|WWI PPT Notes
Who Won the War?
The Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, the US, Italy and their allies won the war.
The armistice (formal agreement between enemies to stop fighting a war) was signed at 5 a.m. on the morning of 11 November 1918, and came into effect six hours later at 11 a.m.
11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month. 1918
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919 and consisted of 440 Articles setting out the terms for Germany's punishment.
The treaty was greeted with shock and disbelief in Germany.
The terms of the treaty can be classified into three groups:
territorial - provisions that took land away from Germany
military - provisions that limited Germany's armed forces
financial and economic- Germany’s reparations to the victors (primarily France and Great Britain)
The Main Terms of the Treaty of Versailles were:
War Guilt Clause - Germany must accept the blame for starting World War One
Reparations - Germany had to pay millions for the damage caused by the war – mainly to France and Great Britain.
Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland was to be de-militarized (area between France and Germany).
Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries-ALL colonies were lost. Alsace-Lorraine given back to France. Anschluss (union with Austria) was forbidden.
Who Negotiated the Treaty?
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
US President Wilson Led the Way with His Fourteen Points
Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation and seen as a hero at the conference in Versailles
League of Nations- One of his Fourteen Points
Wilson argued at the Paris Peace conference most strongly for a League of Nations to prevent future wars.
The U.S. never joined the League in favor of remaining isolationist.
Germany was not allowed to join the League.
Russia, with its new communist government was also not permitted to join.
The League of Nations eventually fails, but is considered the forerunner to the United Nations.
Results of WWI in Germany
The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh.
Germany could not afford to pay reparations
During the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor.
There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high.
People were dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles.
His name was Adolf Hitler
Lawrence of Arabia
T.E Lawrence was a British officer who urged princes in the Middle East to revolt against their Ottoman overlords
Britain had promised the local Arabs, through Lawrence, independence in exchange for their supporting the British in WWI.
Mandates in the Middle East
The European powers broke promises of Arab independence and self-determination by creating mandates in territory previous controlled by the Ottoman Empire
A mandate is a region ruled by an outside power
After WWI much of the oil rich Middle East was placed under the administration of one of its European member states by the League of Nations
Who Got What?
Under the mandate system, Syria and Lebanon went to the French.
The British took over Palestine and three Ottoman provinces of Mesopotamia and created modern-day Iraq.
Almost immediately after the war, Arab resistance movements emerged to challenge European dominance
Distrust of the West continues because of broken promises and foreign domination