§ 1301. Definitions: For purposes of this subchapter, the term



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Indian Civil Rights Act, Part 1
Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, Sections 1901-1915

Indian Civil Rights Act
The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (ICRA) (see Federal Laws), 25 U.S.C.§§ 1301-1304 (ICRA), provides as follows:
§ 1301. Definitions: For purposes of this subchapter, the term

  1. "Indian tribe" means any tribe, band, or other group of Indians subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and recognized as possessing powers of self-government.

  2. "powers of self-government" means and includes all governmental powers possessed by an Indian tribe, executive, legislative, and judicial, and all offices, bodies, and tribunals by and through which they are executed, including courts of Indian offenses; and means the inherent power of Indian tribes, hereby recognized and affirmed, to exercise criminal jurisdiction over all Indians;

  3. "Indian court" means any Indian tribal court or court of Indian offense, and.

  4. "Indian" means any person who would be subject to the jurisdiction of the United States as an Indian under section 1153, title 19, United States Code, if that person were to commit an offense listed in that section in Indian country to which that section applies.

§ 1302. Constitutional Rights: No Indian tribe in exercising powers of self-government shall:
(a) In general
No Indian tribe in exercising powers of self-government shall—

  1. make or enforce any law prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition for a redress of grievances;

  2. violate the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable search and seizures, nor issue warrants, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or thing to be seized;

  3. subject any person for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy;

  4. compel any person in any criminal case to be a witness against himself;

  5. take any property for a public use without just compensation;

  6. deny to any person in a criminal proceeding the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and at his own expense to have the assistance of counsel for his defense;


(A) require excessive bail, impose excessive fines, or inflict cruel and unusual punishments;
(B) except as provided in subparagraph (C), impose for conviction of any 1 offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 1 year or a fine of $5,000, or both;
(C) subject to subsection (b), impose for conviction of any 1 offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 3 years or a fine of $15,000, or both; or
(D) impose on a person in a criminal proceeding a total penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of 9 years;

  1. deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws or deprive any person of liberty or property without due process of law;

  2. pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law; or

  3. deny to any person accused of an offense punishable by imprisonment the right, upon request, to a trial by jury of not less than six persons.

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