● reasons for migrating



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Migration: Key Issue 1

Why Do People Migrate?

Rubenstein, p. 81-85




REASONS FOR MIGRATING

1. What are push factors and pull factors?

2. Complete the table below with specific examples of push and pull factors.





PUSH FACTORS

PULL FACTORS

ECONOMIC






CULTURAL






ENVIRONMENTAL






3. Define: intervening obstacle


4. Briefly describe the role of each of the following in examining intervening obstacles and migration:

(a) physical geography
(b) transportation
(c) political concerns/laws

● DISTANCE OF MIGRATION

6. Migration may be classified as either international or internal. What is the difference?

7. What types of push factors are usually responsible for each of the following categories of international migration?

(a) voluntary migration

(b) forced migration (refugees)

8. Briefly state what one would expect to occur, in terms of migration, in each stage of the demographic transition model, as it is applied to a migration transition.




MIGRATION TRANSITION

As applied to the demographic transition model

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

STAGES 3 & 4










● CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS

9. Complete the following table from the reading.




Characteristics of Migrants


Who?

Where/distance?

Why?

G E N D E R


In the past…

Present trends…










F A M I LY S T A T U S

In the past and still today…

Recent changes…











CASE STUDY: MIGRATION FROM MEXICO TO THE US
10. Answer the following questions regarding migrants from Mexico who move to the United States.
(a) In what ways does migration from Mexico to the US

support each of the following geographic models?
i. Migration Transition Model (as adapted from

the Demographic Transition Model):


ii. Distance-decay function:

(b) How does seasonality make this phenomenon as much a concept of human mobility, rather than permanent migration?

Migration: Key Issue 2

Where Are Migrants Distributed?

Rubenstein, p. 85-92

GLOBAL MIGRATION PATTERNS

1. Read the section and then make 5 summary statements regarding global migration patterns.


(a)

(b)


(c)

(d)


(e)

U.S. IMMIGRATION PATTERNS

2. Finish this statement: The world’s third most populous country (the US) is inhabited overwhelmingly by…

3. Annotate the graph below from your reading of pages 86 to 88. Be sure to label all “peaks” with the national origins of immigrants during different periods and “valleys” with the causes (as indicated by the arrows).



4. How did the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act attempt to change the status of some illegal immigrants?

IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION ON THE UNITED STATES

5. Complete the table regarding below.




E U R O P E A N I M M I G R A T I O N

What were some of the causes of European immigration to the United States?

What were some of the important effects of European immigration to the US and other world regions?





6a. What are undocumented (unauthorized) immigrants?

6b. Where do most undocumented immigrants to the US come from?

7. Read Destination of Immigrants Within the United States (p. 90 & 92) and annotate the map below. Write any important facts/notes around the map. Be sure to indicate: What states are the destination of most immigrants to the US? Where are immigrants coming from? Which states are the destinations of which groups of immigrants?


8. Define chain migration:

Migration: Key Issue 3

Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?

Rubenstein, p. 92-95

IMMIGRATION POLICIES OF HOST COUNTRIES


US Quota Laws

1a. What did the Quota Act (1921) and the National Origins Act (1924) do?


1b. How did they favor immigration from certain regions?

2. How did the Immigration Act of 1965 change the existing quotas laws?

3. How was immigration law further changed in 1978?


4. US immigration law gives preferences to three groups. Identify them.

(a)
(b)


(c)

5. Define brain drain:




Temporary Migration for Work

6. Define guest worker:


7. Annotate this map with information from the book on pages 92-93, “Temporary Migration for Work.”



IMMIGRATION TO THE US: THREE CASE STUDIES

Cuba

Haiti

Vietnam
















8. Prepare notes on three case studies of immigration in the table below.
CULTURAL CHALLENGES FACED WHILE LIVING IN OTHER COUNTRIES
9. Carefully read this section and afterward, complete the Venn diagram below to compare and contrast attitudes in the US and Europe toward immigrants.

Migration: Key Issue 4



Why Do People Migrate Within a Country?

Rubenstein, p. 95 - 100

MIGRATION BETWEEN REGIONS OF A COUNTRY
1. What is the most famous example of large-scale internal migration in the US?

2. What was the first “intervening obstacle” which hindered American settlement of the interior of the continent?

3. What is the “population center” according to figure 3-16?

4. What developments in transportation eventually encouraged settlement to the Mississippi?

5. Why was settlement of the Great Plains slow to come, with settlers passing it by for California and the west coast?

6. How did the railroads encourage settlement of the American interior?



7. For what two reasons have people been migrating to the South in recent years?

8. Use the charts on page 97 to calculate the net growth (or loss) of US regions and place the appropriate number in each region on the map.


9. Make appropriate notes in the tables below on five specific examples/case studies of interregional immigration.




RUSSIA

Where?


Why?

How?






BRAZIL

Where?


Why?

How?





Indonesia

Where?


Why?

How?








Where?


Why?

How?






EUROPE

INDIA

Where/why?


Where/why?

MIGRATION WITHIN ONE REGION


10. Define/describe each of the following terms and summarize a single, important fact about its occurrence in the US.





Urbanization

Suburbanization

Counterurbanization

Definition










Significant fact in US









Migration: Free Response Questions (FRQs)



Population & Migration

1. Regional migration patterns within the contiguous United States are the result of several factors. The map above shows net migration at the county level, but these data support generalizations about migration patterns at the regional scale.



  1. Identify two specific regions that have experienced net in-migration.

  2. Identify two specific regions that have experienced net out-migration.

Annotate the question and then create your brainstorm in the space below for question #1.



1. International migration in the late twentieth century illustrates many important geographic principles.



  1. Define each of the following principles.

  1. Distance decay

  2. Chain migration

  1. For each principle in part A, select a migration stream identified by letter on the map above, and discuss how the stream you choose illustrates the principle. Note: Each lettered migration may be used only once.

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3. Over the last 150 years, Europe has changed from a source to a destination region for international migration.
A. Use the demographic transition model to explain briefly Europe’s development as a source of international migrants between 1800 and 1920.
B. Briefly explain how THREE aspects of the demographic transition model account for Europe’s transformation into a destination region for migrants from North Africa between 1960 and 2000.
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