Assignment One: The Law and order in London in the Late Nineteenth century
1. Describe law and order in London in the late nineteenth century.
In 1829 Sir Robert Peel, Home Secretary, created a judicatory force named the Metropolitan Police, the organisation that has policed us to the present day. This Metropolitan Police force, known as 'peelers' or 'bobbies' after their founder, replaced the Bow Street Runners, the former Thames River Police Force and the general watchmen and parish constables who had patrolled the streets of many British towns and cities. In this essay I will examine the responsibilities of the police force, the methods of crime control and prevention, the modernisations within the force and the detection and forensic improvements within the force to gain a better understanding of law and order in London in the late nineteenth century...
In this paragraph I will highlight the responsibilities of the police force in London and what they had to contend with. Police in London had a variety of uses and acted in different ways, some collected tolls from traders while some inspected tramcars and cabs, some officers duties included school attendance monitoring and bridge inspection. They were commonly used as lifeguards or even to enforce the Poor Law. But the commonest and main duties of the MPF were simply to deal with drunkenness, begging, vagrancy and prostitution. These duties were vastly different to others that were proposed or initiated within the nineteenth century like the proposition in 1837 by the Select Committee stating that the whole City of London should be placed under the control of the Metropolitan Police Force. Constables learnt their trade 'on the job', which was by no means an easy task. Hours of duty could be as long as 14 a day, seven days a week. In the 1870's/80's a London beat during daytime was seven and a half miles on average, it was 2 miles at night. Police officers have also had varying responsibilities in the manner in which they conducted themselves and appeared to the public; some had to wear uniform at all times while others were required to attend church on Sundays or not be seen out with women. They also had to deal with major disturbances, although the ways in which they did this were often considered un-desirable and criticised greatly...
The methods of crime control/prevention were assorted. Police commonly used baton charges in order to deal with multiple people, violent methods were often employed and some people were even killed in the conflict, such as PC Culley during a riot. Another example of these methods was the mass unemployed demonstration in Trafalgar Square, 1886. The MPF charged the demonstrators supported by two squadrons of Life Guards and two companies of foot guards. Although crowd control wasn't the only situation in which the Metropolitan Police used perhaps more heavy handed than necessary methods and officers were often attacked, in some cases murdered, in retaliation within poor and working class areas (Such as the East). Resentment towards actions such as in 1886 made policing certain districts a difficult, and often dangerous, problem. In 1885 the population of London was approx. 5,255,069. In that same year the police force amounted to 13,319 men of which only 1,383 were available to patrol. This meant that each police officer had responsibility over approx. 3,800 people. This was a staggering statistic and could not have been helped by the primitive state of the MPF...
Because of the epoch in which the MPF was established and existed (an age of technological and industrial revolution) it was constantly undergoing changes and improvements and because of its youth it was always in the process of modernisation. In 1829 Sir Robert Peel had the task of deciding the uniform for his new Police Force, he knew that the British people disliked seeing 'redcoats' or individuals from the army on the streets so avoidance of possible confusion between the army and the MPF was imperative. However the blue-clad navy were considered heroes and defenders of England, so the MPF was given a blue uniform, with a rather unpractical tailcoat and top hat. At first policeman were armed only with a truncheon (and occasionally a cutlass), but from the 1840's inspectors began to carry revolvers. In 1842 eight detectives were appointed by the MPF; two inspectors and six sergeants. But it was in the 1860's that detective work really began to start and the inspector/sergeant combination created a pattern of inquiry that was to last to the present day. Opposition to these plain clothed policemen was widespread and the possibility of corruption due to their un-identifiable nature was raised. This was proven in 1877 when three out of four inspectors in the Detective Department were found to be guilty of corruption. The following year this department was re-organised and the CID (Criminal Intelligence Department) was set up, leading to considerable improvements in the number of arrests...
Forensic science and detection techniques were improved within the force as well: In the early nineteenth century the cutting edge of detection policy was foot printing and its value in locating the criminal. But still the standard process in detective work remained to be 'following suspicious characters', the same methods used by 'bobbies' on the street. In 1884 a murderer was convicted because of the torn paper used for his pistol wadding matched the minute pieces that were found in his victims wound from the firearm. In 1892 a man called Alphonse Bertillon gave his name to a new method of identification which involved measuring specific parts of a humans body on the basis that no two individuals would be the same. This was soon made obsolete by the significant invention of fingerprinting in 1901, which was founded on a similar sort of assumption as the 'Bertillon' technique. Another revised form of police detection was photography; although a 'Rogues Gallery' of criminal photographs had existed in Scotland Yard since 1862 the first Force photographer was appointed in 1901. This method was originally used because it was thought possible to distinguish criminal 'types' from the shape of their skull and facial features. Photography was useful also in the examination of crime scenes and evidence...
Summarily, we can now see that although law and order in London in the nineteenth century was improved and regulated by the Metropolitan Police Force it had its failures as well. For instance while there were far fewer street crimes in the second half of the nineteenth century with the introduction of the MPF, but the number of burglaries actually went up. But not one of the massive amounts of modernisations and improvements within the MPF could stop a killer named 'Jack the Ripper' the evasive prostitute-slasher who held the East of London in his grip of terror spanning nearly a whole year, who has still never been caught...
2. Why did the Whitechapel murders attract so much attention in 1888?
Between the years 1888 and 1891 eleven murders took place in an area named Whitechapel, London. At some point in the last 114 years all of these murders have been branded as 'Ripper' killings (See following table for a list of the murders and the six, in bold, now conceded as Ripper victims.) Jack the Ripper is the most notorious of Victorian criminals, yet he only, allegedly, killed six people who were considered to be of little importance in relation to Victorian society. So why did London, England and a number of other nations become so shocked and absorbed by this one man? Why do we still toil and endlessly investigate over this case of homicides? I hope to be able to answer this question during and at the end of this essay.
The Whitechapel Murders and the incorporated Ripper Murders (Marked in bold):
Tuesday 3-7 April 1888Emma Elizabeth SmithAssaulted and robbed in Osborn Street, Whitechapel
Tuesday 7 August 1888Martha Tabram George Yard Buildings, George Yard, Whitechapel
Friday 31 August 1888Mary Ann NicholsBuck's Row, Whitechapel
Saturday 8 September 1888Annie ChapmanRear Yard at 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields
Sunday 30 September 1888Elizabeth StrideYard at side of 40 Berner Street, St Georges-in-the-East
Sunday 30 September 1888Catherine EddowesMitre Square, Aldgate, City of London
Friday 9 November 1888Mary Jane Kelly13 Miller's Court, 26 Dorset Street Spitalfields
Wednesday 21 November 1888Amelia FarmerLodging House, 19 George Street, Whitechapel
Thursday 20 December 1888Rose MylettClarke's Yard, High Street. Poplar
Wednesday 17 July 1889Alice McKenzieCastle Alley, Whitechapel
Tuesday 10 September 1889Unknown female torsoFound under railway arch in Pinchin Street, Whitechapel
Friday 13 February 1891Frances ColesFound under railway arch in Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel
Note: Emma Elizabeth Smith and Amelia Farmer were not killed. Smith was attacked by a gang of five men who raped her and 'inserted a blunt object into her vagina' causing a substantial rip in her perineum. She succumbed to a coma after describing her attack and died four days later. Farmer (probably the same Amelia Farmer who last saw Chapman alive) faked a Ripper attack and partially slit her own throat in order to commit robbery.
A simple answer to this question could be that people had never seen this sort of crime before, neither sex-related nor serial, but both statements would be untrue. History has seen plenty of serial killing sex-offenders and although the common person may not be aware of them sexual murders are no modern thing. Sex related child murders could be accounted to Gilles de Rais, Marshal of France, in the 13th Century. Countess Bathory of 16th Century Hungary caused the death of some 650 girls so as to bathe in their blood and even in 1880 in Paris a man named Louis Menesclou lured a four year old girl into his room, strangled and then slept with her. The truth is however that the Ripper killings revolutionised the age of sex crime, they were the first cases of sex crime in the sense that we understand it today. The brutal and increasing ferocity in the nature of the crimes seemed designed to shock London. The Ripper murders, with their nightmarish mutilations, simply went beyond normal comprehension. This sparked a sort of morbid and black curiosity within people, ensuring their instant absorption into the story of the Ripper killings.
It seemed that the Ripper had no motive for such crimes, except from perhaps harbouring a deep sexual-psychological rage towards women. The killings were certainly not economic, the women were prostitutes and rarely carried amounts of money greater than that of which could buy a large glass of gin. Another stricken motive is sexual desire, even the most attractive of the victims, Mary Jane Kelly, was described as 'a massive Irish woman who looked as if she could knock down a horse with an uppercut.' The abdominal wounds and ferocity of the killings suggest what some people call 'sexual hunger' not like the aforementioned sexual desire but a force that had gone past desire and forced the individual to achieve sexual fulfilment in more radical ways. An example of this is Sylvestre Matushka who wrecked trains in order to reach sexual climax. These seemingly random, motiveless and psychological aspects of the murder methods attracted more attention from people.
One of the main factors of interest within the Ripper case was the unresolved matter of his identity, this particular aspect amassed quite a following due to the possible theories that the killer could perhaps posses medical knowledge, making him a high class, maybe prominent within London's society. The continuing question of the Rippers existence and his blatant mockery shown in his apparent letters to people were intriguing, it appeared that this evasive monster was above the law, laughing and ridiculing even as he told authorities where he lived. (Prince William Street, this was derived from one of the many letters allegedly sent from the Ripper, although few researchers give it much credence. Prince William Street was only yards from the main road between Aigburth and the office of the Cotton Exchange.)
The correspondence received that related to the Ripper case (almost all claming to be Jack the Ripper) was massive, and only three are now considered credible, the 'Dear Boss' letter, the 'Saucy Jacky' postcard and the 'From Hell' letter. These, if real, all gain the reader a disturbing if valuable insight into the Rippers mind, suggesting a psychotic notion and displaying how he derived pleasure from his killings. These details served only to spark more interest in the case of this serial killer. The press reacted to the Ripper with great shock, and any news on it was widely covered. This emphasises just how much of an impact the killings made on people's lives; normally a murder in Whitechapel would receive no such coverage at all and would often go un-noticed by the press, but the sheer ferocity of the Ripper murders instantly caught their attention and after the Nichols murder coverage was widespread.
3. Why were the police unable to catch Jack the Ripper?
In the following essay I will attempt to portray an alternative answer to the above question. If the Whitechapel Murders table (above) is observed it can be seen that the Ripper murders followed a curious pattern of occurrence:
These dates could be interpreted so as think that the murders occurred on every 7/8th of the month and every 30th/31st of the month. Interestingly these dates also coincide with the phases of the moon which existed in 1888, the first and last murders, Tabram and Kelly, were both committed on the exact full and half moon phases of their month. The four remaining murders were all carried out two days before a moon phase. It is said that by offering blood sacrifices coinciding with moon phases that an inverted occult pentagram can be constructed (Five being a very significant figure in the occult). This ritual, once completed gives the individual, among other things, 'favour in the sight of the Old Ones when They once more walk the Earth' and a cloak of invisibility or immunity from discovery. But it could be raised that there were six victims, Martha Tabram was the first (incidentally her death again has an occult significance; she was stabbed thirty-nine times, three times thirteen apparently being an occult formula, perhaps part of the aforesaid ritual). On the 30th of September there were two murders, Stride and Eddowes, Stride however was not a proper victim. It is evident from the inquest at the time and the subsequent events that the Ripper was disturbed in his mutilation of Stride and did not have time to complete his ritual slaying. Perhaps it was essential enough that he had to find a second victim quickly in order to have a sacrifice for that particular moon phase, this was to be Eddowes.
If this theory is to function how can the lack of killings in October be explained? It is known that Inspector Abberline traced and questioned three medical students at the beginning of October about the murders, perhaps one of those students was in fact the Ripper. It would explain why there were no killings that month and that the Ripper waited until he could be sure he was no longer under suspicion. Only through pure speculation can that particular conclusion be derived, yet it is very tempting. Could this pent-up frenzy also explain the horror of the Miller's Court murder? The final death that would seal the pentagram ritual and bring the killings to an end.
So perhaps the reason for the MPF's inability to detain the killer and his continued anonymity is that he is, in fact, impossible to trace, protected by a dark force that mirrors the nature of his dark murders.
Assignment Two: Source Questions
1. Study source A.
What can you learn from Source A about the murder of Martha Tabram and Polly Nicholls?
Source A suggests a number of things relating to the murderer. It infers to the possibility that the killer was insane, "work of a demented being", although there is, in fact, no evidence to support this inference other than the "extraordinary violence" used. We can see from the source that there is no apparent motive to the killings, it informs us with: "no adequate motive in the shape of plunder can be traced." This seemingly complete lack of understanding about the motive of the murders suggests that this was indeed one of the first publicised or heavily investigated cases of serial sex crime in the available history.
2. Study sources A, B and C.
Does the evidence of Source C support the evidence of Sources A and B about the Ripper murders?
Source C can provide only one obvious assent to the statements in Source B, Blackwell's report on Stride's body states at the end: "In the neck there was a long incision which commenced on the left side, two and a half inches below the angle of the jaw, cutting the windpipe completely in two." This conforms with Source B's cogitation that it was an anatomically skilled and knowledgeable person, any less experienced person (As was confirmed by police inquiries with slaughterers and surgeons, etc.) would have hesitated and made at least two incisions. Yet both Source B and Source C seem to disagree with Source A, the newspaper article. This could be attributed to the early status of the article; both the other sources are from later murders and more information may have been gathered, it is also because Source A is only a newspaper article, the other two sources are in-depth reports. A newspaper is not required to delve into detail and is not obliged to be constantly accurate. Source A claims that the murders are the work of a madman where as Source B states firmly how the murderer must have had considerable skill and knowledge, these are not traits normally associated with people inflicted with insanity. Source A also declares that there is no financial motive for the murders where as Source C clearly says that there was no money on the body, this could be because the murderer removed any, again dissent to Source A's statements.
3. Study Sources D and E.
How useful are Sources D and E in helping you to understand why the Ripper was able to avoid capture?
Source D presents us with an eyewitness description of the supposed killer from Elizabeth Long, believed to be the last person to see Annie Chapman alive. This information, when analysed, can help us comprehend better the reasons for the Rippers sustained anonymity. Long's portrait of the killer, while quite concise given the circumstances, is by no means grounds enough to locate the murderer. There are no characteristics featured in the report that could help to tell the Ripper apart from any other Victorian man in a London street. The fact that Long mentions he had a foreign appearance could have attributed to the futility of the search for the Ripper. Racism was very common in Victorian London (specifically anti-Semitism) and it would not be surprising to find that Long had perhaps included that part of the report just to stir trouble. The Metropolitan Police Force, of course, launched massive inquiries and utilised a lot of police resources in order to follow up and investigate these claims of the Ripper's nationality. This source is also an example of the many vague portrayals of the Ripper's appearance:
"I think he was wearing a dark coat but I cannot be sure."
This uncertainty in nearly all eyewitnesses and the night-time nature of the crimes would only serve to hinder the MPF in their efforts to find the killer. Source E is an article published in a London newspaper after the deaths of Annie Chapman and Polly Nicholls. In this article the MPF, it seems, are being criticised for their poor handling of the situation. Not only does this help us understand why the Ripper was able to avoid capture but the article also goes on to describe Whitechapel at the time as "a network of narrow, dark and crooked lanes." This in itself is another aid to the Ripper's evasion, for someone who knew the area it would be more than easy to disappear after a murder or escape from pursuers.
It would appear from these two sources that the Police focused their forces in the wrong areas and the wrong ways, from this prospective the sources are extremely useful in helping us to understand the Ripper's escape from identification.
4. Study Sources F and G.
Use Sources F and G, and your own knowledge, to explain how the police tried to catch Jack the Ripper.
Source F demonstrates one of the MPF's approaches in locating Jack the Ripper. It is a leaflet requesting any information about the murders. This conveys the MPF's desperation as they couldn't have hoped to get much of a response from the leaflets, especially since they were distributed after the fifth murder, by then all of England would have known of Jack the Ripper and anyone with information useful to the police would surely have come forward before. Source G is an extract from a letter sent to the Home Secretary on the 17th of September (after the third murder) requesting the reinstatement of rewards for information leading to a felon's arrest. In addition to these, and many other methods, the MPF employed watchmen to hide in dark alleys or patrol around Whitechapel, every potential source was followed through, experts from all fields were brought in and people of many professions questioned, especially regarding skills or techniques used in any sort of slaughtering, incision making or surgery. Since the MPF did not have the technology to vary their detection techniques they relied on a labour intensive guarding of the Whitechapel area, and consequently also depended on catching the Ripper at the scene of the crime with evidence at hand.
jack ripper assignment order london late nineteenth century describe order london late nineteenth century robert peel home secretary created judicatory force named metropolitan police organisation that policed present this metropolitan police force known peelers bobbies after their founder replaced street runners former thames river police force general watchmen parish constables patrolled streets many british towns cities this essay will examine responsibilities methods crime control prevention modernisations within detection forensic improvements within gain better understanding order london late nineteenth century this paragraph will highlight responsibilities what they contend with variety uses acted different ways some collected tolls from traders while some inspected tramcars cabs some officers duties included school attendance monitoring bridge inspection they were commonly used lifeguards even enforce poor commonest main duties were simply deal with drunkenness begging vagrancy prostitution these duties were vastly different others that proposed initiated within like proposition select committee stating that whole city should placed under control metropolitan constables learnt their trade which means easy task hours duty could long seven days week beat during daytime seven half miles average miles night officers have also varying responsibilities manner which they conducted themselves appeared public wear uniform times while others required attend church sundays seen with women also deal major disturbances although ways which often considered desirable criticised greatly methods crime control prevention assorted commonly used baton charges deal multiple people violent methods often employed people even killed conflict such culley during riot another example these mass unemployed demonstration trafalgar square charged demonstrators supported squadrons life guards companies foot guards although crowd wasn only situation used perhaps more heavy handed than necessary officers often attacked cases murdered retaliation poor working class areas such east resentment towards actions such made policing certain districts difficult dangerous problem population approx same year amounted only available patrol meant each officer responsibility over approx people staggering statistic could have been helped primitive state because epoch established existed technological industrial revolution constantly undergoing changes improvements because youth always process modernisation robert peel task deciding uniform knew british disliked seeing redcoats individuals from army streets avoidance possible confusion between army imperative however blue clad navy considered heroes defenders england given blue uniform rather unpractical tailcoat first policeman armed only truncheon occasionally cutlass from inspectors began carry revolvers eight detectives appointed inspectors sergeants detective work really began start inspector sergeant combination created pattern inquiry last present opposition these plain clothed policemen widespread possibility corruption their identifiable nature raised proven when three four inspectors detective department found guilty corruption following year department organised criminal intelligence department leading considerable improvements number arrests forensic science detection techniques improved well early cutting edge detection policy foot printing value locating criminal still standard process detective work remained following suspicious characters same bobbies street murderer convicted because torn paper pistol wadding matched minute pieces found victims wound firearm called alphonse bertillon gave name method identification involved measuring specific parts humans body basis individuals would same soon made obsolete significant invention fingerprinting founded similar sort assumption bertillon technique another revised form photography although rogues gallery criminal photographs existed scotland yard since first photographer appointed method originally thought possible distinguish types shape skull facial features photography useful also examination crime scenes evidence summarily improved regulated failures well instance while there fewer street crimes second half introduction number burglaries actually went massive amounts modernisations could stop killer named jack ripper evasive prostitute slasher held east grip terror spanning nearly whole year still never been caught whitechapel murders attract much attention between years eleven murders took place area named whitechapel point last years murders have been branded ripper killings following table list bold conceded victims jack most notorious victorian criminals allegedly killed considered little importance relation victorian society england number other nations become shocked absorbed still toil endlessly investigate over case homicides hope able answer question during essay whitechapel incorporated marked bold datevictimcircumstances tuesday april emma elizabeth smithassaulted robbed osborn tuesday august martha tabram george yard buildings george yard friday august mary nicholsbuck saturday september annie chapmanrear hanbury spitalfields sunday september elizabeth strideyard side berner georges east sunday september catherine eddowesmitre square aldgate city friday november mary jane kelly miller court dorset spitalfields wednesday november amelia farmerlodging house george thursday december rose mylettclarke high poplar wednesday july alice mckenziecastle alley tuesday unknown female torsofound under railway arch pinchin friday february frances colesfound under railway arch swallow gardens note emma elizabeth smith amelia farmer killed smith attacked gang five raped inserted blunt object into vagina causing substantial perineum succumbed coma after describing attack died four days later farmer probably amelia farmer last chapman alive faked attack partially slit throat commit robbery simple answer question never seen sort before neither related serial both statements would untrue history seen plenty serial killing offenders common person aware them sexual modern thing related child accounted gilles rais marshal france countess bathory hungary caused death girls bathe blood even paris louis menesclou lured four girl into room strangled then slept truth however killings revolutionised first cases sense understand today brutal increasing ferocity nature crimes seemed designed shock nightmarish mutilations simply went beyond normal comprehension sparked sort morbid black curiosity ensuring instant absorption into story killings seemed motive crimes except perhaps harbouring deep sexual psychological rage towards women certainly economic women prostitutes rarely carried amounts money greater than large glass another stricken motive sexual desire most attractive victims mary jane kelly described massive irish woman looked knock down horse uppercut abdominal wounds ferocity suggest what call hunger like aforementioned desire gone past desire forced individual achieve fulfilment more radical ways example sylvestre matushka wrecked trains reach climax seemingly random motiveless psychological aspects murder attracted more attention main factors interest case unresolved matter identity particular aspect amassed quite possible theories killer perhaps posses medical knowledge making high class maybe prominent society continuing question rippers existence blatant mockery shown apparent letters intriguing appeared evasive monster above laughing ridiculing told authorities where lived prince william derived many letters allegedly sent researchers give much credence prince william yards main road between aigburth office cotton exchange correspondence received related case almost claming massive three credible dear boss letter saucy jacky postcard hell letter real gain reader disturbing valuable insight rippers mind suggesting psychotic notion displaying derived pleasure details served spark interest serial killer press reacted great shock news widely covered emphasises just much impact made lives normally murder would receive coverage noticed press sheer ferocity instantly caught attention after nichols murder coverage widespread unable catch essay will attempt portray alternative answer above table above observed followed curious pattern occurrence august november dates interpreted think occurred every month every month interestingly dates coincide phases moon existed tabram kelly both committed exact full half moon phases month remaining carried days before moon phase said offering blood sacrifices coinciding phases inverted occult pentagram constructed five being very significant figure occult ritual once completed gives individual among other things favour sight ones when once walk earth cloak invisibility immunity discovery raised there martha tabram incidentally death again occult significance stabbed thirty nine times three times thirteen apparently being formula part aforesaid ritual there stride eddowes stride however proper victim evident inquest time subsequent events disturbed mutilation stride time complete ritual slaying essential enough find second victim quickly sacrifice particular phase eddowes theory function lack october explained known inspector abberline traced questioned medical students beginning october about those students fact explain waited until sure longer suspicion through pure speculation particular conclusion derived very tempting pent frenzy explain horror miller court final death seal pentagram bring reason inability detain continued anonymity fact impossible trace protected dark mirrors nature dark assignment source questions study source what learn source about martha polly nicholls suggests things relating murderer infers possibility insane work demented being fact evidence support inference other than extraordinary violence apparent motive informs adequate shape plunder traced seemingly complete lack understanding about suggests indeed publicised heavily investigated cases available history study sources does evidence support sources provide obvious assent statements blackwell report body states neck long incision commenced left side inches below angle cutting windpipe completely conforms cogitation anatomically skilled knowledgeable person less experienced person confirmed inquiries slaughterers surgeons hesitated least incisions both seem disagree newspaper article attributed early status article sources later information gathered newspaper article depth reports newspaper required delve detail obliged constantly accurate claims madman where states firmly murderer must considerable skill knowledge traits normally associated inflicted insanity declares financial where clearly says money body removed again dissent statements study useful helping understand able avoid capture presents eyewitness description supposed long believed annie chapman alive information when analysed help comprehend better reasons rippers sustained anonymity portrait quite concise given circumstances means grounds enough locate characteristics featured report help tell apart victorian mentions foreign appearance attributed futility search racism very common specifically anti semitism surprising find included part report just stir trouble course launched inquiries utilised resources follow investigate claims nationality example many vague portrayals appearance think wearing dark coat cannot sure uncertainty nearly eyewitnesses night time serve hinder efforts find published deaths annie chapman polly nicholls seems criticised poor handling situation does help understand able avoid capture goes describe network narrow crooked lanes itself evasion someone knew area easy disappear escape pursuers appear focused forces wrong areas wrong prospective extremely useful helping escape identification your knowledge explain tried catch demonstrates approaches locating leaflet requesting information conveys desperation couldn hoped response leaflets especially since distributed fifth then england known anyone surely come forward before extract letter sent home secretary third requesting reinstatement rewards leading felon arrest addition employed watchmen hide alleys patrol around every potential followed through experts fields brought professions questioned especially regarding skills techniques slaughtering incision making surgery since technology vary techniques relied labour intensive guarding area consequently depended catching scene hand
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