Project Number: Section 31 25 00 Specification for Geotextile Used in Erosion and Sedimentation Controls 1. GENERAL 1.1 SECTION INCLUDES A. Geotextile to prevent soil loss resulting in excessive scour and to prevent hydraulic uplift pressures causing instability of energy absorbing armor permanent erosion control system. This specification does not apply to other types of geosynthetic soil erosion control materials such as turf reinforcement mats.
1.2 RELATED SECTIONS A. Section 02 50 00 - Site Remediation
B. Section 01 89 13 - Site Preparation Performance Requirements
C. Section 31 00 00 - Earthwork
D. Section 32 10 00 - Bases, Ballasts, Pavements, and Appurtenances
1.3 UNIT PRICES A. Method of Measurement: By the square yard (or square meter - as indicated in contract documents) including seams, overlaps, and wastage.
B. Basis of Payment: By the square yard (or square meter - as indicated in contract documents) installed.
1.4 REFERENCES A. AASHTO Standards:
1. T088-10-UL - Particle Size Analysis of Soils
2. T090-00-UL - Determining the Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
3. T099-10-UL - The Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 5.5lb (2.5 kg) Rammer and a 12in (305 mm) Drop.
4. M288-06 - Geotextile Specification for Highway Applications
B. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):
1. D123 - Standard Terminology Relating to Textiles
2. D276 - Test Method for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
4. D4355 - Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles from Exposure to Ultraviolet Light and Water (Xenon-Arc Type Apparatus)
5. D4439 - Terminology for Geotextiles
6. D4491 - Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity
7. D4533 - Test Method for Index Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles
8. D4632 - Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles
9. D4751 - Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile
10. D4759 - Practice for Determining the Specification Conformance of Geosynthetics
11. D4873 - Guide for Identification, Storage, and Handling of Geotextiles
12. D6241 - Standard Test Method for the Static Puncture Strength of Geotextiles and Geotextile-Related Products Using a 50-mm Probe1
C. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) - Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines, Publication No. FHWA HI-95-038, April 1998.
D. American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA).
E. Geosynthetic Accreditation Institute (GAl) - Laboratory Accreditation Program (LAP).
F. National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP).
G. International Standards Organization (ISO) – 9001:2008
1.5 DEFINITIONS A. Minimum Average Roll Value (MARV): Property value calculated as typical minus two standard deviations. Statistically, it yields a 97.7 percent degree of confidence that any sample taken during quality assurance testing will exceed value reported.
1.6 SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following:
1. Certification: The contractor shall provide to the Engineer a certificate stating the name of the manufacturer, product name, style number, chemical composition of the filaments or yarns and other pertinent information to fully describe the geotextile. The Certification shall state that the furnished geotextile meets MARV requirements of the specification as evaluated under the Manufacturer's quality control program. The Certification shall be attested to by a person having legal authority to bind the Manufacturer.
2. Quality Standards: The contractor shall provide to the Engineer the Manufacturer’s Quality Control Plan along with their current A2LA, GAI-LAP, and ISO 9001:2008 certificates.
1.7 QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Manufacturer Qualifications:
The geotextile Manufacturer shall have all of the following credentials:
Geosynthetic Accreditation Institute (GAI)- Laboratory Accreditation Program (LAP)
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA)
ISO 9001:2008 Quality management System
B. The geotextile Manufacturer shall have a GAI-LAP and A2LA accredited laboratory at the location of production capable of performing the ASTM tests as outlined in the specification.
1.8 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING A. Geotextiles labeling, shipment, and storage shall follow ASTM D4873. Product labels shall clearly show the manufacturer or supplier name, style name, and roll number.
B. Each geotextile roll shall be wrapped with a material that will protect the geotextile from damage due to shipment, water, sunlight, and contaminants.
C. During storage, geotextile rolls shall be elevated off the ground and adequately covered to protect them from the following: site construction damage, precipitation, extended ultraviolet radiation including sunlight, chemicals that are strong acids or strong bases, flames including welding sparks, excess temperatures, and any other environmental conditions that may damage the physical property values of the geotextile.
2. PRODUCTS 2.1 MANUFACTURERS A. TenCateTM Geosynthetics Americas
2.2 MATERIALS A. Geotextile:
1. The geotextile shall be manufactured with fibers consisting of long-chain synthetic polymers composed of at least 95 percent by weight of polyolefins or polyesters. They shall form a stable network such that the filaments or yarns retain their dimensional stability relative to each other, including selvages.
2. The geotextile shall meet the requirements of Table 1. All numeric values in Table 1 except AOS represent MARV in the weakest principal direction. Values for AOS represent maximum average roll values.
TABLE 1 - Erosion and Sedimentation Controls
Grab Tensile Strength
CBR Puncture Strength
Apparent Opening Size
U.S. Sieve (mm)
70 (0.212 max)
1After 500 hrs 3. Approved geotextiles are as follows:
Elongation >50 %: Mirafi® 140N
2.3 QUALITY CONTROL A. Manufacturing Quality Control: Testing shall be performed at a laboratory accredited by GAI-LAP and A2LA for tests required for the geotextile, at frequency meeting or exceeding ASTM D4354.
B. Geotextile properties, other than Ultraviolet Stability shall be tested by NTPEP to verify conformance with this specification.
C. Manufacturer's certifications and testing of quality assurance samples obtained using Procedure B of ASTM D4354. A lot size for conformance or quality assurance sampling shall be considered to be the shipment quantity of the given product or a truckload of the given product, whichever is smaller.
3. EXECUTION 3.1 PREPARATION A. The installation site shall be prepared by clearing, grubbing, and excavation or filling the area to the design grade. This includes removal of topsoil and vegetation.
3.2 INSTALLATION A. The geotextile shall be placed in intimate contact with the soils without wrinkles or folds and anchored on a smooth graded surface approved by the Engineer. The geotextile shall be placed in such a manner that placement of the overlying materials will not excessively stretch so as to tear the geotextile. Anchoring of the terminal ends of the geotextile shall be accomplished through the use of key trenches or aprons at the crest and toe of the slope.
B. The geotextile shall be placed with the machine direction parallel to the direction of water flow which is normally parallel to the slope for erosion control runoff and wave action, and parallel to the stream or channel in the case of streambank and channel protection. Adjacent geotextile sheets shall be joined by either sewing or overlapping. Overlapped seams of roll ends shall be a minimum of 12 in (300 mm) except where placed under water. In such instances the overlap shall be a minimum of 3.28 ft (1 m). Overlaps of adjacent rolls shall be a minimum of 12 in (300 mm) in all instances.
C. When overlapping, successive sheets of the geotextile shall be overlapped upstream over downstream, and/or upslope over downslope. In cases where wave action or multidirectional flow is anticipated, all seams perpendicular to the direction of flow shall be sewn.
D. Care shall be taken during installation so as to avoid damage occurring to the geotextile as a result of the installation process. Should the geotextile be damaged during installation, a geotextile patch shall be placed over the damaged area extending 3.28 ft (1 m) beyond the perimeter of the damage.
E. The armor system placement shall begin at the toe and proceed up the slope. Placement shall take place so as to avoid stretching and subsequent tearing of the geotextile. Riprap and heavy stone filling shall not be dropped from a height of more than 12 in (300 mm). Stone with a mass of more than 220 lbm (100 kg) shall not be allowed to roll down the slope.
F. Slope protection and smaller sizes of stone filling shall not be dropped from a height exceeding 3.28 ft (1m), or a demonstration provided showing that the placement procedures will not damage the geotextile. In underwater applications, the geotextile and backfill material shall be placed the same day. All void spaces in the armor stone shall be backfilled with small stone to ensure full coverage.
G. Following placement of the armor stone, grading of the slope shall not be permitted if the grading results in movement of the stone directly above the geotextile.
H. Field monitoring shall be performed to verify that the armor system placement does not damage the geotextile.
I. Any geotextile damaged during backfill placement shall be replaced as directed by the Engineer, at the contractor's expense.