1 Note all these forms of FGM/C are for non-medical reasons.
2 The practice may differ slightly in different countries.
3 There are similarities between the practice of FGM/C and that of foot binding in ancient China. Despite the fact that the practice of foot binding lasted for more than 1,000 years, it abruptly ended in a single generation due to the pivotal innovation of pledging (Mackie, 1996 ). This was when a number of families agreed and pledged to not bind their daughters’ feet and also that their sons would only agree to marry women with unbound feet (Goldstein, 2014).
4 Begun in 1991, Tostan, which literally means “break- through”
5 Community Management Committees (CMCs) are made up of 17 democratically elected members and at least nine of the 17 members must be women. Participation in the CMC helps women improve their confidence, leadership, and social standing by assuming prominent roles in their community. The CMCs take forward the community’s vision for sustainable development and as community-based organisations, work with partners and others to meet community needs.