Drawing upon recent literature reviews and peer reviewed publications on FGM/C (Berg & Dension, 2013; Brady & Files, 2007; Gele et al. 2013; Imoh, 2013; Reig Alcaraz et al. 2014; Vloeberghs et al. 2012) I have listed below the disparate and prevailing beliefs that may account for why FGM/C continues to be practised, as well as reasons why individuals and communities may support the discontinuation of FGM/C.
Factors favoring the continuation of FGM/C Social pressure (see social norms approach)
Preservation of women’s virginity
Male preference and increased sexual pleasure for men
*Where FGM/C is punishable by law, new attitudes towards the eradication of FGM/C are adopted in the women’s place of residence. Dustin (2004) argues that in the UK efforts to reduce FGM/C have focused on punitive legislation without sufficiently empowering women in the communities concerned to engage in debate to change attitudes and create alternative ways of affirming their cultural identity.