on the implementation and review of the MDG’s. At the international level, according to the 2015 Global Monitoring Report, many important results have been achieved: The number of people living on less than $1.25 a day has been reduced from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015, the goal of having the proportion of people without access to clean water, and the goal of achieving a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020, had also been achieved ahead of time in 2010. The goal of eliminating gender disparity in primary education was also accomplished in 2010.
2) In your view, what are the main obstacles to the implementation and realization of the right to development at the national, regional and international levels and what measures should be taken to overcome them? In order to achieve the full realization of the right to development facing the challenges posed by the size of the population and the international economic context, in Mexico a major government campaign is implemented to coordinate and collaborate among national and international agencies to ensure the full enjoyment of this and all human rights.
At the international level, some of the main obstacles are the following:
Insufficient coordination between agencies and organizations as well as lack of coherence in policies and in the implementation of programs, causing duplication of efforts, contradictory policies and misallocation of resources.
Weaknesses in the institutional capacity of Sates, bad governance and lack of oversight or accountability from the authorities to the citizens/taxpayers.
Big inequality levels within countries causes unequal opportunities and access to services, thus hindering the most marginalized and vulnerable segments of the population, perpetuating the intergenerational transmission of poverty.
The following measures can be taken in order to overcome obstacles. They apply at all levels (national, regional and international):
The effective use of resources must be ensured. This can be done through the implementation of the following principles of effective development co-operation: country ownership, focus on results, inclusive partnerships, and transparency and accountability.
Strengthening developing country leadership over planning and managing all development finance (including through strengthened institutions and country systems), acknowledging developing countries’ ownership in setting their own priorities in pursuit of the future SDGs, through a vision that is strongly anchored in national development and accountability processes.
Helping ensure development finance deliver results, by being more predictable, transparent, and aligned to countries own systems and priorities
Engaging the broad range of development cooperation stakeholders to strengthen the impact and quality of development partnerships based on inclusivity and mutual accountability, including through country-led efforts to monitor the quality of partnerships.
Among these measures, promoting effective multi-stakeholder partnerships (for example, between the public and private sectors) to support development will be critical for ensuring that nobody is left behind and that plans are inclusive and effective. All relevant development stakeholders, including inter allia, civil society business sector, parliaments, local governments, as appropriate, need to be engaged.
3) What steps, including the formulation, adoption and implementation of policy, legislative and other measures, have been taken by your country at the national, regional and international levels to implement the obligations enshrined in the United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development, inter alia, with regard to: