1. Historical facts



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Argumentative pamphlets : An Essay upon Projects” (1694-98): modern reforms are suggested; ”The Shortest Way with Dissenters”(1702): a High Church Tory member’s ironical exaggeration proposing the hanging of nonconformists -- Defoe was fined, pilloried and jailed



Argumentative verse: ”True-Born Englishman”(1701): lampoon, the English as the most mongrel-bred nation on the earth (”A True-born Englishman’s a contradiction, / In Speech an Irony, in Fact a Fiction.”); moralistic conclusion on the value of the middle-class spirit: ”Tis personal virtue only makes us great.”)

”Hymn to the Pillory”(1703): pseudo-Pindaric ode, the crowd is shown viewing the pilloried Defoe, glory of the pilloried martyrdom


Argumentative journalism : The Review (1704-13) – forerunner of The Spectator (see Lecture 8)
Narrative and descriptive writing: ”A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal”(1706): ghost story, invented but taken as a report of true events – no longer journalism

A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain(1721-6): guide-book, social and economic descriptions of the age, photographic; ”A Journal of the Plague Year”(1722): eye-wittness persona
Novels (8)

-- founder of the modern English novel: dominant theme, realistic 1st-person narrative, middle-class viewpoint



The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York Mariner (1719) SEM.

-- theme: the struggle of an isolated individual to survive on his own + Biblical parable + myth



-- Crusoe as a middle-class hero: ”homo economicus”, practical, pious, industrious, shrewd

The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe; The Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe (1720)

The Memoires of a Cavalier (1720): gentleman hero

The Life, Adventures, and Picaries of the Famous Captain Singleton(1720); Colonel Jacque(1722)

Moll Flanders (1722): the best, female ’picaro’, modern character fighting for her survival in money-centered society; episodic, not really developed character and the autobiographical method lacks perspective

Roxana, or the Fortunate Mistress (1724): gentlewoman’s adventures, after leaving her husband she tries to survive with the help of succession of lovers (aristocratic prostitute); her character standing for ambition, free love and independence



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