1. Historical facts



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18th Century British Literature – Handout 1: Historical and Intellectual Background

1. Historical facts

The Tudor Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) – Stuart line: James I (1603-1625), Charles I (1625-1649) beheaded – Civil War (1649-1660)



Charles II (1660-1685): restoration of the Stuart monarchy, the Anglican Church and landownership; persecution of nonconformists (Roman Catholics and dissenters) – Clarendon Code.

James II (1685-1688): forced Catholicism and exclusive power. Jacobitism: Old Pretender (1715) and Young Pretender (1745)

1688: agreement between Tories and Whigs -- the King was abdicated – Glorious Revolution

William III (1688-1702) + Mary II: era of limited monarchy and parliamentary government. Bill of Rights, Tolaration Act.

Queen Anne (1702-1714): War of the Spanish Succession – ended in 1713 Treaty of Utrecht.

Whig – Tory ’war’ at home, the Queen was for Tories. 1707: Act of Union (towards GB).

1714: Stuart line died out --- Hanoverian succession: the Georges (I-IV)

George I (1714-1727): Protestant, German with bad English. Riot Act, Septennial Act

George II (1727-1760): Sir Robert Wolpole, the Prime Minister governed. Seven Years’ War

George III (1760-1820): colonization, parliamentary reforms: the King’s Friends. War of Independence (1775-1783), Declaration of Independence (1776)

George IV (1820-1837) --- Queen Victoria (1837-1901).






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