the city. The actual target is increasing ‘speed, energy saving, security and
satisfaction’ for the advantage of citizens in particular in the megacity. From the juxtaposition of the real city and the virtual city emerged a new city; conceptualized as ‘Vireal City’ which agglomerates all physical and informational potential of the city and gives opportunity for less destruction of man power and more energy saving and
consequently minimization of working time with much extensive, faster, denser and
tighter connection between customers and public sector (Ameli, 2004a and 2004b).
The vireal city is theoretically affected by a ‘dual globalizations paradigm’ (Ameli 2003a
and 2003b). According to this paradigm two synchronic spaces, the real and virtual,
while distinct form each other, appear as two interlinked and complementary spaces which cannot survive without each other . Virtual city is all industrial and all
information based and it is the outcome of a ‘simultaneous communication Industry’. The
use of information and communication industries in commercial transactions has grown
tremendously since the mid-1990s; this is particularly true for the use of Internet and ecommerce.
An explanation of the popularity of Internet and e-commerce services can
be found in network externality theory (Katz and Shapiro 1985, Capello 1994;
Economides 1996). The network externality theory explains positive consequences of
network communication that include those of increasing returns and first-mover
advantages. Increasing returns means the network increases its user value.
Subscription to any of web resources enables actors to set up ongoing local and global
communication (Geenhuizen, 2004).
With the emergence of internet, the vireal city is inevitable. Vireal city is bringing centrality and decentrality of the city resources and city services. Centrality refers here to
reduction of transit time and direct inter-communication between costumers and
public services. It is central because it is more organized and accountable in every
second without any limitation of working day and working hours; services in the
vireal cities are 24 hours. Decentrality is also a positive aspect of the ‘vireal city’
because it gives accessibility to the city resources to all, no matter how near or far,
and without any advantage or disadvantage for those who live in the central city and those who live in the periphery or even in another city, region and countries around the world.
Here my argument is that the vireal city planning is an opportunity for all advanced
cities to take over their city problems in particular in megalopolis and the megacity of
developing countries through virtualization and virealization of the city services
which eventually will minimize unnecessary transformation of the population.
However, like the real city, vireal city needs actual city planning, otherwise like the poor
cities of the developing world which have grown up without any structural city planning
the vireal city will become more fragmented and disintegrated.
3. Azadarmaki, Taghi (University of Tehran, Iran): Iranian Modernity through
Tehran as a concept and Contemporary Event
The main object of the paper is to discuss how Iranian modernity is a particular kind of
Modernity in the world, manifest in the influence of "Tehran" as a modern city with different interpertations. In terms of Iranian intellectual discourse, with different views from left to right we, can see that intellectuals such as Malkom, Said Jammalledin
Asadabi, Jamalzadeh, shariati, Ale-Ahmad, and others got many ideas from the
situation of Tehran and the influence of this city. I am going to to discuss this topic from a historical perspective.
4. Bargach, Jamila (Ecole Natonale d’Architecture-Rabat, Morocco): “Planned
City and the Question of Memory”
Cities are, in part, a product of historical processes as both historians and
anthropologists inform us. Fernand Braudel, Arnold Toynbee or André Leroi-Gourhan
speak of the cities’ memory when locating the genesis of their birth whether on the
long or short term, the differences between the functionality of the morphology of
each and show the extent to which cities produce and live by their proper memory.
This latter is embodied in those who reside in them and who then pass such
heritage/knowledge from generation to generation, it is a living entity that
characterizes these spaces as special. Some cities, like human beings, may be
and populists managements having provoked the flooding on the 10/11/2001 in the
Bab El Oued zone. It ends by recommendations on the urban management of Algiers
city and by a prospective vision on city in relation with its potential and the impact of
the introduction of the new technologies of Information. The identification of the
town problems requires the knowledge of its past, present, and future development
perspectives, in accordance with the sustainable development policy.
9. Bellaoui, Ahmed (Cadi Ayad University, Morocco): La fabrication urbaine á
Marrackech: Facteurs et strategies
Fruit d'un système complexe et multiforme d'acteurs institutionnels et privés, la
fabrication urbaine à Marrakech obéit à des logiques très diverses et parfois
A la croisée des enjeux et logiques des uns et des autres, celle-ci a pour corollaire la
production d'un espace urbain hétérogène ou coexistent une série de macro-formes
d'habitats et de quartiers qui font de Marrakech un ensemble de " Villes dans la Ville"; autrement dit, une ville sans unité sans personnalité.
10. Benhayoun, Jamal Eddine (Faulty of Letters Tetouan): Terrorism and the
My paper examines what is essentially a recognisable and problematic connection
between terrorism and the city. The events of September 11, 2001, May 16, 2003,
March 11, 2004 (to name but a few) make it clear that terrorism is a form of violence
conceived and devised within and against what can be qualified as urban culture.
While it is imperative to stand in defence of such cities as New York, Casa Blanca,
Madrid, and Istanbul, etc. and to mourn the loss of human life as occasioned by
extremism and hatred, it is also equally important, even more urgent, to redefine these
cities in terms of the social and ideological tensions developing and proliferating
within them under the cracked veneer of liberal lifestyles and material prosperity. In