1. Definition of demography



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Unit II Population and Migration 1
1. Definition of demography
1. Demography is

A) the study of the relationship between government and population.



B) the study of population.

C) the study of population growth.

D) the mapping of population characteristics.

E) none of the above


2. Arithmetic density, agricultural density, and physiological density
2. Arithmetic density is

A) the number of people per unit of measurement.

B) the number of farmers per square mile of all available land.

C) the number of people per square mile of arable land.

D) the number of farmers per square mile of arable land.

E) the number of people per square mile of inhabitable land.
3. Which of the following countries has the lowest arithmetic density?

A) Brazil.

B) United States.

C) United Kingdom.



D) Canada.

E) India.


4. Agricultural density is

A) the number of people per square mile of all available land.

B) the number of farmers per square mile of all available land.

C) the number of people per square mile of arable land.



D) the number of farmers per square mile of arable land.

E) the number of people per square mile of inhabitable land.


5. Physiological density is

A) the number of people per square mile of all available land.

B) the number of farmers per square mile of all available land.

C) the number of people per square mile of arable land.

D) the number of farmers per square mile of arable land.

E) the number of people per square mile of inhabitable land.
6. Which country has a low arithmetic density, but a high physiological density?

A) Egypt.

B) United States.

C) United Kingdom.

D) Nigeria.

E) India. Unit II Population and Migration 2
3. Ecumene
7. The part of Earth’s surface that is physically suitable for permanent human settlement is known as

A) the ecumene.

B) the ecosystem.

C) the ecosphere.

D) the biosphere.

E) the biosystem.
8. Which of the following areas is considered part of the ecumene?

A) Polar ice caps.

B) Himalayan mountain zone above 20,000 feet.

C) Mid-latitude deserts of Africa.



D) The banks along the lower Nile River.

E) Frozen tundra areas of Siberia.


4. Location and characteristics of major population clusters
9. Globally, the three largest population concentrations are located in

A) Southeast Asia, West Africa, and East Asia.

B) East Asia, West Africa, and Europe.

C) East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia.



D) Europe, South Asia, and East Asia.

E) Europe, North America, and East Asia.


10. The four major population clusters in the world include all of the following regions except

A) South America.

B) South Asia.

C) East Asia.

D) Southeast Asia.

E) Europe.
11. The population clusters in Asia

A) are the three most populated clusters in the world.

B) are all highly urbanized.

C) are predominately rural in nature.

D) are dominated by the secondary sector of the economy.

E) none of the above Unit II Population and Migration 3
12. Reasons why women in the United States are having fewer children than 50 years

ago include all of the following except

A) women are getting married later in life.

B) women are becoming more educated.

C) women are more likely to enter the work-force.

D) women have poorer diets.

E) women are more likely to use contraceptives.

13. Problems associated with fast population growth in cities include

A) an increase in air and water pollution.

B) the loss of productive farmland near cities.

C) an increase in traffic congestion.

D) urban slums which result in more poverty and crime.

E) all of the above.
14. All of the following are population clusters in the East Asian population concentration except

A) eastern China.

B) the Korean Peninsula.

C) Japan.



D) western China.

E) Taiwan.


5. Location and characteristics of emerging population clusters
15. Since 1950, this part of the developing world has seen a dramatic increase

in population.



A) Urban areas.

B) Rural areas.

C) Non-industrial areas.

D) Areas away from coasts.

E) Agricultural areas.
16. What region of North America is most densely populated?

A) West Coast.



B) Northeast.

C) Pacific Northwest.

D) Upper Midwest.

E) Southeast.


17. Which U.S. state has the highest Natural Increase Rate (NIR)?

A) Texas.



B) Utah.

C) California.

D) Colorado.

E) New Mexico.


Unit II Population and Migration 4
18. Which of the following states has the lowest population growth rate?

A) California.

B) Texas.

C) Nevada.



D) New York.

E) Georgia.

19. The two regions of the United States with the slowest population growth are

A) East Coast and Midwest.

B) Northeast and South.

C) Midwest and West.

D) West and South.

E) East Coast and Southeast.
6. Sparsely populated areas (location and characteristics)
20. Humans do not populate in large numbers

A) areas that are too wet.

B) areas that are too cold.

C) areas that are too dry.

D) areas that are too high in elevation.

E) all of the above.
21. Highland areas support large populations in

A) Central Mexico.

B) East Africa.

C) Central Asia.

D) Southeast Asia.

E) A and B only.
7. Distribution of population within clusters
22. The largest major population concentration of North America is

A) from Miami to Jacksonville.

B) from San Diego to San Francisco.

C) from Washington D.C. to Boston.

D) from Toronto to Montreal.

E) none of the above.
Unit II Population and Migration 5
23. Which statement best describes the different characteristics of population in the United States and Europe?

A) Europe has many more wide-open spaces than the United States has.

B) The United States has more area than Europe does.

C) The arithmetic density of the United States is less than that of Europe.

D) Europe’s population density is lower than that of the United States.

E) Europe’s population is smaller than that of the United States.


8. Overpopulation/carrying capacity
24. Carrying capacity is the

A) limit at which population can be sustained through its resources and trade.

B) maximum number of people an area can support using the theoretical limits of energy production.

C) maximum number of people an area can support using organic agricultural methods and technology.



D) maximum number of people an area can support using all of its available resources and technology.

E) maximum number of people an area can support using traditional agricultural methods.


25. The theory that farmers will adopt new and modern methods to keep up with

demand caused by an increasing population was proposed by

A) Thomas Malthus.

B) Neo-Malthusians.



C) Esther Boserup.

D) Ernest Ravenstein.

E) Walter Christaller
26. Which statement about overpopulation is true?

A) Overpopulation is unlikely because food production potential is unlimited.



B) Overpopulation occurs when an area’s population is greater than its carrying capacity.

C) Overpopulation can only occur in less-developed areas.

D) Overpopulation is achieved when the physiological density reaches more than 1,000/km.

E) All of the above.


9. Challenges of highly-concentrated populations in certain areas of the world
27. Under what circumstances could high birth rates pose a challenge for a country?

A) If a country’s economy grows at a slower rate than the Crude Birth Rate (CBR).

B) If a country is unable to provide adequate health care for its citizens.

C) If a country’s natural resources are depleted in an unsustainable manner.

D) If a country’s population structure resembles a pyramid.

E) All of the above.
Unit II Population and Migration 6
28. The highest Crude Birth Rates (CBR) in the world are found in

A) Latin America.

B) Middle East.

C) China.



D) Sub-Saharan Africa.

E) Europe.




10. Population Pyramids

Use the population pyramids below to answer the questions 29-34. The male population is represented by the blue lines on the left side of each pyramid. The female population is represented by the red lines on the right side of each pyramid.



E

D

C

B

A
29. Which population pyramid shows a population that is slowly growing?

A) Pyramid “A”.



B) Pyramid “B”.

C) Pyramid “C”.

D) Pyramid “D”.

E.) Pyramid “E”.


30. Which population pyramid shows a population whose total numbers is declining?

A) Pyramid “A”.

B) Pyramid “B”.

C) Pyramid “C”.

D) Pyramid “D”.

E) Pyramid “E”.
31. Which population pyramid best reflects the population structure of Germany?

A) Pyramid “A”.

B) Pyramid “B”.

C) Pyramid “C”.

D) Pyramid “D”.

E) Pyramid “E”.
Unit II Population and Migration 7
32. Which population pyramid best reflects the population structure of the Philippines?

A) Pyramid “A”.

B) Pyramid “B”.

C) Pyramid “C”.

D) Pyramid “D”.

E) Pyramid “E”.
33. The bulge on the left side of Population Pyramid “D” is most likely caused by

A) an abnormally high out-migration of females.

B) an influx of illegal aliens.

C) a migrant guest-worker program.

D) a cultural preference for male children.

E) war or famine.

34. Population Pyramid “E” has two bulges in its structure. Demographers might call the bottom bulge

A) a Baby Boom.

B) an Echo Boom.

C) a migrant guest-worker program.

D) a demographic transition.

E) none of the above.


11. Spatial Analysis

Use the diagrams below to answer questions 35-38.



B

A

Key

Each dot represents 1,000 people.

Each square’s dimensions are 10 km by 10 km

E

D

C
Unit II Population and Migration 8
35. Which area has the greatest arithmetic density?

A) Area “A”.

B) Area “B”.

C) Area “C”.

D) Area “D”.

E) Area “E”.
36. Which area’s population pattern is the most clustered?

A) Area “A”.

B) Area “B”.

C) Area “C”.

D) Area “D”.

E) Area “E”.
37. Which area’s population is distributed in a linear pattern?

A) Area “A”.

B) Area “B”.

C) Area “C”.

D) Area “D”.

E) Area “E”.
38. Which area’s population pattern is the most dispersed?

A) Area “A”.



B) Area “B”.

C) Area “C”.

D) Area “D”.

E) Area “E”.


12. Dependency ratio
39. This is the measurement that shows the average number of people in an area’s population who are not economically productive, who must be supported by the area’s economically productive population.

A) Employment Ratio.



B) Dependency Ratio.

C) Industrial Production Ratio.

D) Productive Class Ratio.

E) Jobless Ratio.


Unit II Population and Migration 9
13. Relationship between population distribution and distribution of natural hazards
40. All of the following populated areas are on or close to major earthquake fault lines except

A) central Mexico.

B) Japan.

C) western Europe.

D) Indonesia.

E) California.
14. The difference between a natural hazard and natural disaster

41. What differentiates a natural disaster from a natural hazard?

A) A natural disaster includes only the loss of life.

B) A natural hazard includes only the loss of property.



C) A natural disaster often includes the loss of property and life.

D) A natural hazard is a predictable event.

E) All of the above.
15. The “J” curve

42. Which of the following graphs exhibits a J-curve?

A) Global Birth Rates over time.

B) Global Infant Mortality Rates over time.



C) Global Population Growth over time.

D) Global Dependency Ratio rate over time.

E) All of the above.
43. Historically, the world’s population grew

A) very steadily from 1000 CE until the present.



B) slowly until about 1800 CE, before growing quickly between 1800 CE and the present.

C) quickly until about 1800 CE, before slowing down between 1800 CE and the present.

D) slowly until about 1000 CE, before growing quickly between 1000 CE and the present.

E) quickly until about 1000 CE, before declining between 1800 CE and the present.


44. Over the past 200 years, the population of the world

A) has increased by approximately more than 5.5 billion.

B) has increased by more than 7 billion.

C) has increased by about 80 million people per year.

D) has slightly decreased from a high of 8 billion to under 7 billion.

E) has roughly stayed the same.
Unit II Population and Migration 10
45. In the next 50 years, the population of the world

A) is expected to level off at slightly more than 12 billion.

B) is expected to rise to a high of 13 billion before starting to decline.

C) is expected to decline to less than 5 billion people due to lack of food supply.

D) is expected to double to over 13 billion people.

E) is expected to rise to approximately 9 billion.
16. The demographic equation
46. The total change in population of a country’s population is represented by which of the following equations?

A) Total Population Change = Number of Births – Number of Deaths + Number of Immigrants – Number of Emigrants.

B) Total Population Change = Number of Births – Number of Deaths + Number of Emigrants – Number of Immigrants.

C) Total Population Change = Number of Births + Number of Deaths – Number of Immigrants + Number of Emigrants.

D) Total Population Change = Number of Births + Number of Immigrants.

E) Total Population Change = Number of Deaths – Number of Emigrants.
17. Locations of high and low Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Crude Birth Rate (CBR), Crude Death Rate (CDR), and Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
47. A country’s Total Fertility Rate is

A) the average number of children a woman can expect to give birth to during her lifetime.

B) the number of children who are born and survive past their first birthday.

C) the average number of children who are born and survive for a week.

D) the total number of children born per 1,000 population.

E) a theoretical maximum number of children a woman can bear.
48. In order to replace its population only, a country needs a total fertility rate of

A) 1.2.


B) 2.1.

C) 3.0.


D) 3.5.

E) 4.1.

49. A country’s Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is

A) the average number of children a woman can expect to give birth to during her lifetime.

B) the number of children who are born and survive past their first birthday.

C) the average number of children who are born and survive for a week.



D) the total number of children born per 1,000 population.

E) a theoretical maximum number of children a woman can bear.


Unit II Population and Migration 11
50. The United Kingdom has a higher death rate than Costa Rica. This is due to the fact that

A) Costa Rica has a more modern health care system than the United Kingdom.



B) Costa Rica’s population is younger than the United Kingdom’s population.

C) the United Kingdom has a much higher infant mortality rate than Costa Rica.

D) the United Kingdom has many more incidences of industrial accidents than Costa Rica.

E) the United Kingdom has a higher cancer rate than Costa Rica.


51. Poland’s total fertility rate is 1.2. What impact will this have on Poland’s population?

A) Poland’s population is steadily increasing.

B) Poland’s population is quickly increasing.

C) Poland has reached zero population growth.



D) Poland’s population is decreasing.

E) Poland’s population has a doubling time of about 23 years.


52. A country’s Crude Death Rate (CDR) is

A) the total number of people who die in any given year.

B) the total number of elderly people who die in any given year.

C) the total number of children who are born and die within the first year.

D) the total number of people who die in a given year, excluding infants.

E) the total number of people who die per 1,000 population.
53. Presently, natural increase in population is primarily due to

A) an increase in the birth rate.

B) an increase in the death rate.

C) a decrease in the birth rate.



D) a decrease in the death rate.

E) an increase in the birth rate combined with a decrease in the death rate.


54. Even after a country’s birth rate and death rate reach a point of zero population growth, the total population will continue to grow for a period of time before it starts to decline. This concept is known as

A) demographic momentum.

B) natural increase.

C) a baby boom.

D) an echo boom.

E) a population explosion.

Unit II Population and Migration 12


55. The Natural Increase Rate (NIR) is calculated by

A) adding the Crude Death Rate (CDR) from the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and dividing by 70.

B) subtracting the Crude Death Rate (CDR) from the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and dividing by 70.

C) adding the Crude Death Rate (CDR) to the Crude Birth Rate (CBR).

D) subtracting the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) from the Crude Death Rate (CDR).

E) subtracting the Crude Death Rate (CDR) from the Crude Birth Rate (CBR).
Use these data to answer the following questions 56-58.

Country A

Country B

Crude birth rate 38 per 1000 people Crude birth rate 18 per 1000 people

Crude death rate 18 per 1000 people Crude death rate 9 per 1000 people
56. The Natural Increase Rate (NIR) of Country A is

A) 56 per 1000.



B) 2%.

C) 20%.


D) half the rate of Country B.

E) about the same rate as Country B.


57. From the data, one might conclude that Country B

A) is in Stage 1 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM).

B) has achieved zero population growth.

C) has a negative rate of natural increase.

D) is a less developed country.

E) is a more developed country.
58. From the data, it is apparent that

A) the population of Country A will double in 35 years.

B) the population of Country B will double in 15 years.

C) the carrying capacity of Country A is being strained.

D) Country A has a larger population than Country B.

E) Country A is overpopulated.
59. The Natural Increase Rate (NIR) measures

A) the rate of population growth in an area as measured by its birth rate and death rate.

B) the rate of population growth in an area as measured by its birth rate, death rate, and immigration rate.

C) the rate of population growth in an area as measured by its birth rate and immigration rate.

D) the rate of population growth in an area as measured by its birth rate, death rate, and emigration rate.

E) the rate of population growth in an area as measured by its birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and emigration rate.

Unit II Population and Migration 13


60. The Total Fertility Rate of the United States for 2008 was estimated to be 2.1. What does this mean for the population of the United States?

A) The doubling time of the United States is about 35 years.

B) The United States is experiencing rapid natural increase.

C) All population growth in the United States is due to migration and not natural increase.

D) The United States will experience population decline in the next 30 years.

E) All of the above.
18. Doubling time
61. At the current growth rate, the doubling time of the world’s population

is approximately

A) 14 years.

B) 26 years.

C) 38 years.

D) 54 years.

E) 80 years


19. Sex Ratio
62. Which statement about the Male-Female Sex Ratio is most accurate?

A) More males are born than females, but females outnumber males after age 80.

B) More females are born than males, but males outnumber females after age 80.

C) Males outnumber females at all ages.

D) Females outnumber males at all ages.

E) Males and females are equal in number at all ages.
20. Reasons for rapid population growth due to industrialization and the diffusion of modern medical practices.
63. The major factor contributing to the explosive population growth in More Developed Countries (MDCs) during the 19th and early 20th centuries was

A) the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution.

B) the diffusion of modern medical practices

C) the diffusion of vaccines and antibiotics.

D) the diffusion of family planning programs.

E) the diffusion of birth control devices.

Unit II Population and Migration 14


64. What effect did the diffusion of modern medical practices and drugs have on the global population?

A) Healthier diets for women increased the total fertility rate around the world.

B) Population increased because many formerly fatal diseases were cured.

C) The world experienced lower death rates due to an increased emphasis on sanitation.

D) A and B only.

E) B and C only.
65. The major reason for high growth rates in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is

A) most people in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) do not have access to birth control.

B) the total fertility rate in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is nearing 7 children born per woman.

C) people in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) have lower incidence of fatal diseases than people in More Developed Countries (MDCs).

D) the birth rate in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) has increased dramatically over the past 50 years.



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