a. an agricultural movement for the improvement of harvests through the most modern technology
b. a social revolutionary movement based on the ideas of Alexander Herzen
c. a political movement which sought the overthrow of tsarist autocracy
d. a radical society based on the successful Land and Freedom model
45. The "Irish question" involved
a. the suppression of Roman Catholicism
b. more Irish control of local government
c. the ownership and management of Irish land by British landlords
d. both b and c
46. Why was it so difficult to unify Italy? What groups were urging unification? Who was Cavour and how did he achieve what others had failed to do? What was Garibaldi's contribution to Italian unification?
47. Who was Bismarck and why did he try to unify Germany? What attempts had preceded Bismarck and why did they fail? What was Bismarck's policy of unification and why did he succeed? What effect did the unification of Germany have on the rest of Europe?
48. Italy and Germany were unified under the close supervision of individual statesmen. What were the general strategies of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification process? Which country had more potential for European leadership after unification and why?
49. What factors might explain the triumph of liberalism and nationalism after the collapse of the 1848 revolutions? Include at least three countries in your discussion.
50. Describe the government changes in France and Austria after 1848. What unique problems did Austria have? Were they solved? Why did Russia not undergo similar reforms? In about 1875, what major problems did Europe face?
51. How would you contrast the British Liberal and Conservative parties between 1860 and 1890? Who were the leaders of each? What problems did they face in those years and what different solutions did they favor?
52. Discuss the transformation in France from the Second Empire of Napoleon III to the establishment of the Third Republic. Why did the Paris Commune become a legend throughout Europe? How did the Dreyfus affair affect the success of the Third Republic?
53. What was the "Irish Question" and how was it handled by the Gladstone administration? How did it affect British politics in the early 20th century?