1. Byzantines a. Following 2nd Crusade, slow decline



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End of the Post-Classical Age

The West and the Changing World Balance
I. End of the Old Order

A. Collapse of Post-Classical states

1. Byzantines

a. Following 2nd Crusade, slow decline

b. Conquered 1453 A.C.E. by the Ottoman Turks

2. Abbassid Caliphate

a. Weakened by sectionalism

b. Under control of Turkish clans

3. Mongols and Tamerlane

a. Conquered all major Eurasian states

b. Muslim cities destroyed

c. New routes and cities arose due to Mongols
II. Southwest Asia

A. Muslim religious leaders began to exert control

1. Rationalism opposed by religious conservatives

2. Mysticism, Islamic legalist traditions in favor

3. Pursuit of science declines
B. Landlords exercised greater authority

1. Peasants reduced to borderline slavery, serfdom

2. Agricultural productivity declined

3. Tax revenue declined
C. Europeans challenged Arabs

1. Mediterranean, rise of Aragon, Castile, Venice, France

2. Merchants began to replace Muslim merchants
D. No total collapse of Islamic civilization

1. Arabs lost power, old Abbassid realm fragments

2. Ottoman Turks rapidly took over most of area

III. International Power Vacuum

A. Ottoman Empire

1. Sultans did not restore Muslims to same level

2. Ottomans not center of international trade

3. Science and philosophy stagnated.

4. Result was power vacuum in Islamic world
B. Rise of Rivals to Ottomans

1. India

2. Persia

3. Egypt
C. Mongols provided alternative framework

1. Redirected land trade away from Muslims

2. Land routes turned attention to sea routes.
IV. The Chinese
A. Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368

1. China was best placed to control Eurasian trade

2. Ming emperors sought expansion

a. Extending the borders of the empire

b. Reviving the tribute system

c. Initiating state-sponsored maritime expeditions.

- Voyages reached India, the Middle East, and Africa

- Ming emperors ordered the voyages to cease in 1433.

- Costs of voyages hurt infrastructure

- Scholar-gentry opposed voyages

3. China's decision reflected traditional Confucianism

a. Concentration on internal improvements

b. Cultural isolation

c. Economic expansion did not depend on foreign trade
4. China's withdrawal from world

a. Cleared the path for the emergence of Europeans

b. China began long stagnation

V. Rise of the Europeans
A. By 15th century

1. West began to expand its world contacts

2. Important changes taking place in Europe
B. Church Under attack

1. Great Schism saw up to three rival popes

1. Wealth led to reformers, who were condemned

a. Jews in Holy Roman Empire

b. Wycliffe in England

c. Western philosophy and creativity stagnate
C. Political organization of feudalism not effective

1. Feudal monarchs acquire new powers, wealth

2. Introduction of cannons, new weaponry

3. Death of nobles led to rise of citizen armies under kings
D. Impact of the Black Death,

1. Carried off almost one-third of Europe's population

2. Hit Italy and France worst

3. Hit merchants and urban elites including clergy heavily


VI. Late Medieval Vitality
A. New States Arose

1. More powerful and centralized nations arose

1. Developed in aftermath of 100 Years' War.

2. France, England, Castile, Aragon, Sweden

a. New forms of military organization

b. Made greater centralization possible

2. Improvements in metallurgical technology

a. Construction and use of guns and munitions.

3. Capitalism became more evident

a. Arose simultaneously in Netherlands, Italy

b. Based on cities, non-nobles, banking, trade

4. Increased urbanization

a. Especially true in Italy, Netherlands

b. Often associated with trade

VII. Western Europe Grows

A. Overall trend between 1000 A.C.E./1700 A.C.E.

1. Rapid population expansion

2. Black Death only slowed trend

3. Europeans acquire Asian technology

a. Western technology equal to Eurasian

b. Europeans adapt, improve on ideas

c. Europeans invent new ideas

d. Europeans apply technology

- Adapted science to practical

- Used technology in trade, navigation, war
VIII. Renaissance and Secularism
A. Began in Italy

1. At the beginning of the 14th century

a. Turned away from the medieval culture

b. More secular outlook in art and literature

c. Wealth of Italian cities patronized the arts

B. Typical political unit of Italian peninsula

1. City-state

a. Florence, Milan, Venice, Rome and Naples

b. Cities competed for land, accomplishments

2. Administrative, economic innovations
IX. Renaissance Values
A. Age of cultural innovation and individualism.

1. Artists abandoned medieval formalism

2. Concentration in arts, music, literature (humanities)

a. Embrace more realistic and secular styles

b. Classical architectural forms replaced Gothic

c. Tended to idealize Greece and Rome
B. Initially Renaissance largely limited to Italy

1. Even there its style was not accepted everywhere

2. Spread to France, England, Netherlands, Germany

a. Called Northern Renaissance

- Bible, Hebrew more important as themes

3. Science, math, theology of equal importance
C. Italian commercial and shipping techniques

1. Laid the foundation for Western expansion
D. The "Renaissance spirit"

1. Encouraged a sense of innovation and discovery.
X. Iberia (Modern Spain)
A. Castile, Aragon, Portugal are lead states

1. Christian Reconquista began 714 A.C.E.

a. Castile, Aragon united by marriage, 1469 A.C.E.

b. Drove Muslims out of Iberia by 1492 A.C.E.
B. The Church Militant

1. Constant warfare = powerful, trained armies

2. Defense, expansion of Christianity a duty

3. Church worked closely with Iberian states

a. Encouraged sense of religious mission

C. Expansion abroad

1. Attack Muslims

a. Conquer lands for Christianity

b. Break their trade monopolies
XI. Early European Expansion
A. Began in the 13th century

1. Early discoveries = promise of colonialism

2. Early Explorations

a. Vivaldi brothers of Genoa explore Atlantic

b. In 14th century, Genoese discovered Canary Islands

c. Ships from Barcelona explore Atlantic African coast
B. Development of new technology

1. More sea-worthy vessels

2. Compass

3. Astrolabe
C. European discoverers

1. Generally dominated by Portugal

a. King supported a navy

b. Built school under Prince Henry, sent out ships

2. Penetrate even farther into the Atlantic

a. Along the African shore
XII. Patterns of Colonialism
A. Colonization followed exploration

1. Spanish and Portuguese

a. Settlers established agricultural estates
B. European diseases killed off natives

1. Europeans tried to enslave natives
C. Europeans established feudal model for estates

1. Designed to produce commercial crops

a. Sugar, cotton, and tobacco became popular crops

D. Iberian settlers imported African slaves

1. Commercial ventures were successful

2. Stimulate further colonization

3. Plantation model of exploitation
XIII. Outside the Eurasian Network
A. Areas not part of this global network

1. The Americas

2. Polynesia

3. Most of sub-Saharan Africa

B. Remained unaffected by early expansion

1. Eventually brought into European system

a. Some experienced difficulties

b. Vulnerable to European expansion
C. Politics of the Americas
1. Aztec/Inca empires of the Americas

a. In disarray prior to arrival of Europeans

b. Both had internal, external opposition

Aztecs hated. Incas divided between family, clans.
D. If Americas had continued in isolation

1. Other cultures would have risen

a. Iroquois, Mound builders in North America

XIV. Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia
A. Between 7th and 15th centuries

1. Migrations

a. From Society Islands to Polynesia

b. From Polynesia to Hawaii

c. Settlement of Hawaii and New Zealand
B. To Hawaiian Islands

1. An agricultural society developed

2. Hawaii had regional kingdoms

a. Stratified societies

b. Dominated by priests and nobles

c. Hawaii lacked metallurgy, system of writing
C. New Zealand

1. Second migration to New Zealand

a. Maori culture of New Zealand

- Warlike

- Dominated by priests and nobles

- Lacked metallurgy

- Concentrated on use of indigenous species

2. All of these developments occurred in total isolation from other civilizations.

XV. The Changes in World History
A. The 15th century was an era of critical transitions involving world trade and the relative power of civilizations.

B. As in the 20th century, newly dynamic civilizations challenged those that had previously dominated. Technology played a key role.
XVI. Global Connections
A. This period saw change and continuity in global networks. Old trade networks, like Middle Eastern Muslim networks, took place in a new context, such as the Mongol empire, which emphasized new land-based routes. Mongol decline shifted attention to sea-based routes. New states arose using new or diffused technologies. Social structures were changing, too.

B. The key continuity was the interest and dependence of many regions on interregional trade.






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