Writing and Language Test



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Answers and Explanations for Questions 23 through 33

Explanation for question 23.

Choice A is the best answer because it correctly completes the noun phrase that begins with “sea otters,” and directly follows the noun phrase with the verb “help.”
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each separates the noun “otters” from the verb “help” in a way that results in a grammatically incomplete sentence.
Explanation for question 24.

Choice B is the best answer because the data in the chart show lower sea urchin density in areas where sea otters have lived for two years or less than in areas where no otters are present.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because none accurately describes the data in the chart.
Explanation for question 25.

Choice B is the correct answer because the conjunctive adverb “however” accurately communicates the contrast between an environment shaped by the presence of sea otters, described in the preceding sentence, and an environment shaped by the absence of sea otters, described in this sentence.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each presents a conjunctive adverb that does not accurately depict the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence with the underlined word.
Explanation for question 26.

Choice A is the best answer because the additional information usefully connects the carbon dioxide levels mentioned in this sentence with the global warming mentioned in the previous sentence.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each misinterprets the relationship between the proposed information and the main points of the paragraph and passage.
Explanation for question 27.

Choice D is the best answer because it offers the verb “suggests” followed directly by its object, a thatclause, without interruption.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains punctuation that unnecessarily separates the study from its findings—that is, separates the verb from its object.

Explanation for question 28.

Choice A is the best answer because it accurately reflects the fact that sea urchins “graze voraciously on kelp,” as stated in the first paragraph, and also maintains the tone of the passage.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each offers a term that does not accurately describe the behavior of sea otters.
Explanation for question 29.

Choice C is the best answer because the possessive singular pronoun “its” corresponds with the referent “kelp,” which appears later in the sentence, and with the possessive relationship between the pronoun and the “terrestrial plant cousins.”
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because none provides a pronoun that is both singular and possessive.
Explanation for question 30.

Choice C is the best answer because it provides the noun “sea otters” to identify who or what “played a role.”
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each provides a pronoun that makes no sense in the context of the paragraph and the passage, which is about the role sea otters play—not the role scientists play or the role kelp plays.
Explanation for question 31.

Choice D is the best answer because sentence 5 indicates that sea otters’ importance in decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide was not known, and the sentence to be added indicates that a surprise will follow. Sentence 6 provides that surprise: sea otters have a large impact on the amount of carbon dioxide kelp can remove from the atmosphere.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each interrupts the logical flow of ideas in the paragraph.
Explanation for question 32.

Choice B is the best answer because its clear wording and formal tone correspond with the passage’s established style.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each contains vague language that is inconsistent with the passage’s clear wording and formal tone.
Explanation for question 33.

Choice D is the best answer because it provides punctuation that appropriately identifies “removed” as the definition of “sequestered.”
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains punctuation that obscures the relationship between “sequestered,” “removed,” and the text that follows.
This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 23 through 33. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.


Questions 34 through 44 are based on the following passage.



A Quick Fix in a Throwaway Culture
Planned obsolescence, a practice [Q34] at which products are designed to have a limited period of [Q35] usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in [Q36] austere contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable. Planned obsolescence wastes materials as well as energy in making and shipping new products. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and [Q37] repair methods are often specialized. In 2009, an enterprising movement, the Repair Café, challenged this widely accepted belief.
[Sentence 1] More like a [Q38] fair then an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. [Sentence 2] It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, [Q39] wanting to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture. [Sentence 3] Her goals were [Q40] straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community. [Sentence 4] Participants bring all manner of damaged articles—clothing, appliances, furniture, and more—to be repaired by a staff of volunteer specialists including tailors, electricians, and carpenters. [Sentence 5] Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. [Sentence 6] While [Q41] they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need. [Q42]
Though only about 3 percent of the Netherlands’ municipal waste ends up in landfills, Repair Cafés still raise awareness about what may otherwise be mindless acts of waste by providing a venue for people to share and learn valuable skills that are in danger of being lost. [Q43] It is easy to classify old but fixable items as “junk” in an era that places great emphasis on the next big thing. In helping people consider how the goods they use on a daily basis work and are made, Repair Cafés restore a sense of relationship between human beings and material goods.
Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries [Q44] on top of that. The original provides a central source for startup tips and tools, as well as marketing advice to new Repair Cafés. As a result, the Repair Café has become a global network united by common ideals. Ironically, innovators are now looking back to old ways of doing things and applying them in today’s cities in an effort to transform the way people relate to and think about the goods they consume.


Question 34.

A. NO CHANGE (at which)

B. from which

C. so that

D. whereby


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Planned obsolescence, a practice at which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

B. Planned obsolescence, a practice from which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

C. Planned obsolescence, a practice so that products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

D. Planned obsolescence, a practice whereby products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 34.


Question 35.

A. NO CHANGE (usefulness,)

B. usefulness—

C. usefulness;

D. usefulness


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Planned obsolescence, a practice at which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

B. Planned obsolescence, a practice at which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness— has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

C. Planned obsolescence, a practice at which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness; has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.

D. Planned obsolescence, a practice at which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 35.


Question 36.

A. NO CHANGE (austere)

B. egregious

C. unmitigated

D. stark
Answer choices in context.


Begin skippable content.

A. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in austere contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable.

B. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in egregious contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable.

C. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in unmitigated contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable.

D. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in stark contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 36.


Question 37.

Which choice provides information that best supports the claim made by this sentence?

A. NO CHANGE (repair methods are often specialized.)

B. obsolete goods can become collectible items.

C. no one knows whether something will fall into disrepair again.

D. new designs often have “bugs” that must be worked out.
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and repair methods are often specialized.

B. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and obsolete goods can become collectible items.

C. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and no one knows whether something will fall into disrepair again.

D. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and new designs often have “bugs” that must be worked out.



End skippable content.
Explanation for question 37.


Question 38.

A. NO CHANGE (fair then)

B. fair than

C. fare than

D. fair, then


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. More like a fair then an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

B. More like a fair than an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

C. More like a fare than an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

D. More like a fair, then an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 38.


Question 39.

A. NO CHANGE (wanting)

B. whom wants

C. who wanted

D. she wanted


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, wanting to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture.

B. It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, whom wants to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture.

C. It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, who wanted to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture.

D. It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, she wanted to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 39.


Question 40.

A. NO CHANGE (straightforward, however:)

B. straightforward, therefore:

C. straightforward, nonetheless:

D. straightforward:


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Her goals were straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community.

B. Her goals were straightforward, therefore: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community.

C. Her goals were straightforward, nonetheless: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community.

D. Her goals were straightforward: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 40.


Question 41.

A. NO CHANGE (they await)

B. awaiting

C. they waited

D. waiting


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. While they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need.

B. While awaiting for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need.

C. While they waited for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need.

D. While waiting for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 41.


Question 42.

To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 5 should be placed

A. where it is now.

B. before sentence 1.

C. after sentence 3.

D. after sentence 6.
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. Participants bring all manner of damaged articles—clothing, appliances, furniture, and more—to be repaired by a staff of volunteer specialists including tailors, electricians, and carpenters. Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. While they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need.

B. Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. More like a fair then an actual café, the first Repair Café took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

C. Her goals were straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community. Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. Participants bring all manner of damaged articles—clothing, appliances, furniture, and more—to be repaired by a staff of volunteer specialists including tailors, electricians, and carpenters.

D. While they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need. Since the inaugural Repair Café, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 42.



Question 43.

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence.

As the number of corporate and servicebased jobs has increased, the need for people who work with their hands has diminished.

Should the writer make this addition here?

A. Yes, because it provides an example of specific repair skills being lost.

B. Yes, because it elaborates on the statistic about the Netherlands’ municipal waste.

C. No, because it blurs the paragraph’s focus by introducing a topic that is not further explained.

D. No, because it contradicts the claims made in the rest of the paragraph.

Explanation for question 43.


Question 44.

A. NO CHANGE (on top of that.)

B. in addition.

C. likewise.

D. DELETE the underlined portion, and end the sentence with a period.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries on top of that.

B. Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries in addition.

C. Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries likewise.

D. Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafés, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Café via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 44.


Stop.

If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section.
Answers and explanations for questions 34 through 44 are provided in the next section of this document.


Answers and Explanations for Questions 34 through 44

Explanation for question 34.

Choice D is the best answer because it provides a conjunction that correctly identifies the relationship between “a practice” and the actions involved in the practice.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains a conjunction that miscommunicates the relationship between the text that precedes and follows the underlined portion.
Explanation for question 35.

Choice A is the best answer because it provides a comma to close the appositive clause “a practice whereby products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness,” which also begins with a comma.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each provides closing punctuation inconsistent with the punctuation at the beginning of the clause.
Explanation for question 36.

Choice D is the best answer because it provides an adjective that accurately describes the clear “contrast” between products “designed to have a limited period of usefulness” and those “produced to be durable.”
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because none provides an adjective that appropriately modifies “contrast” in the context of the paragraph.

Explanation for question 37.

Choice A is the best answer because by mentioning the “specialized” methods used in repair shops, it suggests that repairing goods is seen as a specialty rather than as a common activity. This connects logically with the “rare” repair shops introduced just before the underlined portion.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because none provides information that supports the claim made in the sentence.
Explanation for question 38.

Choice B is the best answer because it provides the correct spelling of the noun “fair,” meaning exhibition, and uses the correct word “than” to create the comparison between a “fair” and a “café.”
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each contains a misspelling of either “fair” or “than.”
Explanation for question 39.

Choice C is the best answer because it offers a relative pronoun that properly links the noun “Martine Postma” with the appropriate verb “wanted.”
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because none contains a pronoun that is appropriate for the referent and placement of the clause.
Explanation for question 40.

Choice D is the best answer because it provides the most concise phrasing and links the sentence appropriately to the previous sentence.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each provides an unnecessary adverb that obscures the relationship between this sentence and the previous one.
Explanation for question 41.

Choice D is the best answer because the gerund “waiting” corresponds with the preposition “for” and the present tense used in the rest of the sentence.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains a verb form not used with the preposition “for.”
Explanation for question 42.

Choice C is the best answer because it appropriately places sentence 5 as the transition between the description of the first Repair Café and Martine Postma’s philosophy, marked by verbs in the simple past tense, and the description of what occurs at all Repair Cafés, marked by verbs in the simple present tense.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each creates a paragraph with an inappropriate shift in verb tense and, therefore, an illogical sequence of information.
Explanation for question 43.

Choice C is the best answer because it accurately states that the issue of “corporate and servicebased jobs” is not particularly relevant at this point in the paragraph. The focus here is on repairing objects in a “throwaway culture,” not jobs.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each misinterprets the relationship between the proposed text and the information in the paragraph.
Explanation for question 44.

Choice D is the best answer because the phrase “and other countries” communicates the fact that there are additional items not being named that could be added to the list; no other wording is required to clarify that point.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each presents a word or phrase that results in a redundancy with “and other countries.”


This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 34 through 44.

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