Writing and Language Test



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Answers and Explanations for Questions 12 through 22

Explanation for question 12.

Choice B is the best answer because it clarifies that the sentence, which mentions a specific largescale painting at the Art Institute of Chicago, is an example supporting the preceding claim about largescale paintings.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because they propose transitional words or phrases that do not accurately represent the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence containing the underlined portion.
Explanation for question 13.

Choice D is the best answer because no punctuation is necessary in the underlined phrase.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each separates parts of the noun phrase “painter Georges Seurat’s 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” from one another with one or more unnecessary commas.
Explanation for question 14.

Choice C is the best answer because it provides the appropriate possessive form, “its,” and a colon to introduce the identifying phrase that follows.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because none contains both the appropriate possessive form of “it” and punctuation that creates a grammatically standard sentence.
Explanation for question 15.

Choice C is the best answer because an analysis of the consequences of King Louis X V’s reign is irrelevant to the paragraph.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each represents a misinterpretation of the relationship between the proposed sentence to be added and the main point of the paragraph.
Explanation for question 16.

Choice C is the best answer because it provides a coordinating conjunction, “and,” to connect the two verb phrases “are characterized” and “are covered.”
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each lacks the conjunction needed to connect the two verb phrases “are characterized” and “are covered.”
Explanation for question 17.

Choice B is the best answer because it offers an example of an additional household item, a “tea cup,” with a specific measurement that is onetwelfth of its actual size.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because, compared to the example preceding the underlined portion, each is vague and fails to offer a specific measurement of an additional household item.
Explanation for question 18.

Choice B is the best answer because it provides correct punctuation and the coordinating conjunction “but,” which acknowledges the possible contrast between being “sparsely furnished” and displaying “just as true” period details.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each communicates an illogical relationship between the phrases that precede and follow the underlined portion.
Explanation for question 19.

Choice A is the best answer because it provides a clause that is the most similar to the two preceding clauses, which both end with a reference to a specific wall.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each deviates from the stylistic pattern of the preceding two clauses.
Explanation for question 20.

Choice D is the best answer because the article “a” requires the singular noun “visitor,” and the simple present verb “remark” is the appropriate verb tense in this context.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each contains either a noun or verb that does not fit the context.
Explanation for question 21.

Choice D is the best answer because it identifies the drawers, rather than the visitor, as being “dotted with pinsized knobs.”
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because all three contain dangling modifiers that obscure the relationship between the visitor, the drawers, and the pinsized knobs.
Explanation for question 22.

Choice B is the best answer because paragraph 3 offers an overview of the exhibit and so serves to introduce the specific aspects of particular miniature rooms described in paragraphs 2 and 4.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each proposes a placement of paragraph 2 that prevents the passage from developing in a logical sequence.
This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 12 through 22. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.


Questions 23 through 33 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.



Environmentalist Otters
It has long been known that the sea otters [Q23] living along the West Coast of North America help keep kelp forests in their habitat healthy and vital. They do this by feeding on sea urchins and other herbivorous invertebrates that graze voraciously on kelp. With sea otters to keep the population of sea urchins in check, kelp forests can flourish. In fact, [Q24] two years or less of sea otters can completely eliminate sea urchins in a coastal area (see chart).

Adapted from David O. Duggins, “Kelp Beds and Sea Otters: An Experimental Approach.” Copyright 1980 by the Ecological Society of America.


Begin skippable figure description.

The figure presents a bar graph titled “Effects of Sea Otter Presence on Kelp and Sea Urchin Density in Coastal Areas.” There are three categories regarding the presence of sea otters: no otters present, otters present for 2 years or less, and otters present for 10 years or more. For each of the categories, there are two bars, side by side, with one on the left representing sea urchins, and the other on the right representing kelp. The vertical axis is labeled “Density, in number per square meter” and is labeled with the numbers, from bottom to top, 0 through 60, in increments of 10. There are horizontal grid lines at these numbers. According to the graph, the approximate numbers for the bars, from left to right, are:

For no otters present: sea urchins 6; kelp 4.

For otters present for 2 years or less: sea urchins 1; kelp 11.

For otters present for 10 years or more: sea urchins, 0; kelp 50.


End skippable figure description.

Without sea otters present, [Q25] nevertheless, kelp forests run the danger of becoming barren stretches of coastal wasteland known as urchin barrens.


[Sentence 1] What was less wellknown, until recently at least, was how this relationship among sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp forests might help fight global warming. [Sentence 2] The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased 40 percent [Q26]. [Sentence 3] A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, [Q27] suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to [Q28] devour the kelp. [Sentence 4] Like [Q29] their terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air. [Sentence 5] Scientists knew this but did not recognize [Q30] how large a role they played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. [Sentence 6] Far from making no difference to the ecosystem, the presence of otters was found to increase the carbon storage of kelp forests by 4.4 to 8.7 megatons annually, offsetting the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by three million to six million passenger cars each year. [Q31]
Wilmers and Estes caution, however, that [Q32] having more otters will not automatically solve the problem of higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air. But they suggest that the presence of otters provides a good model of how carbon can be sequestered, [Q33] or removed; from the atmosphere through the management of animal populations. If ecologists can better understand what kinds of impacts animals might have on the environment, Wilmers contends, “there might be opportunities for winwin conservation scenarios, whereby animal species are protected or enhanced, and carbon gets sequestered.”


Question 23.

A. NO CHANGE (living along the West Coast of North America help)

B. living along the West Coast of North America, they help

C. that live along the West Coast of North America and help to

D. that live along the West Coast of North America, where they help


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. It has long been known that the sea otters living along the West Coast of North America help keep kelp forests in their habitat healthy and vital.

B. It has long been known that the sea otters living along the West Coast of North America, they help keep kelp forests in their habitat healthy and vital.

C. It has long been known that the sea otters that live along the West Coast of North America and help to keep kelp forests in their habitat healthy and vital.

D. It has long been known that the sea otters that live along the West Coast of North America, where they help keep kelp forests in their habitat healthy and vital.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 23.


Question 24.

Which choice offers an accurate interpretation of the data in the chart?

A. NO CHANGE (two years or less of sea otters can completely eliminate sea urchins)

B. even two years or less of sea otter presence can reduce the sea urchin threat

C. kelp density increases proportionally as sea urchin density increases

D. even after sea otters were present for ten years or more, kelp density was still lower than sea urchin density
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. In fact, two years or less of sea otters can completely eliminate sea urchins in a coastal area (see chart).

B. In fact, even two years or less of sea otter presence can reduce the sea urchin threat in a coastal area (see chart).

C. In fact, kelp density increases proportionally as sea urchin density increases in a coastal area (see chart).

D. In fact, even after sea otters were present for ten years or more, kelp density was still lower than sea urchin density in a coastal area (see chart).


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 24.


Question 25.

A. NO CHANGE (nevertheless,)

B. however,

C. hence,

D. likewise,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Without sea otters present, nevertheless, kelp forests run the danger of becoming barren stretches of coastal wasteland known as urchin barrens.

B. Without sea otters present, however, kelp forests run the danger of becoming barren stretches of coastal wasteland known as urchin barrens.

C. Without sea otters present, hence, kelp forests run the danger of becoming barren stretches of coastal wasteland known as urchin barrens.

D. Without sea otters present, likewise, kelp forests run the danger of becoming barren stretches of coastal wasteland known as urchin barrens.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 25.


Question 26.

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following information.

since the start of the Industrial Revolution, resulting in a rise in global temperatures

Should the writer make this addition here?

A. Yes, because it establishes the relationship between the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global warming.

B. Yes, because it explains the key role sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp forests play in combating global warming.

C. No, because it contradicts the claim made in the previous paragraph that sea otters help keep kelp forests healthy.

D. No, because it mentions the Industrial Revolution, blurring the focus of the paragraph.

Explanation for question 26.


Question 27.

A. NO CHANGE (suggests, that)

B. suggests—that

C. suggests, “that

D. suggests that


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp.

B. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests—that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp.

C. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, “that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp.

D. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 27.



Question 28.

A. NO CHANGE (devour)

B. dispatch

C. overindulge on

D. dispose of


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp.

B. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to dispatch the kelp.

C. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to overindulge on the kelp.

D. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to dispose of the kelp.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 28.
Question 29.

A. NO CHANGE (their)

B. they’re

C. its

D. it’s
Answer choices in context.


Begin skippable content.

A. Like their terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air.

B. Like they’re terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air.

C. Like its terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air.

D. Like it’s terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 29.


Question 30.

A. NO CHANGE (how large a role they played)

B. how large a role that it played

C. how large a role sea otters played

D. that they played such a large role


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Scientists knew this but did not recognize how large a role they played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

B. Scientists knew this but did not recognize how large a role that it played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

C. Scientists knew this but did not recognize how large a role sea otters played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

D. Scientists knew this but did not recognize that they played such a large role in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 30.


Question 31.

Where is the most logical place in this paragraph to add the following sentence?

What Wilmers and Estes discovered in their study, therefore, surprised them.

A. After sentence 1

B. After sentence 3

C. After sentence 4

D. After sentence 5


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. What was less wellknown, until recently at least, was how this relationship among sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp forests might help fight global warming. What Wilmers and Estes discovered in their study, therefore, surprised them. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased 40 percent.

B. A recent study by two professors at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Chris Wilmers and James Estes, suggests, that kelp forests protected by sea otters can absorb as much as twelve times the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as those where sea urchins are allowed to devour the kelp. What Wilmers and Estes discovered in their study, therefore, surprised them. Like their terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air.

C. Like their terrestrial plant cousins, kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar fuel through photosynthesis, and releases oxygen back into the air. What Wilmers and Estes discovered in their study, therefore, surprised them. Scientists knew this but did not recognize how large a role they played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

D. Scientists knew this but did not recognize how large a role they played in helping kelp forests to significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. What Wilmers and Estes discovered in their study, therefore, surprised them. Far from making no difference to the ecosystem, the presence of otters was found to increase the carbon storage of kelp forests by 4.4 to 8.7 megatons annually, offsetting the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by three million to six million passenger cars each year.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 31.


Question 32.

A. NO CHANGE (having more otters)

B. increasing the otter population

C. the otters multiplying

D. having more otters than other locations


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Wilmers and Estes caution, however, that having more otters will not automatically solve the problem of higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air.

B. Wilmers and Estes caution, however, that increasing the otter population will not automatically solve the problem of higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air.

C. Wilmers and Estes caution, however, that the otters multiplying will not automatically solve the problem of higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air.

D. Wilmers and Estes caution, however, that having more otters than other locations will not automatically solve the problem of higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 32.


Question 33.

A. NO CHANGE (or removed; from)

B. or removed from,

C. or, removed from,

D. or removed, from


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. But they suggest that the presence of otters provides a good model of how carbon can be sequestered, or removed; from the atmosphere through the management of animal populations.

B. But they suggest that the presence of otters provides a good model of how carbon can be sequestered, or removed from, the atmosphere through the management of animal populations.

C. But they suggest that the presence of otters provides a good model of how carbon can be sequestered, or, removed from, the atmosphere through the management of animal populations.

D. But they suggest that the presence of otters provides a good model of how carbon can be sequestered, or removed, from the atmosphere through the management of animal populations.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 33.


Answers and explanations for questions 23 through 33 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.


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