1. a mixed economy is one

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1. A mixed economy is one

a. in which governments become directly involved in economic decisions

b. which has elements of capitalism and socialism

c. which has elements of socialism and communism

d. which is dependent upon income derived from a nation's colonies
2. Which of the following was a factor in the coming of the Depression of the 1930's?

a. a financial crisis stemming directly from World War I

b. a downturn in production and trade

c. the absence of strong economic leadership

d. all of the above
3. In 1924, the Dawes Plan

a. eliminated reparation payments to France

b. smoothed the debt repayments to the United States

c. brought more system to the administration and transfer of reparations

d. both b and c
4. The Hoover moratorium

a. saved the Kreditanstalt bank in Vienna

b. provided a boost to the French economy

c. resulted in a three-year end to all payments of international debts

d. none of the above
5. In which area did economic growth take place during the 1920's and 1930's?

a. agriculture

b. synthetics

c. heavy industry

d. both b and c
6. During the Depression,

a. the numbers of employed always well exceeded those without work

b. the majority of Europeans were without a job

c. product quality declined

d. government regulation of industry decreased
7. The Depression meant

a. an absolute economic decline

b. the spread of actual or potential insecurity

c. a frustration of economic and social expectations

d. both b and c
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8. The economic theories of John Maynard Keynes

a. advocated spending the economy out of Depression

b. called for cuts in government spending to avoid inflation

c. were not yet available during the Depression

d. both a and c
9. The British government during the early 1930's was led by

a. Ramsay MacDonald

b. David Lloyd George

c. Winston Churchill

d. Neville Chamberlain
10. The National Government was

a. a new political party of the 1930's

b. a coalition ministry composed of Labor, Conservative and Liberal ministers

c. a government headed by the king

d. none of the above
11. Which of the following were steps taken by the National Government to attack the Depression?

a. taxes were lowered

b. tariffs were reduced

c. insurance benefits to the unemployed were cut

d. government salaries were raised
12. Which best characterizes the achievements of Britain's National Government?

a. it made little headway in leading Britain out of the Depression

b. it had effectively conquered unemployment by 1936

c. it paved the way for the success of the British Union of Fascists

d. it restored industrial production to the pre-Depression level
13. The Road to Wigan Pier

a. captured the hopelessness that many people experienced during the Depression

b. was written by Rudyard Kipling

c. discussed the British problems in managing their empire

d. faulted the United States for creation of the Depression
14. The British Union of Fascists was founded by

a. Ramsay MacDonald

b. Stanley Baldwin

c. Sir Oswald Mosely

d. none of the above
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15. In comparison with Britain, the Depression in France

a. came later and lasted longer

b. was not nearly as intense

c. affected only the lower classes

d. both b and c
16. Action Francaise and Croix de Feu were

a. honorary service clubs in France

b. right-wing groups with authoritarian tendencies

c. hostile to parliamentary government, socialism and Communism

d. both b and c
17. Which policy would have most likely appealed to the members of Action Francaise?

a. support for Leon Blum

b. support for the democratic politics of the Third Republic

c. support for a fascist-style regime

d. support for Sergei Stavisky
18. In which country during the Depression was unemployment not the major problem?

a. France

b. Great Britain

c. Germany

d. Italy
19. The Stavisky affair

a. appeared to involve the Soviet and French governments in a fraudulent bond scheme

b. symbolized to the French liberals the immorality and corruption of republican politics

c. resulted in a riot between left and right political groups

d. all of the above
20. The Stavisky Affair led to

a. a popular demonstration which threatened the stability of parliamentary government in France

b. a coup d'etat which resulted in the Popular Front's accession to power

c. a strictly socialist government

d. the imposition of the short-lived government of the Croix de Feu
21. The purpose of the Popular Front was

a. to end the Depression

b. to preserve the Third Republic and to press for social reform

c. to fight against French communists

d. both b and c
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22. The leader of the Popular Front was

a. Leon Blum

b. Jean Jaures

c. Edouard Daladier

d. Andre Citroen
23. The Popular Front was made possible by the

a. violence of the Communists

b. disruption of right-wing demonstrations

c. cooperation of Communists, Socialists and Radicals

d. both b and c
24. Immediately after coming to power, the Blum government

a. collapsed

b. was taken over by a communist coup

c. faced work stoppages and strikes

d. outlawed strikes
25. Blum's reform program

a. was greeted with support by the banking and business community

b. resisted devaluation of the franc

c. led France out of the Depression

d. both a and c
26. In 1937, Leon Blum

a. was assassinated

b. resigned and was replaced by a radical ministry under Daladier

c. and his administration were replaced by a socialist government

d. was sent to jail for bribery and corruption
27. Why was the Weimar Republic a presidential dictatorship by 1930?

a. because the army supported President von Hindenburg

b. because the Weimar constitution invested the Chancellor with dictatorial powers whenever he deemed it necessary

c. because the party divisions in the Reichstag prevented the overriding of emergency decrees

d. all of the above
28. The popularity of the Nazis rose as

a. unemployment increased

b. inflation increased

c. street violence increased

d. all of the above
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29. For the Nazis, politics meant

a. the capture of power by legal means

b. the capture of power through the instruments of terror and intimidation

c. vicious attacks against Communists and Social Democrats

d. all of the above
30. Which best explains Hindenburg's decision to appoint Hitler as chancellor in 1933?

a. Hindenburg was a convinced Nazi

b. the Nazis won a majority of the popular vote in the last election

c. big business supported the Nazis firmly

d. the alternative was a coalition including groups from the political left
31. Fritz von Papen was

a. Chancellor under Hindenburg

b. Head of the SA under Hitler

c. Head of State Armaments under Hindenburg

d. both a and b
32. Big business organizations

a. were crucial to Nazi success

b. made little difference in the Nazi rise to power

c. were a part of Hitler's original scheme for attaining power

d. helped Hitler organize the economy
33. The Enabling Act of 1933

a. set the armament factories into full production

b. permitted Hitler to expand his army beyond the limits imposed by the Versailles Treaty

c. permitted Hitler to rule by decree

d. was designed to eliminate all Communists from government
34. The Nazi process of consolidation involved which of the following measures?

a. the capture of full legal authority

b. the crushing of all alternative political groups

c. the purging of rivals within the Nazi party itself

d. all of the above
35. The burning of the Reichstag

a. put the Nazi party on the defensive

b. was used as proof by the Nazis of an immediate Communist threat to the government

c. resulted in greater authority for Hindenburg

d. none of the above
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36. The head of Hitler's police organization was

a. Kurt von Schleicher

b. Heinrich Himmler

c. Hermann Goering

d. Ernst Roehm
37. Ernst Roehm, Hitler's SA commander,

a. rose to become head of Hitler's secret police

b. ran the concentration camps

c. was murdered in Hitler's consolidation of power

d. became Hitler's Minister of Propaganda
38. Hitler reversed the deflationary policy of previous cabinets by

a. instituting a massive policy of public works and spending

b. restoring full employment

c. creating more money

d. both a and b
39. Which of the following characterizes Mussolini's economic policies?

a. rearmament was given top priority in industry

b. a planned economy organized into syndicates of labor and management

c. agricultural collectivization and rapid industrialization

d. the state annexed the means of production outright
40. Kulaks originally were

a. the intellectual opposition to Stalin

b. followers of Trotsky

c. prosperous farmers who owned their land

d. small plots of land which were collectivized
41. As a result of Stalin's agricultural policies

a. millions of peasants were murdered

b. the country was faced with a continuing difficulty in producing sufficient grain

c. Russian agriculture was largely collectivized

d. all of the above
42. Why did Stalin reverse the Comintern policy and allow foreign communist parties to cooperate with noncommunist political parties?

a. to gain access to foreign technology

b. to present a liberal image to the world

c. to protect against the growing forces of Nazism and Fascism

d. all of the above
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43. Which slogan best sums up the reaction of many Western intellectuals in the 1930's to Stalin's program of industrialization?

a. "strength through joy"

b. "it isn't the same for them as it would be for us"

c. "I have seen the future and it works"

d. "popular front"
44. The assassination of Sergei Kirov

a. initiated a series of murders, arrests and expulsions from the Communist party

b. resulted in the elimination of a traitor to Soviet Russia

c. was probably ordered by Stalin

d. both a and c
45. The political tyrants of the 1930's were unique because

a. in the past, European tyrants had never possessed ideologies

b. in the past, European dictators had never controlled such important countries

c. European tyrants had never possessed such mass support before

d. European tyrants had rarely interfered with the economy in the past
46. Explain the causes of the Depression of the 1930's. Why was it so much more severe and longer-lasting than previous depressions? Could it have been avoided?
47. Account for the relative successes of Britain's National Government and France's Popular Front in dealing with their respective economic problems. Why were the British so much more successful?
48. How did the Depression affect Germany? Discuss Hitler's rise to power between 1929 and 1934. Why was he successful? Was his dictatorship inevitable? Was his success due more to personalities than to impersonal forces?
49. Discuss Hitler's economic policies. Why were they successful? Compare and contrast his economic policies with those used in Britain, Italy and France. Why were some nations more successful than others?
50. What are the characteristics of a "police state"? How necessary is terror and intimidation in the consolidation of an authoritarian regime? How did Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin use terror to achieve their goals?
51. Discuss the policy of anti-Semitism in the Nazi state. How important was it as a unifier of the Nazi movement? What were the Nuremberg Laws of 1935? How can Kristallnacht in 1938 be seen as a part of Nazi policy?
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52. What was the Nazi regime's view of women and their place in German society? How did these attitudes stand in direct contrast to the social changes that had occurred in Germany and throughout Europe in the first three decades of the 20th century?
53. Why did Stalin decide that Russia had to industrialize rapidly? Why did this require the collectivization of agriculture? What obstacles stood in the way of collectivization and how did Stalin overcome them?
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1. a

2. d

3. d

4. d

5. b

6. a

7. d

8. d

9. a

10. b

11. c

12. d

13. a

14. c

15. a

16. d

17. c

18. a

19. c

20. a

21. b

22. a

23. d

24. c

25. b

26. b

27. c

28. a

29. d

30. d

31. d

32. b

33. c

34. b

35. b

36. b

37. c

38. d

39. b

40. c

41. d

42. c

43. c

44. d

45. c

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