|Lands of Red and Gold: Glossary
Abunjay: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live between the Murray River and Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. For the last few centuries (up until 1618), variously ruled by the Yadji Empire, Tjibarr kingdom, or independent, depending on the vicissitudes of war.
Anaiwal: Armidale, New South Wales. A town in the middle of a highland region well-suited to growing some of the higher-rainfall spices such as mountain peppers. Historically it was one of many city-states in this region, but in 1592 it was conquered by the Daluming kingdom.
Anedeli: Native name for the River Darling.
Anerina: Native name for the River Loddon, Victoria. The city of Tjibarr is built at the junction of the Anerina with the Nyalananga.
Aotearoa: New Zealand.
Archers Nest: Redcliffe, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia. A garrison-city in the Atjuntja Empire.
Atjuntja: (1) An iron-using, gold-rich empire which occupies the fertile regions of south-western Western Australia. Established during the fourteenth century AD, and still prospering in 1618.
(2) The dominant ethnic group of the eponymous Empire, noted for their love of gold, gardens, water, and for a religion most remembered for its use of bloodletting and ritual torture.
Aururia: "Land of Gold." One of the English names for the Australian continent.
Baiyurama: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Binyin: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Biral: "The chosen people." Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live along much of the Murrumbidgee River. Dominant culture of the former Watjubaga Empire.
Bountiful: Scottsdale, Tasmania. Founded by the Kurnawal in the ninth century AD. Conquered by the Tjunini during the War of the Princess.
Bunara: Goolwa, South Australia. Inland port near the non-navigable Murray Mouth, and linked by road to the ocean port of Jugara. Forms part of the major trade link between the riverborne trade networks of the Murray-Darling basin and the oceanic trade networks of the Nangu. Frequently contested between the Tjibarr kingdom and the Yadji Empire. Most recently conquered by Tjibarr in 1616.
Bungudjimay: Non-Gunnagalic culture around Coffs Harbour, New South Wales. The dominant ethnicity in the Daluming kingdom. Most noted for their preference for raiding and use of detached heads for religious purposes.
Butjupa: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live along the upper Darling River. From the fifteenth century AD onward, they have gradually adopted the Tjarrling faith (an offshoot of orthodox Plirism).
Cider Isle: Tasmania.
Coral Coast: Local name for the historical regions of Sunshine Coast, Moreton Bay and Gold Coast, Queensland. Inhabited by the Kiyungu.
Corram Yibbal: Bunbury, Western Australia. A garrison-city in the Atjuntja Empire.
Crescent Bay: Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, Tasmania. Port and largest city of the Nangu.
Dabuni: Hobart, Tasmania. Kurnawal-ruled city.
Daluming, Kingdom of: Kingdom in coastal north-eastern New South Wales, centred around Coffs Harbour. Created by the unification of the Bungudjimay states in 1245 AD, and has gradually expanded its control since that time.
Daluming, River: Macleay River, New South Wales. A river draining the New England tablelands, which leads to frequent flooding and deposits of silt along its lower banks, and thus very fertile soils. The lower parts of the river became the heartland of an eponymous kingdom from 1020-1245 AD, dominated by the Bungudjimay people. After 1245, the kingdom merged with Yuragir.
Dawn Dunes: Bridport, Tasmania. First city founded by the Kurnawal in Tasmania in the ninth century AD. Now occupied by the Tjunini.
Deadwatch: Penneshaw, Kangaroo Island, Tasmania. Nangu port city.
Djarwari: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Djawrit: Bendigo, Victoria. City in the centre of a gold-producing region. Usually ruled by the Yadji, but sometimes captured by the kingdoms of Tjibarr or Gutjanal.
Dogport: Port Augusta, South Australia. Nangu colony and trading post.
Duniradj: Melbourne, Victoria. City in the Yadji Empire, inhabited mostly by Giratji speakers.
Durigal: The Land of the Five Directions. See also Yadji.
Elligal: Orbost, Victoria. Easternmost city of the Yadji Empire.
Gamoma: Orford, Tasmania. Kurnawal-ruled city.
Garrkimang: Narrandera, New South Wales. Founded as a city-state during the Interregnum (approximately 840 BC), it expanded its rule as a kingdom during the Classical period of the Murray-Darling basin, and eventually became the heart of the Watjubaga Empire. Lost its political importance after the fall of that empire in 1124, and remains an architecturally impressive but otherwise minor city in the Yigutji kingdom.
Giratji: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live in south-central Victoria. Now subjects of the Yadji Empire.
Goolrin: Murray Bridge, South Australia. Once a major city during the Formative Era (2000-1000 BC), looted and abandoned at the start of the Interregnum (900 BC), and rebuilt under Tjibarr rule (c. 1100 AD). Now a minor city at the heart of some copper mining country, and contested between the Yadji Empire and the Tjibarr kingdom.
Gulibaga: (1) "The Three Rivers." These were the Murrumbidgee, Lachlan, and Macquarie Rivers, all in New South Wales.
(2) A historical name for the predecessor state to the Watjubaga Empire, applied during the period 256-556 AD.
Gundabingee: City a little east of Corowa, New South Wales. Capital of a major kingdom during the Classical Era (600 BC – 500 AD), but declined during the Imperial Era. Now a subject city of Gutjanal.
Gunnagal: (1) The dominant ethnicity of the Kingdom of Tjibarr. Renowned for being argumentative, hot-headed, and faction-ridden.
(2) A name applied retrospectively by modern archaeologists and linguists to the founding agriculturalists along the Murray River, or to all of the languages descended from that founding culture (ie the Gunnagalic languages).
Gurndjit: Portland, Victoria. Important Yadji port.
Gurrnyal: Native name for the Lachlan River.
Gutjanal: Albury, New South Wales. The largest city in the eponymous Gutjanal kingdom, which rules the upper River Murray.
Hope Hill: Stanley, Tasmania. First Tjunini settlement in Tasmania, although only a minor city in later times.
Inayaki: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Islanders: The most common external name for the Nangu mercantile culture.
Isolation: Eucla, Western Australia. Nangu colony and way-station on the sea routes to Western Australia.
Jangani: Cockle Creek, Tasmania. Kurnawal-ruled city which retains its independence from the main Kurnawal monarchy.
Jerang: Lorne, Victoria. Minor Yadji port.
Jugara: Victor Harbor, South Australia. Nangu-ruled trading port and key link to the inland trade networks of the Murray-Darling basin.
Jurundit: Koroit, Victoria. Significant Yadji city.
Junditmara: Non-Gunnagalic people in south-western Victoria. The oldest sedentary society in the continent (since c. 8000 BC), and inventors of the aquaculture system. In modern times, the largest, and dominant, ethnicity in the Yadji Empire.
Kakararra: Koo Wee Rup, Victoria. Yadji-ruled city.
Kaoma: Non-Gunnagalic culture in the Monaro plateau, New South Wales.
Kirunmara: Terang, Victoria. Capital of the Yadji Empire.
kitjigal: A form of social division in Proto-Gunnagalic culture (2000 – 1000 BC), whereby every person was divided into one of eight kitjigal in a pattern which changed over the generations. A person’s kitjigal dominated their social interactions, laying out customs of contact and rivalry. While the original kitjigal system has long been lost, descendants of the institution have evolved into many forms in descendant Gunnagalic cultures, such as the factions in the Tjibarr kingdom, bloodlines among the Nangu, or castes among the Patjimunra.
Kiyungu: Gunnagalic-speaking coastal culture whose homeland is the Gold Coast, Moreton Bay and Sunshine Coast regions of Queensland, and who in the modern era are slowly expanding northward.
Kurnawal: Gunnagalic-speaking people, divided into a mainland branch in Gippsland, and an island branch in eastern Tasmania. The mainland branch are subjects of the Yadji; the island branch are an independent nation. The mainland and island dialects of their language are no longer mutually intelligible.
Kwamania: Smithton, Tasmania. Tjunini-held city.
Lobster Waters: Jurien Bay, Western Australia. A garrison-city in the Atjuntja Empire.
Lopitja: Wilcannia, New South Wales. A city founded in 912 AD, during a period of aberrant wet climate along the River Darling. Grew into a major trading city as the Watjubaga Empire collapsed, then declared its independence in 1080, then grew into a kingdom in the early Post-Imperial period. First Aururian nation to convert to Plirism which became the state religion in 1214. Lopitja collapsed as a kingdom when the climate reverted to its long-term norm of low rainfall, with the capital being sacked in 1284 and largely abandoned thereafter.
Madujal: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Marnitja: "The Waiting Death." Native Australia epidemic virus, related to real-world Hendra and Nipah viruses, and more distantly to measles and mumps. Characterised by a first, haemorrhigic stage - the "pink cough." Some survivors of the first stage later develop encephalitis, which if people progress to the point of showing symptoms (fever and delirium) is almost universally fatal. First recorded in 1206 AD in Garrkimang.
Matjidi: Native name for the Murrumbidgee River.
Middle Country: See Tiayal.
Mirajong: Bicheno, Tasmania. Kurnawal-held city.
Mukanuyina: Devonport, Tasmania. Tjunini-held city.
Mulaka Nayri: Wynyard, Tasmania. Tjunini-held city.
Mutjing: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live in the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Politically divided into city-states, they are under the economic hegemony of the Nangu, and have largely adopted Plirism.
Nangu: Also known as the Islanders. Gunnagalic-speaking mercantile culture whose homeland is the Island (Kangaroo Island). Best navigators and shipbuilders in Australia, and have been gradually expanding their trading empire since the late thirteenth century AD. Adherents of Plirism since their official conversion in 1240 AD, and have since brought that faith to significant parts of Australia.
Narnac: Woodbury, Tasmania. Kurnawal-ruled city.
Ngarjarli: Non-Gunnagalic hunter-gatherer and part-time opal mining culture around Coober Pedy, New South Wales.
Nguril: Non-Gunnagalic culture in the Monaro plateau, New South Wales.
Ngutti: Yamba, New South Wales. Minor port city in the Daluming kingdom.
Nguwurru: Cobden, Victoria. A Yadji city.
Nurrot: Ballarat, Victoria. Significant Yadji city with a mixture of Junditmara and Giratji inhabitants. Centre of a gold-mining region.
Nyalananga: Literally, the “Water Mother”. The native name for the River Murray.
Nyumigal: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live around Nowra, New South Wales.
Nyunjari: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Orange Rock: St Helens, Tasmania. Northernmost Kurnawal-ruled city in Tasmania.
Palawa: Indigenous inhabitants of Tasmania. Driven from the northern and eastern parts of the island by Gunnagalic colonisers, the Tjunini and Kurnawal, during the ninth and tenth centuries AD. Now live a hunter-gardener lifestyle in the central-western and southern highlands of Tasmania.
Panjimundra: Gunnagalic-speaking culture in central New South Wales.
Pankala: Port Lincoln, South Australia. A Mutjing city-state and key port in trade with the Nangu.
Patjimunra: Gunnagalic-speaking people who live in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Most of them united into one kingdom during the 10th to 12th centuries AD, but a couple of outlying areas remain as independent city-states. Patjimunra lands are one of the major sources of spices which are exported over the mountains to the Murray kingdoms further west.
Pitelming: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Plirism: Evangelical native Australian religion. Founded by a person known to history only as the Good Man (1080-1151 AD), who described the Seven-fold Path which its adherents must follow to bring harmony and stability to the world. The faith was consolidated during the decades after his death, and has gradually spread across much of the continent since that time.
Pulanatji: Native name for the River Macquarie.
Putanjura: Gunnagalic-speaking culture in the Sydney basin, New South Wales.
Raduru: Gunnagalic-speaking culture in the Illawarra, New South Wales.
Red Eye: Ravensthorpe, Western Australia. A garrison-city in the Atjuntja Empire.
Redpa Takara: Westbury, Tasmania. Tjunini held-city.
Silver Hill: Broken Hill, New South Wales. Mining colony during the Watjubaga Empire and now intermittently controlled by the Tjibarr kingdom.
Spear Mountain: Merredin, Western Australia. A garrison-city in the Atjuntja Empire.
Star Hill: Boorabin, Western Australia. Site of a major temple dedicated to observing the heavens, and which preserves detailed astronomical records. Originally founded by the Yuduwungu culture, and has been more or less continually occupied since 1076 AD, but has since been incorporated into the Atjuntja religion.
Sunset Point: Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia; the south-westernmost point on the Australian mainland.
Tae Rak: Lake Condah, Victoria. Ancestral lake where the first Junditmara lived.
Tangata: A Maori word meaning “people”. Sometimes applied to individual Maori groups and occasionally to the Maori as a whole.
Tapiwal: Robinvale, Victoria. A major city of the Kingdom of Tjibarr. In its population and economic activity (especially metallurgy and jewellery) it is almost the equal of the main city of Tjibarr, but it has much more limited political or religious influence.
Tarpai: Port Macquarie, New South Wales. Southernmost major city of the Daluming kingdom. Its fertile soils support a large population, but despite the name of its contemporary Australian equivalent, it is not a port; a large bar along the mouth of its river prevents navigation for all but the smallest of vessels.
Te Ika a Maui: North Island, New Zealand.
Thijszenia: Modern Dutch name for Tasmania.
Three Waters: Launceston, Tasmania. Major Tjunini-ruled city.
Tiayal: Atjuntja word meaning “the Middle Country”. Used to describe the fertile areas of south-western Australia, and derived from the fact that these areas are surrounded by hostile desert to the north and east and oceans to the south and west.
Tiwarang: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live in inland western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia. Now subjects of the Yadji Empire.
Tjibarr: Swan Hill, Victoria. Oldest continuously-populated city in Australia (since 2500 BC), and capital of the Kingdom of Tjibarr.
Tjibarr, Kingdom of: A kingdom which rules the middle and lower Murray River and sometimes extends its controls along parts of coastal South Australia. Founded in its modern form in 1057 AD. Dominated by the Gunnagal ethnicity.
Tjul Najima: A Nangu name meaning “Place of Bronze”. Former name for Tasmania; now usually called the Cider Isle.
Tjunarr: Port Albert, Victoria. Port city in the eastern regions of the Yadji Empire.
Tjunini: Gunnagalic-speaking bardic culture in northern Tasmania.
Tuhonong: Hamilton, Victoria. Significant Yadji city. Historically the capital of the previous Empire of the Lake (909-1289 AD) and spiritual centre of the Junditmara, although it has declined in prominence under the Yadji.
Wadjureb: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Warneang: Denmark, Western Australia. Atjuntja port city.
War of the Princess: Legendary and possibly historical conflict between the Tjunini and Kurnawal in Tasmania, which happened (if it was real) around 1060-1080 AD. Now immortalised in an epic song.
Watjubaga: "The Five Rivers." The Murray, Murrumbidgee, Lachlan, Macquarie, and Darling Rivers.
Watjubaga, Empire of: A former empire which was the largest that ever existed in pre-Houtmanian Aururia, which at its height occupied most of the fertile regions in south-eastern Australia. It was ruled by the First Speakers, with its capital at Garrkimang. It was founded in 556 AD, reached its peak around 850 AD, then gradually declined until its eventual overthrow in 1124
Weenaratta: Historical city approximately halfway between Echuca, Victoria and Tocumwal, New South Wales. Capital of a major kingdom during the Classical Era (600 BC – 500 AD). Razed by Watjubagan armies in 1043 and largely abandoned thereafter.
White City: Albany, Western Australia. Capital and largest city of the Atjuntja Empire.
Wonemirr: George Town, Tasmania. Tjunini-held city.
Wurama: One of the eleven related linguistic groups who make up the Yaora cultures of south-western Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Yadilli: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live in coastal western Victoria and south-eastern South Australia. Now subjects of the Yadji Empire.
Yadji: (1) The usual external name for the most populous native Australian empire, founded in 1255 AD, and in the modern era ruling much of Victoria south of the Great Dividing Ranges, and parts of south-eastern South Australia.
(2) The ruling family of the Land of the Five Directions (Durigal), and to foreign ears, whose name is usually synonymous with their empire.
Yalatji: Gunnagalic-speaking culture who live in the southern Darling Downs region, Queensland. They have adopted the Tjarrling faith (an offshoot of orthodox Plirism).
Yaora: (1) The older name for all of the farming peoples who live in south-western Western Australia, and who speak related languages. The Yaora peoples include: Yuduwungu, Wadjureb, Pitelming, Atjuntja, Madujal, Djarwari, Inayaki, Binyin, Nyunjari, Wurama and Baiyurama.
(2) A collective name used by the ethnic Atjuntja to refer to all of the subject peoples in their Empire, excluding themselves.
Yellow Pine: Strahan, Tasmania. Nangu colony, trading post, timber camp, and shipbuilding site.
Yigutji: Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. The largest city of the eponymous kingdom which in the modern era rules most of the River Murrumbidgee.
Yotjuwal: Gunnagalic-speaking culture in west-central Victoria. Now ruled by the Yadji Empire.
Yuduwungu: Earliest farming culture in south-western Western Australia (from around 550 BC), who live around modern Esperance, Western Australia. See also Yaora.
Yuragir: Coffs Harbour, New South Wales. A natural port and ancient homeland of the Bungudjimay people. For 1020 it was the capital of an eponymous kingdom, and from 1245 it became the capital of the united Daluming kingdom.