00001part I: Reviewing the Chapter 00001A. 0Checklist of Learning Objectives



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CHAPTER 20

Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861–1865

00001PART I: Reviewing the Chapter

00001A. 0Checklist of Learning Objectives


After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:

10. Explain how the South’s firing on Fort Sumter galvanized the North and how Lincoln’s call for troops prompted four more states to join the Confederacy.

20. Explain why the slaveholding Border States were so critical to both sides and how Lincoln maneuvered to keep them in the Union.

30. Indicate the strengths and weaknesses of both sides at the onset of the war, what strategies each pursued, and why the North’s strengths could be brought to bear as the war dragged on.

40. Describe the contest for European political support and intervention, and explain why Britain and France finally refused to recognize the Confederacy.

50. Compare Lincoln’s and Davis’s political leadership during the war.

60. Describe Lincoln’s policies on civil liberties and how both sides mobilized the military manpower to fight the war.

70. Analyze the economic and social consequences of the war for both sides.


00001B. 0Glossary


To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms.

10. balance of power The theory and practice of distributing political and military strength evenly among several nations so that no one of them becomes too strong or dangerous. “They could gleefully transplant to America their ancient concept of the balance of power.”

20. moral suasion The effort to move others to a particular course of action through appeals to moral values and beliefs, without the use of economic incentives or military force. “In dealing with the Border States, President Lincoln did not rely solely on moral suasion. . . .”

30. martial law The imposition of military rule above or in place of civil authority and law during times of war and emergency. “In Maryland he declared martial law where needed. . . .”

40. ultimatum A final proposal or demand, as by one nation to another, that if rejected, will likely lead to war. “The London Foreign Office prepared an ultimatum. . . .”

50. loophole(d) Characterized by small exceptions or conditions that enable escape from the general rule or principle. “These vessels were not warships within the meaning of the loopholed British law. . . .”

60. merchant marine The ships and manpower of a nation devoted to waterborne commerce and trade, as distinct from naval vessels and personnel devoted to military purposes. “Confederate commerce-destroyers . . . captured more than 250 Yankee ships, severely crippling the American merchant marine. . . .”

70. arbitration The settlement of a dispute by putting the mandatory decision in the hands of a third, neutral party. (Mediation is using the services of a third party to promote negotiations and suggest solutions, but without the power of mandatory decision making.) “It agreed in 1871 to submit the Alabama dispute to arbitration. . . .”

80. appropriation A sum of money or property legally authorized to be spent for a specific purpose. “He directed the secretary of the treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation. . . .”

90. habeas corpus In law, a judicial order requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court at a specified time and place in order to determine the legality of the imprisonment (literally, “produce the body.”) “He suspended the precious privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. . . .”

100. arbitrary Governed by indeterminate preference or whim rather than by settled principle or law. “Jefferson Davis was less able than Lincoln to exercise arbitrary power. . . .”

110. quota The proportion or share of a larger number of things that a smaller group is assigned to contribute. “. . . with each state assigned a quota based on population.”

120. greenback In the United States, popular term for paper currency, especially that printed before the establishment of the Federal Reserve System in 1913; named for the original color of the printed money. “Greenbacks thus fluctuated with the fortunes of Union arms. . . .”

130. bond In finance, an interest-bearing certificate issued by a government or business that guarantees repayment to the purchaser on a specified date at a predetermined rate of interest. “. . . the Treasury was forced to market its bonds through the private banking house of Jay Cooke and Company. . . .”

140. graft The corrupt acquisition of funds, through overt theft or embezzling or through questionably legal methods such as kickbacks or insider trading. “But graft was more flagrant in the North than in the South. . . .”

150. profiteer One who takes advantage of a shortage of supply to charge excessively high prices and thus reap large profits. “One profiteer reluctantly admitted that his profits were ‘painfully large.’ ”


00001PART II: Checking Your Progress

00001A. 0True-False


Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.

01. T F Lincoln deliberately decided to provoke a war by sending strong military reinforcements to Fort Sumter.

02. T F In order to appease the Border States, Lincoln first insisted that the North was fighting only to preserve the Union and not to abolish slavery.

03. T F The South’s advantage in the Civil War was that it only had to fight to a stalemate on its own territory, while the North had to fight a war of conquest against a hostile population.

40. T F The North generally had superior military leadership, while the South struggled to find successful commanders for its armies.

50. T F In the long run, Northern economic and population advantages effectively wore down Southern resistance.

60. T F The antislavery feelings of many in the British working class restrained the pro-Confederate sympathies of the British aristocracy and government.

70. T F Northern pressure eventually forced the British Navy to stop the Alabama from raiding Union shipping.

80. T F The French Emperor Napoleon III took advantage of America’s Civil War to invade Mexico and install his puppet Emperor Maximilian as the ruler there.

09. T F Abraham Lincoln’s lack of political experience in high administrative office made him less effective in leading public opinion than the highly experienced Confederate president Jefferson Davis.

100. T F The Civil War draft reflected the North’s commitment to fighting a war based on the ideal of equal treatment of citizens from all economic conditions.

110. T F Lincoln’s temporary violations of civil liberties were strongly opposed by Congress.

120. T F The North effectively financed its Civil War effort through an income tax, higher tariffs, and the sale of federal government bonds.

130. T F The South in effect used severe inflation as a means of financing its war effort.

140. T F Northern women effectively supported the Union cause through hospital and relief work in ways that southern women were prevented from doing.

015. T F Despite losing the Civil War, the South emerged with its basic agricultural and transportation infrastructure fairly intact.


00001B. 0Multiple Choice


Select the best answer and circle the corresponding letter.

10. Lincoln’s plan for the besieged federal forces in Fort Sumter was to0

a0. order the soldiers there to open fire on the surrounding Confederate army.

b0. send about 3,000 soldiers and marines to reinforce the fort.

c0. make a symbolic show of support and then withdraw the forces.

d0. send U.S. naval forces to gain control of Charleston Harbor.

e0. send supplies for the existing soldiers but not to add new reinforcements.

20. The firing on Fort Sumter had the effect of0

a0. pushing ten other states to join South Carolina in seceding from the Union.

b0. causing Lincoln to declare a war to free the slaves.

c0. strengthening many Northerners’ view that the South should be allowed to secede.

d0. arousing enthusiastic Northern support for a war to put down the South’s rebellion.

e0. making the North aware that the Civil War would be long and costly.

30. The four states that joined the Confederacy only after Lincoln’s call for troops to suppress the rebellion in April 1861 were0

a0. Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.

b0. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

c0. Missouri, Maryland, Kentucky, and Delaware.

d0. South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Mississippi.

e0. Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, and North Carolina.

40. Lincoln at first declared that the war was being fought0

a0. only to save the Union and not to free the slaves.

b0. in order to end slavery everywhere except the Border States.

c0. in order to restore the Missouri Compromise.

d0. only to punish South Carolina for firing on Fort Sumter.

e0. only to restore federal control over the forts and arsenals in the South.

50. Which of the following was not among the Border States?0

a0. Missouri d0. Maryland b0. Kentucky

e0. Delaware c0. Oklahoma

60. The term Butternut region refers to the0

a0. mountain areas of the South that remained loyal to the Union.

b0. Border States, especially KY & MO, that contained large numbers of Confederate supporters.

c0. areas of the upper Midwest that supplied a large portion of the committed Union volunteers.

d0. areas of southern Pennsylvania and New York that supported the war but hated the draft.

e0. areas of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois that opposed an antislavery war.

70. In the Indian Territory (Oklahoma), most of the Five Civilized Tribes0

a0. supported the Confederacy and sent warriors to fight for it.

b0. supported a war for the Union but not a war against slavery.

c0. sent many young warriors to fight for the Union cause.

d0. tried to stay neutral in the “white man’s war.”

e0. used the Civil War to reassert their independence.

80. Among the significant advantages the Confederacy possessed at the beginning of the Civil War was0

a0. a stronger and more balanced economy.

b0. a stronger navy.

c0. better-trained officers and soldiers.

d0. a larger reserve of manpower.

e0. better political leadership.

90. Among the advantages the Union possessed at the beginning of the Civil War was0

a0. better preparation of its ordinary soldiers for military life.

b0. a continuing influx of immigrant manpower from Europe.

c0. more highly educated and experienced generals.

d0. the ability to fight a primarily defensive war.

e0. strong support from the British and French aristocracy.

100. The response to the Civil War in Europe was0

a0. almost unanimous support for the North.

b0. support for the South among the upper classes and for the North among the working classes.

c0. almost unanimous support for the South.

d0. support for the South in France and Spain and for the North in Britain and Germany.

e0. support for the North in the large cities and for the South in rural areas.

110. The South’s weapon of King Cotton failed to draw Britain into the war on the side of the Confederacy because0

a0. the British discovered that they could substitute flax and wool for cotton.

b0. the British proved able to grow sufficient cotton in their own land.

c0. the British found sufficient cotton from previous stockpiles and from new sources like Egypt and India.

d0. the threat of war with France distracted British attention for several years.

e0. Confederate smugglers evaded the Union blockade and delivered cotton supplies to Britain.

120. The U.S. minister in London warned that the United States would declare war against Britain if

a0. the British navy did not help to sink the Confederate raider Alabama.

b0. Confederate agents continued to use Canada as a safe base for raids into the North.

c0. the British did not withdraw their support for French intervention in Mexico.

d0. the British aristocracy continued to express public support for the Confederacy.

e0. the British government delivered the Laird ram warships it had built to the Confederacy.

130. Lincoln argued that his suspension of certain civil liberties was justified because0

a0. he was confident that Congress and the Supreme Court would approve his actions.

b0. the South had committed even larger violations of the Constitution.

c0. during wartime, a president has unlimited power over the civilian population.

d0. he had plainly stated that he would take such steps during his campaign for the presidency.

e0. it was necessary to set aside small provisions of the Constitution in order to save the Union.

140. Many of the new millionaires who emerged in the North during the Civil War0

a0. committed their personal fortunes to the Union cause.

b0. made their fortunes by providing poorly made, shoddy goods to the Union armies.

c0. made their highest profits by selling captured cotton to British textile manufacturers.

d0. earned public distrust by secretly advocating a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy.

e0. paid the largest portion of the taxes that financed the Union war effort.

150. Northern women made particular advances during the Civil War by0

a0. advocating the right to vote for both African Americans and women.

b0. entering industrial employment and providing medical aid for soldiers on both sides.

c0. pushing for women to take up noncombatant roles in the military.

d0. upholding the feminine ideals of peace and reconciliation.

e0. operating farms and shops while their men were away fighting the war.


00001C. 0Identification


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

01. ______________ The four original Border States where secession failed but slavery still survived


______________
______________
______________

02. ______________ The federal military installation in Charleston Harbor against which the first shots of the Civil War were fired

03. ______________ A British ship from which two Confederate diplomats were forcibly removed by the U.S. Navy, creating a major crisis between London and Washington

04. ______________ Confederate navy warship built in Britain that wreaked havoc on Northern shipping until it was finally sunk in 1864

05. ______________ Ironclad warships that were kept out of Confederate hands by Minister Adams’s stern protests to the British government

06. ______________ Constitutional protection against arbitrary arrest and imprisonment that was suspended by President Lincoln on the grounds that the Union was at risk of destruction

07. ______________ Violent protests by largely Irish working class citizens against being forced to serve in a war against slavery that they opposed

08. ______________ Popular term for the paper currency that was issued by the wartime Union government to help finance the war

09. ______________ Financial institution set up by the wartime federal government to sell war bonds and issue a stable paper currency

010. ______________ Federal law of 1862 that offered free land in the West to pioneers willing to settle on it, even during the Civil War

011. ______________ Union agency organized by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell and others to provide field hospitals, supplies, and nurses to U.S. soldiers.

012. ______________ New profession that Clara Barton and others first opened to many women during the Civil War.


00001D. 0Putting Things in Order


Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5.

01. ___ Secretary of State Seward threatens to send an American army against the French-installed government of Mexico.

02. ___ Napoleon III’s puppet emperor is removed from power in Mexico under threat of American intervention.

03. ___ The firing on Fort Sumter unifies the North and leads to Lincoln’s call for troops.

04. ___ The Alabama escapes from a British port and begins wreaking havoc on Northern shipping.

05. ___ Charles Francis Adams’s successful diplomacy prevents the Confederacy from obtaining two Laird ram warships.


00001E. 0Matching People, Places, and Events


Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

10. ___ Napoleon III

20. ___ Charles Francis Adams

30. ___ Thomas J. Jackson

40. ___ Maximilian

50. ___ Sally Tompkins

60. ___ Jay Cooke

70. ___ Abraham Lincoln

80. ___ Jefferson Davis

90. ___ Elizabeth Blackwell

100. ___ Clara Barton0



a0. American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War

b0. An Old World aristocrat, manipulated as a puppet in Mexico, who was shot when his puppet-master deserted him

c0. An inexperienced leader in war but a genius at inspiring and directing his nation’s cause

d0. Leader whose conflict with states’ rights advocates and rigid personality harmed his ability to mobilize and direct his nation’s war effort

e0. Head of a major New York bank that marketed war bonds for the Union government at a profit

f0. Slippery French dictator who ignored the Monroe Doctrine by intervening in Mexican politics

g0. Robert E. Lee’s brilliant military assistant for much of the Civil War whose nickname symbolized his strength and determination

h0. Helped transform nursing into a respected profession during the Civil War

i0. Leading organizer of medical services for the South, who was made a captain in the Confederate army for her efforts

j0. First woman physician, organizer of the United States Sanitary Commission


00001F. 0Matching Cause and Effect


Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line.

Cause

Effect

01. 0___ South Carolina’s assault on Fort Sumter

02. ___ Lincoln’s first call for troops to suppress the rebellion

03. ___ Lincoln’s careful use of moral suasion, politics,0 and military force

04. ___ The large Northern advantage in human resources

05. ___ The North’s naval blockade and industrial superiority

06. ___ The British aristocracy’s sympathy with the South

07. ___ American minister C. F. Adams’s diplomacy

08. ___ British expansion of cotton growing in colonial Egypt and India

09. ___ The class-biased unfairness of the Civil War draft

010. ___ Lincoln’s belief that the Civil War emergency required drastic action




a0. Enabled textile mills to keep functioning despite the Civil War and expanded Britain’s share of global markets

b0. Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, at the cost of many lives

c0. Unified the North and made it deter0mined to preserve the Union by military force

d0. Eventually gave the Union a crucial economic advantage over the mostly agricultural South

e0. Deterred the British from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy

f0. Caused four more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy

g0. Kept the Border States in the Union

h0. Led the British government toward actions that aided the Confederacy and angered the Union

i0. Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish Americans

j0. Led to temporary infringements on civil liberties and Congress’s constitutional powers


00001G. 0Developing Historical Skills

00001Interpreting Tables


Tables convey a great deal of data, often numerical, in concise form. Properly interpreted, they can effectively aid historical understanding.

The following questions will help you interpret some of the tables in this chapter.

10. Manufacturing by Sections, 1860 0

a0. Compare the number of manufacturing establishments in the South and New England. Now compare the amount of invested capital, the number of laborers, and the product value of these same two sections. What do you conclude about the character of the manufacturing establishments in the South and New England?

b0. Approximately how many laborers were employed in the average Southern manufacturing establishment? About how many in the average New England establishment? How many in the average establishment in the middle states?

20. Immigration to United States, 1860–1866 0

a0. From which country did immigration decline rather sharply at the end as well as at the beginning of the Civil War?

b0. From which country did immigration rise most sharply after the end of the Civil War?

c0. From which country did the coming of the Civil War evidently cause the sharpest decline in immigration?

d0. How was immigration affected by the first year of the Civil War? How was it affected by the second year of war? By the third? How long did it take for immigration from each country to return to its prewar level?

30. Number of Men in Uniform at Date Given

a0. In what period did the absolute difference in military manpower between the two sides increase most dramatically?

b0. What was the approximate manpower ratio of Union to Confederate forces on each of the following dates: July 1861, March 1862, January 1863, and January 1865?

c0. What happened to the military manpower ratio in the last two years of the war?


00001PART III: Applying What You Have Learned


10. Why did Lincoln decide only to send supplies to Fort Sumter, rather than abandoning it or militarily reinforcing it? How did this decision prove to work to his political advantage? What would have been the consequences had he pursued one of the other two strategies?

20. Why did Lincoln’s call for federal troops after the firing on Fort Sumter cause such a furious reaction in the South and lead four more states to secede? Would those states have stayed in the Union had Lincoln not called out troops to suppress the original seven-state Confederacy?

30. Why were the Border States absolutely critical to the Union cause in 1861–1862? How did Lincoln use both political strategy and force to keep the Border States from joining the Confederacy? Was the use of martial law and other harsh means necessary?

40. Which of the advantages that the Confederacy enjoyed at the beginning of the Civil War was the greatest and provided the largest opportunity for the South to successfully win its independence? Did the South fail to exploit its initial advantages to the extent it could have, or were the North’s advantages, finally, just greater?

50. How close did the United States and Britain really come to going to war over British sympathy and aid for the Confederacy? Do you agree with most historians that British intervention would probably have secured Confederate independence?

60. Compare Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis as political and military leaders of their two countries during the Civil War. How did their personal strengths and weaknesses to some extent reflect the character of the North and of the South, respectively?

70. How did the North and the South each address their economic and human resources needs? Given the South’s economic and manpower disadvantages from the beginning, did it make the most effective use of the resources it did possess?

80. What changes did the Civil War bring about in civilian society, North and South? How did the war particularly affect women?



90. Some historians have called the Civil War “the Second American Revolution.” What was revolutionary about the political, social, and economic conduct of the war?

100. Some historians have argued that the North’s inherent superiority in manpower and industrial strength made its victory in the Civil War inevitable from the beginning. Do you agree or disagree? Why?


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