1. Christianity in the East Emperor and Patriarch



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History of Christianity 2. The Middle Ages 700 to 1500

History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture



Christianity in the East

Five Patriarchates in the 5th Century

East:

1. Constantinople

2. Alexandria (Egypt)

3. Antioch (Syria)

4. Jerusalem
West:

5. Rome
Eastern Roman Empire = Byzantine Empire


capital Constantinople, the “New Rome” from May 11, 330 through May 29, 1453 (except from 1204 to 1261: occupied by crusaders)


The Relationship Between Emperor and Patriach
church and state one

“as in heaven, so on earth”

emperor living icon of Christ.

- Terrestrial rule of the emperor reproduces God’s rule in heaven

- God regulates the cosmic order; the emperor the social order

- general “defender” of the church; but not “head” of the church

emperor and patriach: emperor appointed Patriach from list of 3 names

emperor and church councils:

- summoned councils

- presided over councils

- confirmed decisions and proclaimed them as imperial law

The Patriach
from 595 known as “ecumenical patriarch” = patriarch of the whole inhabited earth

looked upon pope as his senior, but did not ascribe him any jurisdiction in the East

recognized autonomy of the other eastern patriarchs

worked in close cooperation with Holy Synod = hierarchs with sees in immediate vicinity of city



Ecumenical Councils
7 councils from 325 to 787 recognized by Byzantine church

the Eucharist and Ecumenical Council are the supreme visible expression of God’s continuing presence in the church on earth

- conciliar church
History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch



1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture

Bishops and Priests
bishops from 6th or 7th century required to be celibate (in moderns times limited to monks also)

parish priests usually married, worked at other jobs

could not be in commerce, bankers, inn-keepers, brothel-owners or Civil service
History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500

1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests



1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture



Doctrine, Heresies and Schisms
West: often viewed Eastern Christianity as hotbed and source of heresies (Eastern Christianity viewed West as uneducated illiterates ruled by barbarians)

Fourth Century: focus on Trinity



431-681: focus on person of Jesus (Christology)

8th and 9th century: controversy about icons


Heresies and Schisms: Nestorius
orthodoxy:

Jesus: one person, two independent natures

therefore Mary theotokos = “God bearer”

Nestorius: Mary only mother of Jesus the man, not Jesus as God. Accused of saying Jesus two persons

Led to schism of Christians East Syria and Mesopotamia, forming Nestorian Church, = Church of the East 5th and 6th centuries
Heresies and Schisms: Monophysites
orthodoxy:

Jesus: one person, two independent natures (dyophysitism)

monophysitism = one nature (a combined human and divine nature)

Led to schism of churches in Egypt, Syria, Armenia (Coptic Orthodox Church, Syrian Orthodox Church, Church of Armenia)


Heresies and Schisms: Iconoclast Controversy
Icons

not worship, but veneration (“relative honor”)

“opened books to remind us of God.” Icons are to the unlettered what written words are to the literate

reveal the spirit-bearing potentialities of material things

treated with full liturgical honor in service

confers grace and has sacramental value

Iconoclasts:

icons covered by ban in Exodus against idols


Iconoclast Controversy
Emperor Leo III 717-741 sided with iconoclasts, and in 726 ordered

- smashed great icon of Christ over gates of Constantinople

- destruction of all images of Christ and the saints in churches

787: Council of Nicea restored use

813: emperor again ordered destruction

843: Empress Theodora II convened Council of Orthodoxy; veneration of icons restored.

- celebrated as “Triumph of Orthodoxy”


Break with the Western Church
863-7: “Photius Schism”

858: Ignatius, patriach deposed; had fought against iconoclasts and refused to re-admit clergy who had been iconoclasts. New patriach Photius appointed

Ignatius appealed to the pope, who supported him



867: Photius called synod in Constantinople and persuaded them to excommunicate the pope

10 years later Ignatius died; relations re-established


Break with Western Church

Break of 1054

Sicily under jurisdiction of patriarch of Constantinople

Normans invaded; Byzantine emperor wanted Western help but Pope refused, wanting jurisdiction in Sicily

Leo appointed his own Archbishop in Sicily, called synod to reform Sicilian church

Michael Cerularius, patriarch Constantinople, closed Western Churches in Constantinople

Cardinal Humbert de Silva Candida came to Constantinople, July 16, 1054 and presented decree of excommunication

Michael Cerularius responded in kind



Legacy of Fourth Crusade

1204: Fourth Crusade, meant to free Jerusalem, sidetracked and sacked Constantinople, setting up crusader government for some 50 years

Latins thereafter seen as enemies of their church and state



1274: Emperor Michael VIII agreed on reunion of church in hope of military support against Ottoman Turks. Rejected by populace, bishops

1438: Emperor John VIII led delegation to Italy, appealing for help and signed agreement to unite church. Treaty against rejected by populace, other Eastern patriarchs

1452: Emperor Constantine XI, allowed Roman Mass to be celebrated at Saint Sophia

History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms



1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture
Leading Theologians

St. Symeon The New Theologian
late 10th century

nearness yet otherness of the eternal

every baptized Christian can obtain conscious experience of the Holy Spirit

through the Spirit, can come face to face with Christ in a vision of “divine light”


Leading Theologians

St. Gregory of Palamas

archbishop of Thessalonica

defender of the hesychast tradition of prayer

hesychia = inner stillness or silence of the heart, particularly through the “Jesus Prayer”

allows possibility of vision of divine light and so union with God

distinguished between essence of God (unknowable in this life) and energies of God.

divine light was the uncreated energies of God = light of the Transfiguration on Mt Tabor.

God transcendent and yet immanent, utterly beyond our understanding and yet directly united to us in his love

History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture



Fall of Constantinople
April 7, 1453: Mohammed II laid siege with artillery (built by Christian engineers)

May 28, 1453: solemn service at Saint Sophia

May 29, 1453: city fell, Emperor Constantine XI died in battle

City sacked 3 days and 3 nights, as the sultan had promised his troops

Saint Sophia became mosque
The Third Rome
10th Century: Vladimir, emperor of the Kiev, sent ambassadors to find “purest” form of Christianity

at St. Sophia’s: “we knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth. For on earth there is no such splendour or such beauty and we are at a loss to describe it”

Vladimir chose Orthodox Christianity for his country

also married the daughter of the Eastern Emperor following year


History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500

1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture



Popes vs. Kings and Emperors
Pope Stephen II 752-57 enlisted aid of Pepin, King of the Franks to help defend Rome against the Lombards.

768: Charles, son of Pepin, becomes king.

in series of military conquests, extended kingdom beyond borders of the old Western Empire, converted the pagan Saxons

800: Pope Leo III (795-816) crowned Charles (Charlemagne) Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Carolingian Renaissance


Chaos after Charlemagne
empire disintegrated within decades

Western Europe repeatedly attacked by Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, Vikings

- “dark century of lead and iron”

Viking particularly brutal; horrific tales of violent murder and pillaging

papacy corrupt, a prize of influential Roman families. Several assassinated, poisoned, deposed, died of starvation in dungeons. At times, 2 or 3 claimed papacy
Gregorian Reformers
Emperor Henry III intervened in 1046: deposed all three rival popes in Rome and installed a saintly German bishop as Pope Leo IX (1049-54)

He and his successors pursued ambitious agenda for reform

- end buying / selling of church offices

- bishops / abbots elected by clergy or monks

- clergy outside secular courts

- enforce widely flouted clerical celibacy


Pope Gregory VII

said popes could depose emperors, and no power on earth had jurisdiction over papacy



1073: Emperor Henry IV deposed archbishop of Milan and invested his own candidate; Gregory excommunicated him. Henry IV’s barons rebelled against him

January 1077: Henry IV went to Canossa in Apennines and knelt in snow for four days before Gregory pardoned him

Henry IV later captured Rome, installed his own antipope; Pope Gregory VII died in exile in 1085

Concordat of Worms 1122: bishops elected by clergy but in emperor’s presence

Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)
supported new orders of friars to teach and care for the poor

rebuked emperors when they tried to interfere with clergy elections of bishops

call Council of 400 bishops, 800 abbots to Rome in 1215

- good preachers (Word of God necessary for salvation)

- good teachers in cathedral schools

- no selling or profiteering from relics

- vigilance against heresy
The French or “Babylonian” Captivity of the Church

Late 13th, early 14th century the new rival nation states of England and France become problem

King Philip the Fair of France disagreed with Pope Boniface VIII over taxation of French clergy

Cardinals tried to patch up French relations by choosing archbishop of Bordeaux, friend of the king, as the next pope: Clement V.

At Philip’s suggested, Clement V settled in Avignon, France

Next six popes all French, all stayed in Avignon, vassals of the French king

Gregory XI (1371-78) returned to Rome at urging of Italian mystic St. Catherine of Siena

The Great Schism of the West

After Gregory XI, Italian pope elected, Urban VI (1378-89).

- autocratic manner (tortured cardinals who disagreed)

cardinals left Rome, elected new pope, Clement VII, took up residence in Avignon

Urban VI died; succeeded by Boniface IX; Clement VII also died; succeeded by Benedict XIII

1409: Council of Pisa elected Greek cardinal Alexander V

Boniface IX and Clement refused to resign; Alexander died, replaced by antipope John XXIII (1410-15), a former pirate

1414-18: Council of Constance called on all popes to resign for sake of unity; Pope Martin V elected

The Concilar Movement
scholars and leaders who wished to transfer supreme authority in the church from the papacy to general councils

Council of Basel: met intermittently between 1431-1449

pope thwarted movement by playing the rivalries of the various nations represented against each other
The Renaissance Popes
a series of Popes beginning with Nicholas V (1447-55) at best promoted the Renaissance and the arts and literature, but did little to reform the church

Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492)

- shameless selling of indulgences

Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503)

- bought election from cardinals

- father of 10 illegitimate children

- had concubines and publicly acknowleged children with them

- negotiated with the Ottoman sultan to pay him to prevent possibility of crusade to free Constantinople


The Renaissance Popes
Pope Julius II (1503-1513)

- model was Julius Caesar

- favorite pastime was war; led army of papal guard to unify Italy

Pope Leo X (1513-1521)

- passion for the arts

- great dream was to complete St. Peter’s, financed with indulgences


History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors



2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture

Monks and Friars

The Abbey of Cluny
909: William, Duke of Aquitaine, founded monastery for 12 monks at Cluny, N. France

under the direct control of the papacy (thus free from local secular authorities and bishops)



931: Cluny given right to form confederation, accept any religious house

by 1000: more than 1000 such monasteries

ruled by a succession of long-lived, wise, holy abbots

Monks and Friars

Cistercians

1097: founded by Citeaux, offshoot of a Benedictine house

rules emphasized:

- manual labor vs. scholarship (“to work is to pray”)

- private vs. corporate prayer

constructed houses in most desolate places

very strict:

- 7 hrs sleep in winter; 6 hrs. in summer

- vegetables, fish & cheese once a day summer; twice in winter

- fire once a year Christmas Day

end of 12th century: hundreds of Cistercian Houses



Monks and Friars

Cistercians

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)

- founded 65 new monasteries

- so persuasive in convincing men to enter, mothers hid their sons, wives their husbands

- Christian life an experience of progress in love

end of 12th century:

- had growth wealthy and lax

- as famous for agricultural skills as for spiritual life



Monks and Friars

St. Dominic Guzman (1170-1221)
Spanish born

1215: felt uneducated clergy left their flock open to heresy; founded Order of Preachers = Dominicans to go out and teach, preach

1220: new order recognized

- white habit and black cloak, “Black Friars”

- “watchdogs of the Lord” (pun on Latin dominicanus = domini canis)

Monks and Friars

St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)
only child of rich merchant in Tuscany Italy

rejected family inheritance, dedicated himself to service of poor

attracted band of followers

could possess nothings; begged for their food

nursed the sick, especially lepers

slept in open or rough shelters; went barefoot

“God’s jesters:” so joyful and cheerful

1209: new order approved by Pope Innocent III

- “Minor Friars,” “Grey Friars”



History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500
1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture


Theologians and Early Reformers

Scholasticism
all education in hands of church

great thinkers of time all monks and clergy

movement 9th through 14th century

attempt to reconcile religion and the bible with philosophy and science in a logical system

Aristole’s philosophy rediscovered through Muslims and Jews in Spain and South Italy

- shock of these new ideas was immense: a complete explanation of reality without reference to a personal God



Theologians and Early Reformers

Anselm (1033-1109)
one of the great archbishops of Canterbury

part of the Norman conquest of England

reformer; encouraged regular church synods, enforced clerical celibacy, suppressed slave trade

faith must lead to right use of reason: “I believe, in order that I may understand”

“ontological argument” for existence of God. God is “that than which no greater can be conceived”

greatest work “Why God became Man” Christ’s death satisfied God’s offended majesty”



Theologians and Early Reformers

Peter Abelard

1079: born in Britany

brilliant lecturer and slashing debater, became Paris’ brightest intellectual star



1115: love affair with teenage niece of canon of Notre Dame Cathedral who he was tutoring: Heloise

- agreed to marry her secretly to placate uncle

- ugly rumors spread; Heloise retired to local convent; band of thugs castrated Abelard

became Benedictine



1121: views on Trinity condemned; moved place to place for 20 yrs

1136: returned to Paris: renewed popularity

Theologians and Early Reformers

Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)

greatest scholastic theologian of Middle Ages

fat, slow, pious boy, from wealthy noble family in Italy

at 14 studied at University of Naples; wanted to become a Dominican. Family tried to dissuade him

went to Paris, center of theological learning

nickname: “Dumb Ox”

prolific writer; filled 18 volumes

- commentaries on bible books, Aristotle

- rigorous, systematic, encyclopedic summary of Christian thought: Summa Theologicae, Summa Contra Gentiles

humans beings made for happiness with God

- in sinfulness, we retain our appetite for happiness but seek it in the wrong places

- “No one can live without delight, and that is why a man deprived of spiritual joy goes over to fleshly pleasures”

- We need God “moving us inwardly through grace,” to rescue us from our sins

“Real Presence” transubstantiation using Aristole’s philosophy of “universals”

“official” theologian Roman Catholic Church (Thomism “eternally valid” 1879)

mystical experience before death: “All I have written is a straw beside the things that have been revealed to me”



History of Christianity: the Middle Ages 700 to 1500

1. Christianity in the East

1.1. Emperor and Patriarch

1.2. Bishops and Priests

1.3. Doctrines, Heresies and Schisms

1.4. Leading Theologians

1.5. Fall of Constantinople

2. Christianity in the West

2.1. Popes vs Kings and Emperors

2.2. Monks and Friars

2.3. Theologians and Reformers

2.4. Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture

Cathedrals and Gothic Architecture
1140: unknown master mason developed external flying buttresses to carry building’s weight

- fewer internal pillars

- windows much larger

- building that soared to heaven, filled with light and peace

12th through 15th century: 500 cathedrals built

cathedral or church dominant building in medieval cities and town





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