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A Dividing Nation

* Some of these are in more than one place, so make sure to include ALL parts!!
1) The Northwest

Ordinance of 1787

2) the Union

3)slave states

4) free states

5) James Tallmadge

(Tallmadge Amdmt)

6) Missouri Compromise

(Henry Clay)

7) deadlocked

8) Missouri/Maine

9) latitude 36/30

10) Second Great Awakening

11) Gag Rule

I Confronting the Issue of Slavery

A) States in the ORV

1) by 1819: seven new states had formed west of the Appalachians

2) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

aa) outlined steps leading to statehood and banned slavery north of the Ohio River

bb) result: Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois = free states

- Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi = slave states

3) 1819

aa) Alabama and Missouri applied to Congress for statehood as slave states

bb) Alabama = accepted due to location and the fact that it made the amount of free and slave states equal

cc) Missouri = problem

4) Division of Slave vs Free States

Free States


New Jersey

New York


Rhode Island


New Hampshire





Slave States


South Carolina

North Carolina











B) Questions about Missouri

1) some Northerners in Congress = questioned whether Missouri should also be admitted as a slave state

2) If allowed to enter the Union (the U.S. as one country, united under a single govt. / during the Civil War = "the

as a slave state = WHAT Union" = the govt and armies of the North)

would keep slavery fr spreading across all of the Louisiana Territory (Louisiana Purchase)?

3) would cause a stretch of slave states from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mts.
C) The Tallmadge Amendment

1) Representative James Tallmadge (NY) = decided to keep this fr happening

2) proposed an amendment to the statehood bill proposed

3) said that Missouri could join the Union = ONLY as a free state

4) Southerners in Congress went nuts!

5) wanted to know = what right Congress had to decide whether a new state should be slave or free

6) Remember: Southerners were for STATES' RIGHTS – NOT Federal Rights

7) said the ppl of each state should decide if it should be slave or free
D) Deadlocked Congress

- Senate: equal voting pwr

1) South:

aa) feared that if Congress was allowed to end slavery in Missouri, it could do so elsewhere

bb) if Missouri entered the Union as a free state = they lose their right to block anti-slavery bills in Senate

2) North:

aa) already had more votes in the House of Representatives than the South

bb) said this would be a disaster

cc) awakened strong feelings agst slavery

dd) many towns = sent petitions to Congress – condemned slavery as immoral and unconstitutional
3) Tallmadge Amendment = approved in the House

- defeated = in Senate

4) Both houses:

aa) DEADLOCKED (cannot make a 2/3 decision) over the issue

bb) 1819 session of Congress drew to a close
II The Missouri Compromise

A) Issue

1) 1820 = Congress returned to Washington

2) took up the question of Missouri statehood again

3) Now = Maine was asking to enter the Union as a free state

4) problem wore on

5) Southerners grew angrier

6) began talking about secession – the act of withdrawing fr an organization or alliance, such as the w/drawal of the

southern states fr the Union – and "civil war"

B) A Compromise Is Reached

1) Henry Clay = proposed a compromise

2) Missouri = slave state

3) Maine = free state

4) maintained the balance

5) Congress = drew an imaginary line across the Louisiana Territory at latitude 36/30

aa) North of this line: slavery was to be banned (not allowed) = EXCEPT for Missouri

bb) South of this line: slaveholding was permitted
C) Reactions to the Compromise

1) ** The Missouri Compromise kept the Union together!

2) However = this pleased no one!!!!
III The Missouri Compromise Unravels


1) slavery remained an issue

2) Second Great Awakening:

aa) 2nd great revival swept thru the land

bb) 1820s and ‘30s

cc) many Ams said the Lord's work was to abolish slavery
B) The "Gag Rule"

1) 1830s: abolitionists (people who wanted slavery to end) flooded Congress w/anti-slavery petitions

2) Congress = had no pwr to interfere w/slavery in the states

3) What about the District of Columbia?

aa) surely slavery should be banned in the nation's capital
4) 1836: Congress voted to "table" (set aside for now) all anti-slavery petitions

5) Mad abolitionists : called this action the "gag rule

aa) said it gagged (silenced) all congressional debate over slavery
6) 1839: the gag rule prevented consideration of an anti-slavery proposal by John Quincy Adams

aa) former VP and P / now a member of Congress

bb) Adams = knew Congress would not agree on abolishing slavery altogether

cc) proposed a constitutional amendment = saying that no one could be born into slavery after


7) Congress refused
C) Southern Fears

1) abolitionists = continued to slam slavery in the media – books, newspapers, at public meetings, etc.

2) Southerners hated this

3) Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 = resentment turned to fear

aa) http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/nat-turner

(4 minute clip)
4) Southern states adopted strict new laws to control the movement of slaves

aa) tried to keep abolitionist writings fr reaching slaves
D) Fugitive Slaves

1) fugitives:

aa) individual slaves continued to rebel by running away to freedom in the North
bb) often helped to escape by Northerners

cc) Southerners felt = these Northerner helpers were no better than bank robbers
2) a good slave = valuable piece of property

3) slaveholders = demanded Congress pass a fugitive slave law to help them recapture their property
E) Slavery in the Territories

1) Gag Rule = kept the slavery issue out of Congress for ten yrs

2) 1846Pres. James K. Polk = sent a bill to Congress asking for funds for the war w/Mexico

aa) an amendment was also added that stated that no person could be "owned"

bb) passed in House, defeated in Senate
F) Statehood for California

1) Next three yrs: what to do about slavery in the new territory gained fr Mexico

aa) Southerners: wanted Mexican Cession opened to slavery

bb) Northerners: no way

cc) compromise proposed:

(1cc) extend imaginary line to the Pacific

(2cc) North of it: free

(3cc) South of it: slave

(4cc) rejected
2) California petitioned to be admitted as a free state

aa) this would upset the balance of free/slave states
3) Congress: deadlocked
IV The Compromise of 1850

A) Something for Everyone

1) Henry Clay : went to Daniel Webster w/a compromise proposal

aa) Clay's new Compromise of 1850 = had something to please just about everyone

(1aa) North: admitted California as a free state

(2aa) South: New Mexico & Utah = organized as territories open to slavery

(3aa) ended the slave trade in Washington, DC

(4aa) slave owners could keep their slaves, but no more would be bought or sold there

(5aa) also = called for a strong fugitive slave law for reclaiming runaway slaves
B) The Compromise Is Accepted

1) Webster : helped push the proposed bill through Congress

2) Congress : debated for nine months

3) took so long = the South threatened to secede (leave) the Union

4) Passed

5) included The Fugitive Slave Law

aa) any arrested runaway slave had almost no legal rights

bb) any person who helped a slave escape could be jailed

cc) any person who even refused to aid slave catchers could be jailed

6) Southerners:

aa) still wary

bb) felt the law did not do enough to ensure the return of their escaped property

cc) enforcement of the law was almost impossible
7) Northerners = did NOT want to enforce this law

aa) opposition = by whites and free blacks

bb) EX of Difficulty:

(1bb) When slave catchers came to Boston, they were hounded by crowds of angry citizens

shouting, "Slave hunters – there go the slave hunters!"

(2bb) after a few days of this treatment = most went home

(3bb) slaveholders: INFURIATED!!! (ticked off)
V The Compromise Satisfies No One

A) Planned Outcome:

1) Clay and Webster

2) hoped the Compromise of 1850 would quiet the slavery controversy for yrs to come
B) Actual Outcome:

1) pleased almost no one 2) debate grew worse each year
VI Other Issues

A) Uncle Tom's Cabin

1) Uncle Tom's Cabin

aa) novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe

bb) written based on a horrifying vision experienced while she was sitting in church on a wintry Sunday

morning in 1851

cc) Uncle Tom = old slave whipped to death by his cruel master, Simon Legree

dd) also other horrible treatment of slaves in several installments in an abolitionist newspaper

ee) another story = about Eliza, = ran away with her baby son b/c they were going to be separated

(1ee) crossed the icy Ohio River w/ hounds and slave hunters on her track
B) The Ostend Manifesto and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

- 1854: two events furied Northerners = Ostend Manifesto and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

1) Ostend Manifesto

aa) Pres. Franklin Pierce:

(1aa) message sent to the secretary of state by three American diplomats

(2aa) met in Ostend, Belgium

(3aa) Pierce = wanted to purchase the island of Cuba fr Spain / Spain refused

(4aa) message fr the diplomats = urged the U.S. govt to seize Cuba by force if Spain continued to

refuse to sell

(5aa) message leaked to the public

(6aa) angry northerners charged that Pierce's govt wanted to grab Cuba in order to add another slave

state to the Union

2) Kansas-Nebraska Act

aa) Senator Stephen A. Douglas ( Illinois) = introduced the bill in Congress

bb) wanted to get a RR built to California

cc) thought the project was more likely to happen if Congress organized the Great Plains into Nebraska

Territory and opened the region to settlers

(1cc) territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise (latitude 36/30)

(2cc) bill said nothing about slavery

(3cc) Southerners in Congress = agreed to support the bill ONLY if Douglas made a few changes

(4cc) final bill created two new territories = Kansas and Nebraska

(5cc) repealed the Missouri Compromise = left it up to settlers to vote on whether to permit

slavery in the two territories

(6cc) Douglas called this policy "popular sovereignty" – rule by the ppl.

C) Bloodshed in Kansas

1) Kansas-Nebraska Act = passed

2) settlers = poured into Kansas / most = peaceful farmers looking for fertile soil

3) others: moved to support OR oppose slavery

aa) South: towns took up collections to send their young men to Kansas

bb) North: abolitionists raised money to send weapons to anti-slavery settlers
4) Aftermath: Kansas had two competing govts = one for slavery and one agst it

aa) struggle over slavery soon became violent

bb) pro-slavery settlers invaded Lawrence, Missouri – the home of the anti-slavery govt

(1bb) burned a hotel, looted several homes, and tossed the presses of two abolitionist newspapers

into the Kaw River

(2bb) outrage in the North

(bbb) “free soilers= raised money to replace destroyed presses AND more moved t

to Kansas

5) John Brown

aa) fiery abolitionist

bb) plotted his own revenge

cc) 2 days after the Lawrence raid = Brown and seven followers invaded the pro-slavery town of


dd) drug five men suspected of supporting slavery fr their homes = hacked them to death w/swords

D) Violence in Congress

1) Senator Charles Sumner (Massachusetts) = outraged at what had just happened in Kansas

2) wrote an article about it, condemning Stephen Douglas for his proposal.

3) Preston Brooks (South Carolina Representative) attacked Sumner

aa) beat him so badly with a cane that it took three years to recover
VII The Dred Scott Case and Dred Scott Decision

A) The Dred Scott Case

1) 1857: slavery controversy shifted fr the bloodied floor of Congress to the Supreme Court

2) Supreme Court: about to decide a case concerning a Missouri slave = Dred Scott

3) yrs earlier = Scott traveled w/owner to Wisconsin = slavery banned there by the Missouri Compromise

4) upon return to Missouri = Scott went to court to win his freedom

5) argued = his stay in Wisconsin had made him a free man

6) 5 of the 9 nine Justices = Southern

7) Two Questions:

aa) As a slave, was Scott a citizen who had the right to bring a case before a federal court?

bb) Did his time in Wisconsin make him a free man?

8) Chief Justice Roger Taney = hoped to use the Scott case to settle the slavery controversy once and for all

aa) former slave owner

bb) freed his slaves after deciding slavery was wrong

9) Two More Questions to Consider

aa) Did Congress have the power to make any laws at all concerning slavery in the territories?

bb) If so, was the Missouri Compromise a constitutional use of that power?

B) The Dred Scott Decision (March 6, 1857)

1) Two Judicial Bombshells: Missouri Compromise unconstitutional & upholding the 5th Amdmt

aa) reviewed facts of the case

bb) vote of 5 to 4 = decided Scott could not sue b/c he was not a citizen

cc) could not become a citizen, either

dd) rejected Scott's argument = his stay in Wisconsin had not made him a free man

ee) said the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

ff) further supported position: 5th Amendment = said that property could not be taken fr ppl

w/out due process of law – i.e. a proper court hearing

gg) Banning slavery in a territory was the same as taking property away fr slaveholders who would like to

bring their slaves into that territory.

hh) Congress had a responsibility to protect the property rights of slaveholders in a territory.

2) Result:

aa) delighted slaveholders

bb) Northerners = stunned and enraged

(1bb) said = decision of the SCt was the moral assassination of a race and couldn’t be obeyed

VIII From Compromise to Crisis

  1. Republican Party

  1. formed during the K-N Act

  2. anti-slavery activists

  3. no more Federalists

  4. now: REPUBLICANS = rights of our colored citizen must be protected

B) Abraham Lincoln

1) 1858

2) Republicans = nominated him to run for the Senate

3) pointed out that attempts to reach compromise on slavery issues = failed

4) Quote: “A house divided cannot stand”

(http://www.history.com/topics/lincoln-douglas-debates/videos/gilder-lehrman-house-divided) (3 minutes)
C) The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1) Lincoln's opponent: Stephen Douglas (Democrat)

2) Stephen Douglas: saw no reason why the U.S. couldn't continue to be ½ slave, ½ free

3) Both men agreed to a debate.

4) Douglas argued that the Dred Scott decision had put the slavery issue to rest.

5) Lincoln disagreed and said that slavery was a moral NOT legal issue.

6) Lincoln lost the election, but the election made him a national figure.

7) Outcome: compromise over slavery was becoming impossible
D) John Brown's Raid

1) While Lincoln fought to stop the spread of slavery legally, John Brown took a more extreme approach.

2) planned to seize the federal arsenal (a place where weapons and ammunition are stored) at Harpers Ferry, VA

3) wanted to use the weapons to arm slaves for a rebellion that would destroy slavery forever

4) insane scheme

5) all of Brown's men = killed or captured during the raid on the arsenal

6) Brown = convicted of treason and sentenced to die

7) was viewed as a hero to Northerners and slaves

8) Southerners were afraid of rebellions
C) The Election of 1860

1) Republican Candidate: Lincoln

2) Democratic:

aa) Split between Northern and Southern:

(1aa) N = Stephen Douglas

(2aa) S = John C. Breckinridge (fr KY)

3) New PartyConstitutional Union PartyJohn Bell

aa) Lincoln won = 40% of the votes – all of them cast in the North

bb) wasn't even on the ticket in the South

5) weeks following: talk of secession (the withdrawal from the Union of 11 Southern states in the period 1860–61,

which brought on the Civil War) filled the air

6) some senators formed a committee to search for yet another compromise that might hold the nation together
IX Secession

A) Lincoln Tried to Be Neutral

1) Dec. 20, 1860

2) two distant cities dashed hopes for a settlement

aa) Springfield, Illinois

(1aa) A reporter asked Lincoln whether he could support a compromise on slavery.

(2aa) Answer: He would not interfere w/slavery in the South and would support the Fugitive Slave


bb) Charleston, South Carolina

(1bb)Delegates attending a state convention voted that same day to leave the Union.

(2bb) The city went wild.

(3bb) Church bells rang and huge crowed filled the streets roaring w/approval.

(4bb) Six more states soon followed.

B) Civil War Begins

1) March 4, 1861: Lincoln became president of the not-so-United States

2) said that secession was both wrong and unconstitutional

3) begged the southern states to return in peace

4) Quote: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not mine, is the momentous issue of civil war."

5) April 12: South opened fire on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor

6) 33 hrs of heavy shelling

7) defenders of the fort hauled down the Stars and Stripes and replaced it w/the white flag of surrender

8) North went off

9) the time for compromise was OVER!

10) Decisions would now be made by WAR!

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