After you read and analyze this chapter, you should be able to:
10. Analyze the expectations and constraints that Kennedy faced in establishing his domestic New Frontier and explain how his approach to civil rights differed from Eisenhower’s.
20. Describe what choices and expectations shaped Kennedy’s Cold War foreign policies and how his policies contributed to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
30. Discuss how Johnson’s Great Society expanded on the New Deal and how the Great Society’s programs contributed to increased disillusionment and social tensions.
40. Explain how the expectations of African Americans changed as the civil rights movement evolved from a primarily southern movement confronting legal discrimination to a national movement combating poverty and social prejudice.
I0. The Politics of Action
A0. The 1960 Political Campaign
10. The Democratic candidate was Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy.
a0) Some worried about his young age (43) and lack of experience.
b0) Others worried about his religion; no Catholic had ever been elected president.
c0) He challenged the nation to enter a New Frontier, to improve the overall quality of life of all Americans, and to re-energize American foreign policy to stand fast against the Communist threat.
20. The Republican candidate was Richard M. Nixon, Eisenhower’s vice president.
a0) Trying to distance himself from the idea of Eisenhower’s elderly leadership, Nixon promised a forceful, energetic presidency and emphasized his executive experience and history of anti-communism.
30. Trailing in the opinion polls and hoping to give his campaign a boost, Nixon agreed to televised debates with Kennedy.
a0) Although the radio audience proclaimed Nixon the winner, the television cameras gave the victory to a fresh and confident Kennedy over a tired and haggard Nixon.
40. Kennedy won a narrow margin over Nixon in popular votes and won the electoral count, 303 to 219.
B0. The New Frontier
10. At his inauguration, John F. Kennedy spoke in idealistic terms and avoided any mention of specific programs, but promised to march against “the common enemies of man, tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.”
a0) He asked all Americans to participate, exhorting them to “ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.”
b0) Despite his call for public involvement, Kennedy believed that experts would solve most national problems, with little need of public support.
20. Kennedy’s staff and cabinet were dubbed the “best and the brightest.”
a0) Recruiting from business and universities, Kennedy appointed men and women who were called the “best and the brightest”; they included Rhodes scholars and Harvard professors.
b0) JFK and his staff wanted to be activists, leading the nation along new paths of liberalism, but Congress was likely to be an obstacle, so Kennedy decided to focus on legislation within the “vital center.”
c0) To spur economic recovery, Kennedy turned to “new economics” as advocated by Walter Heller, his chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, and called for more government spending and business and income tax cuts.
d0) The booming economy, however, created the new problem of inflation, and, as a result, Kennedy established informal wage and price guidelines for business and labor unions.
C0. Kennedy and Civil Rights
10. Civil rights advocates were far from satisfied with Kennedy’s actions in this area, even though he did appoint several blacks to high office and district courts.
a0) Critics noted that several of JFK’s judicial appointments went to recognized segregationists and he did not ban segregation in federal housing until 1962.
20. Even as Kennedy assumed office, a new wave of black activism was striking at segregation in the South in the form of sit-ins and boycotts.
a0) The sit-ins remained largely a student movement supported by the more established civil rights groups, especially the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
b0) The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was formed in April 1961 to coordinate the dramatically increasing number of sit-ins and boycotts.
c0) Sharing the headlines with those “sitting-in” were the freedom riders, who chose to force integration on southern bus lines and stations.
d0) As some predicted, violence forced the federal government to respond, and state and local protection was obtained for the riders through Alabama.
e0) Finally, in September 1961, the Interstate Commerce Commission declared that it would uphold the Supreme Court’s decision prohibiting segregation, and, as a result, most state and local authorities grudgingly accepted desegregation.
30. The Kennedy administration argued that efforts should be focused on voter registration drives and encouraged the Voter Education Project.
40. In 1962, James Meredith integrated the University of Mississippi with the protection of federal forces and became its first African American graduate.
50. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the SCLC focused their attention on overturning segregation in Birmingham, Alabama.
a0) “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” called for immediate and continuous peaceful civil disobedience, since freedom was “never given voluntarily by the oppressor.”
b0) Events in Birmingham helped Kennedy conclude that the time had come to fulfill his campaign promise to make civil rights a priority, and he spoke to the nation in June 1963 about making civil rights an immediate moral issue.
c0) King’s August 28 March on Washington exceeded all expectations in its attempt to pressure Congress to act on civil rights legislation, and King enthralled his audience and the nation with his “I Have a Dream” speech.
d0) In the South, however, violence and bigotry continued.
II0. Flexible Response
A0. Confronting Castro and the Soviets
10. Kennedy saw Latin America as an important part of the Cold War struggle for influence in developing nations.
20. Kennedy announced a sweeping foreign aid package, the Alliance for Progress.
30. Despite the “Bay of Pigs” disaster, Kennedy vowed to continue the “relentless struggle” against Castro and communism, including the use of covert and special operations.
40. The building of the Berlin Wall challenged Western ideals of freedom but not its presence in West Berlin.
50. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a far more serious threat to U.S. security.
60. The Limited Test Ban Treaty forbid signatory nations to conduct nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in space, and under the seas.
10. Berlin, Cuba, and nuclear weapons were some of the hot points of the Kennedy administration’s foreign policy, but Southeast Asia represented one of the most significant challenges that faced the United States.
20. South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem was losing control of his nation, and the Viet Cong, the South Vietnamese Communist rebels, controlled a large portion of both land and people and had brought Diem’s troops to a standstill.
a0) While military advisers argued that the use of American troops was necessary to turn the tide, Kennedy was more cautious.
b0) The Viet Cong were only part of the problem, since Diem’s administration was unpopular and out of touch with the majority of the South Vietnamese people.
c0) Protesting Diem’s rule, on June 10, 1963, a Buddhist monk set himself on fire, and other self-immolations followed.
d0) Diem and his inner circle had become liabilities to the United States, and the Kennedy administration secretly informed several Vietnamese generals that it would approve a change in government; the army killed Diem.
e0) The new military government, however, brought neither political stability nor improvement in the ARVN’s capacity to fight the Viet Cong.
10. In late 1963, with his civil rights bill and tax cut in limbo in Congress, a growing military commitment in Vietnam, and a sluggish economy, Kennedy began to prepare for the 1964 presidential race.
a0) Watching his popularity drop to less than 60 percent, JFK decided to visit Texas in November to try to heal divisions within the Texas Democratic Party.
b0) He was assassinated there on November 22,1963.
c0) Kennedy’s assassination traumatized the nation, and many people, in their anguish, soon canonized the fallen president.
20. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as president as he flew back to Washington on the plane carrying Kennedy’s body.
III0. Defining a New Presidency
A0. Old and New Agendas
10. Throughout the next year, Johnson transformed Kennedy’s quest for action into his own quest for social reform.
20. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made it illegal to discriminate for reasons of race, religion, or gender, in places and businesses that served the public.
a0) Putting force behind the law, Congress established a federal Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) and empowered the executive branch to withhold federal funds from institutions that violated its provisions.
30. The War on Poverty was to be fought on two fronts: expanding opportunities and improving the social environment.
B0. Implementing the Great Society
10. Not only did Republican candidate Barry Goldwater lose the 1964 presidential election, but so, too, did many Republicans.
20. Armed with a seeming mandate for action and reform, Johnson pushed forward legislation to enact his Great Society.
a0) The Great Society yielded over 60 programs, most seeking to provide better economic and social opportunities by removing barriers thrown up by health, education, region, and race.
30. Reflecting Johnson’s own desires and responding to African American and liberal desires, early in the new administration (1965) the president advanced the issue of civil rights.
a0) LBJ signed an executive order that required government contractors to ensure nondiscrimination in jobs.
b0) The president appointed the first African American cabinet member, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Robert Weaver, the first African American woman federal justice, Constance Baker Motley, and the first black on the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall.
40. Hoping to pull the federal government behind their efforts to expand black political and social rights, civil rights leaders targeted Alabama and Mississippi.
a0) The result was “the Freedom Summer of 1964,” led by the SNCC’s Bob Moses, in which whites and blacks went to Mississippi to open “Freedom Schools” and to encourage African Americans to vote.
b0) The Freedom Schools taught basic literacy and black history and stressed black pride and achievements.
c0) Civil rights violence in Mississippi occurred almost daily from June through August of 1964, but the crusade registered nearly 60,000 new voters.
50. Although the 1964 Civil Rights Act had made discrimination illegal, clearly it was still practiced throughout much of the South, and civil rights leaders were just as clearly determined to eliminate it.
a0) Martin Luther King told reporters that change would occur because nonviolent demonstrators would go into the streets to exercise their constitutional rights and be attacked by racists, “unleashing violence against them.”
b0) King and other civil rights leaders selected Selma, Alabama, as their target because the white community there vehemently opposed integration.
c0) As expected, Sheriff Jim Clark confronted protesters and arrested nearly 2,000 of them before King called for a freedom march from Selma to Montgomery to increase the pressure.
d0) Television coverage of the onslaught of local authorities stirred nationwide condemnation of Clark’s tactics and support for King and the marchers.
60. Johnson also used the violence in Selma to pressure Congress to pass the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which banned a variety of methods states used to deny blacks the right to vote, including Mississippi’s literacy test.
70. At the top of Johnson’s priorities were health and education, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) was the first general educational funding act by the federal government.
80. Johnson’s Medical Care Act (1965) established Medicare, which helped the elderly cover their medical costs, and Medicaid, which provided funds to states to provide free health care for those on welfare.
90. In 1963, a Clear Air Act was passed and under Johnson, in 1964, the Wilderness Act designated 9 million acres of land which people could only visit.
100. Despite the flood of legislation, by the end of 1965, many Great Society programs were underfunded and diminishing in popularity.
IV0. New Voices
A0. Urban Riots and Black Power
10. By the end of 1965, federal legislation ended de jure segregation and voting restrictions.
a0) De facto social discrimination and prejudice remained, and African American frustrations—born of raised expectations, poverty, prejudice, and violence—soon changed the nature of civil rights protests and ignited northern cities.
20. During the 1960s, more than a million African Americans left the South each year, seeking a better life.
a0) By the mid-1960s, the nation’s cities were primed for racial violence, and while minor riots occurred throughout the country, the Watts riot shook the nation.
30. The Watts Riot
a0) What started as a simple arrest soon mushroomed into a major riot as a crowd of onlookers gathered and scuffling began.
b0) When firemen and police arrived to restore order and put out the flames, they had to dodge snipers’ bullets and Molotov cocktails.
c0) The Watts riot shattered the complacency of many northern whites who had supported civil rights in the South while ignoring the plight of the inner cities, and it demonstrated a gap between the attitudes of northern blacks and many civil rights leaders.
40. More deadly urban riots followed, and a new, militant approach to racial and economic injustices erupted: the Black Power movement.
a0) New voices called on blacks to seek power through solidarity, independence, and if necessary violence, since blacks needed to use the same means as whites.
b0) The new leadership, with Stokely Carmichael at the helm, exalted Black Power, which established roots in inner cities across the nation.
c0) Among those more receptive to the militant approach were the Black Muslims, including Malcolm X, who proclaimed the ideals of black nationalism and separation and rejected integration with white society.
d0) As the 1968 presidential campaign began, law and order replaced the Great Society as the main issue.
B0. Rejecting the Feminine Mystique
10. The willingness of women to question their popular image was partially a response to the changing reality of society and the workplace.
20. Betty Friedan’s 1963 bestseller, The Feminine Mystique, was regarded by many as the beginning of the women’s movement.
a0) After reviewing the responsibilities of the housewife, Friedan asked, “Is that all?” She concluded it was not enough.
b0) She called on women to set their own goals and seek careers outside the home.
30. Also engendering more activism was the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act with the inclusion of Title VII that included prohibiting discrimination on the basis of not only race, religion, creed, and national origin, but also sex.
40. The most prominent women’s organization was the National Organization for Women founded in 1966.
a0) NOW demanded an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution and pushed for easier access to birth control devices and the right to have an abortion.
C0. Rejecting Gender Roles
10. Radical feminists called for a redefinition of sexuality and repudiated America’s enchantment with family, marriage, and a male-dominated society.
20. “Consciousness-raising” groups were formed to educate women about the oppression they faced because of the sex gender system.
30. A Gay Manifesto called for gays and lesbians to raise their consciousness.
D0. The Youth Movement
10. Nearly as alarming to many Americans were the changes taking place among the nation’s youth.
a0) Although the majority of young adults maintained the typical quest for a traditional American life, some took up social concerns and personal fulfillment as alternatives as the decade progressed.
b0) Many students began to question the role of the university and the goal of education, particularly at huge institutions.
c0) Campus activists denounced course requirements and restrictions on dress, behavior, and living arrangements.
20. Students for a Democratic Society insisted that Americans recognize that their affluent nation was also a land of poverty and want and that business and government chose to ignore social inequities.
30. Counterculture thinking grated at conformity and glorified freedom of the spirit and self-knowledge.
40. Music was one of the most prominent forms of defiance.
a0) Psychedelic acid rock acclaimed an uninhibited drug culture.
E0. The Counterculture
10. The message of most music of the 1960s was that drugs offered another way to be free of the older generation’s values.
20. Harvard psychology professor Timothy Leary argued that by “tripping” on LSD people could “turn on, tune in, and drop out” of the rat race that was American society.
30. New openness about sexuality and relaxation of the stigma on extramarital sex turned out to be significant legacies of the 1960s.
a0) But the philosophy of free love also had a negative side as increased sexual activity contributed to a rapid rise in cases of sexually transmitted diseases.
40. Perhaps the most colorful and well-known advocates of the counterculture and its ideals were the “hippies.”
50. The counterculture had a lasting impact on American society—on dress, sexual attitudes, music, and even personal values—but it did not reshape America in its image.
Identify the following items and explain the significance of each. While you should include any relevant historical terms, using your own words to write these definitions will help you better remember these items for your next exam.
10. The issues that were raised during the presidential election campaign of 1960 included
a0. the absence of presidential leadership in domestic affairs.
b0. the Eisenhower administration’s setbacks in the Cold War.
c0. the religion of the Democratic Party’s candidate.
d0. All of these
20. The election campaign of 1960
a0. explained to voters why America was rapidly dividing between segregationists and integrationists.
b0. examined the legacy of the New Deal in American life.
c0. demonstrated the importance of television in modern politics.
d0. focused on who was to blame for the Communist victory in China.
30. In the area of civil rights, the Kennedy administration
a0. used federal troops on several occasions to support desegregation.
b0. never agreed to support a civil rights bill.
c0. appointed Martin Luther King, Jr., to a cabinet post.
d0. refused to acknowledge the importance of the issue.
40. The closest that the Kennedy administration came to the Eisenhower administration’s practice of brinkmanship occurred
a0. in the Middle East.
b0. following the assassination of South Vietnam’s president.
c0. over the Soviet-built Berlin Wall.
d0. during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
50. During the Kennedy administration, the Cold War
a0. did not preoccupy the United States as much as it had during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations.
b0. reached into space, culminating in the race to land a man on the moon.
c0. brought U.S. and Soviet troops face to face at the Bay of Pigs.
d0. led Kennedy to establish U.S. air force bases in South Vietnam.
60. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
a0. in reaction to the spread of urban rioting.
b0. as a consequence of the assassination of President Kennedy.
c0. over President Johnson’s veto.
d0. because of a massive petition campaign in favor of it in northern states.
70. The 1964 presidential contest can best be characterized as a confrontation between
a0. the older generation and the counterculture.
b0. segregationists and integrationists.
c0. conservatives and liberals.
d0. the Northeast and the South.
80. Which of the following was NOT primarily an advocate of equal rights for African Americans?
90. The Johnson administration’s War on Poverty
a0. never got off the ground because Barry Goldwater almost won the presidency in 1964.
b0. was dismantled by Congress because of revelations of massive corruption.
c0. led, ironically, to improvement only for members of the middle class.
d0. contributed to a decline in the number of people living in poverty in the United States.
100. The Black Power movement advocated
a0. ideas that were very similar to those of Booker T. Washington.
b0. building up a power base within the Democratic Party.
c0. methods that differed strikingly from those of Martin Luther King, Jr.
d0. that blacks withhold tax payments as a way of protesting against all forms of discrimination.
110. Martin Luther King’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” became the clearest articulation of
a0. a go-slow approach to civil rights.
b0. an attempt to accommodate blacks to white racism.
c0. an activist philosophy of peaceful civil disobedience.
d0. black nationalism.
120. In the Freedom Summer of 1964, civil rights workers sought to
a0. register people to vote.
b0. integrate public transportation.
c0. march on Washington.
d0. secure legislation against lynching.
130. Betty Friedan
a0. believed women could find fulfillment outside the home.
b0. authored The Feminine Mystique.
c0. was the first president of the National Organization for Women.
d0. All of these
140. The Kerner Commission Report of 1968 blamed most of the racial violence of the era on
a0. black militants.
b0. white racism.
c0. moderate civil rights demonstrators.
d0. segregation in the South.
150. Members of the counterculture
a0. argued for a return to traditional religion.
b0. sought to justify the use of drugs.
c0. rejected liberalism and joined the New Right.
d0. were those who followed Malcolm X.
10. The presidential election campaign of 1964 can be understood as a contest between liberalism and conservatism. Explain what developments during the 1960s led to this confrontation and what each side represented.
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: The beliefs of Barry Goldwater, the conservative Republican candidate, amply define the conservative point of view: a limited role for the government in domestic, economic, and social matters and even more forceful responses to the spread of communism abroad. Lyndon Johnson, on the other hand, represented the faith expressed by liberals in the positive role that an activist government could play in solving economic and social problems and (at least during the 1964 campaign) a more tempered response to Communist aggressiveness.
Developments in four major areas led to the contest in 1964 between competing liberal and conservative visions over what course the country should follow:
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society and the War on Poverty. Provide examples of some of the programs enacted by the Democrats that put them squarely in the tradition of New Deal reliance on government to solve domestic problems.
The Supreme Court’s liberal decisions regarding civil rights, criminal justice, prayer in public schools, and sexual behavior.
Federal government support for the civil rights movement. Explain how this predated Johnson’s presidency, for even though the Kennedy administration was reluctant to become involved, it did so by sending federal marshals and army troops into the South and by finally calling for passage of a civil rights bill. After John F. Kennedy’s assassination, Lyndon Johnson worked actively for the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964—which Barry Goldwater voted against.
Communist successes in Vietnam. This issue also predated the Johnson presidency. The president of South Vietnam did not command much loyalty within the country, he was unable to make headway militarily against the Viet Cong, and President Kennedy sent in 16,000 Americans to “advise.” Barry Goldwater urged a far more strident course of action in Vietnam (and elsewhere, as well) than President Johnson did during the 1964 campaign.
20. Newspaper readers and television-news viewers became familiar during the 1960s with the names of such places as Woodstock, Port Huron, Selma, and Watts. Explain what these locations symbolized to Americans at the time and how they came to do so.
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: Each of these places represented different things to different people, depending on their values and beliefs. For comprehensiveness and balance in your essay, be sure to include these contradictory meanings. (The question, after all, asks you to explain what these locations meant to people in the 1960s, not what they symbolize for you.)
The rock festival at Woodstock in 1969 epitomized the counterculture. Many saw it as summing up the scandalous values and behavior of the youth movement of the 1960s. To others, however, it stood for freedom, self-realization, and rejection of the predominant values of American society.
Port Huron also evoked differing responses, depending on where one stood on the issues of the day. As an indictment of American society, the Port Huron Statement was also a product of the decade’s youth movement. In its call for changing American society, it represented one thing to members of the counterculture and quite another to more conservative Americans. Be sure to analyze its contents to show how and why for each group.
After describing the events at Selma, Alabama, you should indicate how it, too, symbolized different things for different people. To participants in the civil rights movement, Selma stood for bigotry, inequality, violent resistance to change, and the need for government to protect civil rights demonstrators. To segregationists, on the other hand, it—together with Sheriff Jim Clark—symbolized the South’s efforts to preserve its way of life (including segregation), resistance to outsiders and alien values, and the intrusion of the federal government into local matters.
Finally, the violent rioting in Watts symbolized the many difficulties and grievances felt by African Americans all over the United States—not just by those in the South. Indicate what the grievances were, as you describe this violent riot’s origins. To many other Americans, however, Watts represented the failure of nonviolence, the ascent of the methods advocated by the Black Power movement, excess generally in the civil rights movement, and liberals coddling lawbreakers.
30. Many white liberals and moderates actively supported the civil rights movement during the early 1960s, but by the close of the Johnson administration, many did not. Analyze the reasons for the earlier high level of support and the reasons for its decline over the course of the decade.
DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: Reasons for the earlier high level of support included the peaceful methods of protest advocated by Martin Luther King, Jr.; the often brutal attacks on civil rights activists by southern supporters of segregation and disenfranchisement; and the sheer justice of the cause. The latter was reflected in congressional passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The abuses in the South that the freedom riders and the sit-in demonstrators exposed for all the world to see also underscored the justice of the cause.
Hundreds of urban riots between 1964 and 1968 alienated many white liberals and moderates. The methods advocated by the Black Power movement and by organizations such as the Black Panthers, which contrasted sharply with Dr. King’s methods, also drove away white supporters. Finally, the separatist doctrines of Malcolm X, along with the rhetoric and ideas of the Black Muslims, also distanced white sympathizers.
10. Third-party presidential candidacies usually indicate the prevalence of dissatisfaction and unrest within the electorate. Examine Map 28.1 in your textbook to determine where such a candidacy appeared in 1960. Why did it form? Which of the two major parties appeared to have been at greatest risk of losing the support that it had been able to take for granted ever since the Great Depression?
20. Did the methods of civil rights activists achieve much, in your opinion? Examine Map 28.2 in your textbook to formulate an answer.
0Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture)
To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the chapter.
10. Identify SNCC.
20. Define “Black Power.”
30. Compare and contrast Martin Luther King, Jr.’s followers and Black Power advocates and their approaches to gaining equality.
40. What events in Carmichael’s life influenced his later activism?
50. Explain the significance of registering voters to the civil rights movement.
60. What changes did Carmichael make in his life in 1968 and 1978? Evaluate the impact of those changes.
0Examining a Primary Source: Stokely Carmichael Justifies Black Power
To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Voices section at the end of the chapter.
10. Distinguish between the view of blacks and whites toward the term Black Power.
20. According to Carmichael, how is power shared in the United States, and what steps must the African American population take to gain power?
30. How does Carmichael differentiate personal from institutional racism? How might these two kinds of racism mirror de jure and de facto discrimination?
40. How do you think Carmichael might, in a few words, define Black Power?
RUBRIC: Do further research on important individuals and groups in the civil rights movement. As you investigate each one, think about whether they are closer in ideology to Stokely Carmichael or Martin Luther King, Jr.
CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS/GROUPS
0Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions
1. d. Because a, b, and c are true, this is the correct choice.
a. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. See pages 896-897.
b. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. The U-2 incident, the Soviet triumph in space, and the Democrats denounced Castro’s rise to power in Cuba. See pages 896-897.
c. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. His Catholicism was an issue. See pages 896-897.
2. c. Nixon lost points in the campaign of 1960 because of his appearance during the televised debates against Kennedy. See pages 896-897.
b. Kennedy’s call for civil rights legislation helped lead to the famous March on Washington. See pages 899-902.
c. His appointees did not include Rev. King. See pages 899-902.
d. Although Kennedy moved slowly, he finally advocated civil rights legislation during the third year of his presidency. See pages 899-902.
4. d. The United States went to the edge of war with the Soviet Union when it imposed a naval blockade of Cuba. See pages 903-905.
a. There was no confrontation with the Soviet Union in the Middle East.
b. Kennedy was assassinated three weeks after Diem’s assassination in South Vietnam. See pages 905-906.
c. Because the wall did not challenge the West’s presence in Berlin, the United States did not go to the edge of war, as brinkmanship would have required. See pages 903-905.
5. b. Russia sent the first man into space, and the United States committed itself to being the first to land a man on the moon. See page 899.
a. Cold war crises erupted in the Caribbean, in Europe, and in Southeast Asia. See pages 903-905.
c. The invasion there pitted Cuban forces against American-backed Cuban exiles. See pages 903-905.
d. During Kennedy’s presidency, the involvement in South Vietnam had only just begun. (The major buildup, including military bases, began after the 1964 election of Lyndon Johnson.) See pages 903-905.
6. b. President Johnson asked for its adoption as a memorial to President Kennedy. See pages 906-908.
a. Major rioting began in 1965. See pages 906-908.
c. Johnson requested its passage. See pages 906-908.
d. There is no evidence for such a petition campaign. See pages 906-908.
7. c. Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate, was a major conservative figure that strongly opposed Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program. The Great Society program was squarely in the liberal tradition of a major role for government in addressing social problems. See page 908.
a. See 7c. See page 908.
b. Although Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate, had opposed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and President Johnson, the Democratic candidate, had favored its passage, the issue of civil rights was not the campaign’s major focus. See page 908.
d. See 7c. See page 908.
8. c. The National Organization for Women was primarily interested in equal rights for women so this is the correct answer. See pages 916-917.
a. NAACP stands for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
b. SNCC stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; this organization emphasized community solidarity and action to promote civil rights.
d. The Congress of Racial Equality organized the “freedom rides” to promote equal rights for African Americans.
9. d. The numbers living below the poverty line decreased, and African American unemployment fell. See pages 907-908.
a. Lyndon Johnson won by a landslide. See pages 907-908.
b. Corruption did not dent the War on Poverty; growing unpopularity, the war in Vietnam, and the public’s reaction to urban rioting did. See pages 907-908.
c. The number of people living in poverty declined. See pages 907-908.
10. c. King was committed to peaceful civil disobedience; Black Power advocates favored militancy. See pages 900-902.
a. Washington had advocated compliance with segregation and disenfranchisement; proponents of Black Power advocated resistance. See pages 900-902.
b. Black Power advocates rejected working with or within multiracial organizations. See pages 900-902.
d. There is no evidence that this was part of their program. See pages 900-902.
11. c. King called for peaceful civil disobedience. See pages 900-902 and 909-911.
a. King defended confrontation and activism. See pages 900-902 and 909-911.
b. In it, he justified activism against segregation. See pages 900-902 and 909-911.
d. See pages 900-902 and 909-911
12 a. See pages 909-911.
b. This had been the goal of the freedom riders. See pages 909-911.
c. This had occurred the year before in the summer of 1963. See pages 909-911.
d. See 12a. See pages 900-911.
13. d. This is the best answer since a, b, and c are all correct.
a. This statement is correct but is not the best answer. See page 916.
b. This statement is correct but is not the best answer. See page 916.
c. This statement is correct but is not the best answer. See page 916.
14. b. See page 915.
a. See 14b. See page 915.
c. See 14b. See page 915.
d. The Commission blamed white racism in general; it did not single out the South. See page 915.
15. b. See pages 918-919.
a. Theirs was not a religious movement. See pages 918-919.
c. The music, drug use, sexual values, and other features of the counterculture were opposite of the conservatism of the New Right. See pages 918-919.