Writing and Language Test



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Answers and Explanations for Questions 1 through 11

Explanation for question 1.

Choice B is the best answer because it provides a noun, “reductions,” yielding a grammatically complete and coherent sentence.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each provides a verb or gerund, while the underlined portion calls for a noun.
Explanation for question 2.

Choice B is the best answer because it offers a transitional adverb, “Consequently,” that communicates a causeeffect relationship between the funding reduction identified in the previous sentence and the staffing decrease described in this sentence.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each misidentifies the relationship between the preceding sentence and the sentence of which it is a part.
Explanation for question 3.

Choice A is the best answer because the singular verb “has” agrees with the singular noun “trend” that appears earlier in the sentence.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because the plural verb “have” does not agree with the singular subject “trend,” and the relative pronoun “which” unnecessarily interrupts the direct relationship between “trend” and the verb.

Explanation for question 4.

Choice A is the best answer because it states accurately why the proposed clause should be added to the sentence. Without these specific examples, readers have only a vague sense of what “nonprint” formats might be.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each represents a misinterpretation of the relationship between the proposed clause to be added and the surrounding text in the passage.
Explanation for question 5.

Choice D is the best answer because it includes only the preposition and noun that the sentence requires.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each includes an unnecessary pronoun, either “them” or “their.” The sentence contains no referents that would circulate ebooks.
Explanation for question 6.

Choice D is the best answer because the verb form “cataloging” parallels the other verbs in the series.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each interrupts the parallel structure in the verb series, either through an incorrect verb form or with an unnecessary subject.
Explanation for question 7.

Choice B is the best answer because it consolidates references to the subject, “librarians,” by placing the relative pronoun “whose” immediately following “librarians.” This results in a logical flow of information within the sentence.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each fails to place “librarians” as the main subject of the sentence without redundancy, resulting in a convoluted sentence whose relevance to the preceding and subsequent sentences is unclear.
Explanation for question 8.

Choice D is the best answer because no conjunction is necessary to communicate the relationship between the clauses in the sentence. The conjunction “While” at the beginning of the sentence already creates a comparison.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each provides an unnecessary coordinating conjunction.
Explanation for question 9.

Choice B is the best answer because it mentions time periods when the free services described later in the sentence are particularly useful to library patrons.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each creates redundancy or awkwardness in the remainder of the sentence.
Explanation for question 10.

Choice B is the best answer because it is concise; it is also consistent with the formal language in the rest of the sentence and passage overall.
Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because each is either unnecessarily wordy or uses colloquial language that does not correspond with the tone of the passage.

Explanation for question 11.

Choice C is the best answer because it restates the writer’s primary argument, which may be found at the end of the first paragraph: “As public libraries adapt to rapid technological advances in information distribution, librarians’ roles are actually expanding.”
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because they do not paraphrase the writer’s primary claim.
This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 1 through 11. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.


Questions 12 through 22 are based on the following passage.



Tiny Exhibit, Big Impact
Paragraph 1

The first time I visited the Art Institute of Chicago, I expected to be impressed by its famous large paintings. [Q12] On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view [Q13] painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size. It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of [Q14] it’s tiniest; the Thorne Miniature Rooms.


Paragraph 2

Viewing the exhibit, I was amazed by the intricate details of some of the more ornately decorated rooms. I marveled at a replica of a salon (a formal living room) dating back to the reign of French king Louis X V. [Q15] Built into the dark paneled walls are bookshelves stocked with leatherbound volumes. The couch and chairs, in keeping with the style of the time, are characterized by elegantly curved arms and [Q16] legs, they are covered in luxurious velvet. A dimesized portrait of a French aristocratic woman hangs in a golden frame.


Paragraph 3

This exhibit showcases sixtyeight miniature rooms inserted into a wall at eye level. Each furnished room consists of three walls; the fourth wall is a glass pane through which museumgoers observe. The rooms and their furnishings were painstakingly created to scale at 1/12th their actual size, so that one inch in the exhibit correlates with one foot in real life. A couch, for example, is seven inches long, and [Q17] that is based on a sevenfootlong couch. Each room represents a distinctive style of European, American, or Asian interior design from the thirteenth to twentieth centuries.




Paragraph 4

The plainer rooms are more sparsely [Q18] furnished. Their architectural features, furnishings, and decorations are just as true to the periods they represent. One of my favorite rooms in the whole exhibit, in fact, is an 1885 summer kitchen. The room is simple but spacious, with a small sink and counter along one wall, a castiron wood stove and some hanging pots and pans against another wall, and [Q19] a small table under a window of the third wall. Aside from a few simple wooden chairs placed near the edges of the room, the floor is open and obviously well worn.




Paragraph 5

As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a [Q20] visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs. Its glass door swings open, and the clock can be wound up.” [Q21] Dotted with pinsized knobs, another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers. “All of those little drawers pull out. And you see that hutch? Can you believe it has a secret compartment?” Given the exquisite craftsmanship and level of detail I’d already seen, I certainly could.



Question 22 asks about the previous passage as a whole.



Question 12.

A. NO CHANGE (On one hand,)

B. For instance,

C. However,

D. Similarly,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

B. For instance, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

C. However, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

D. Similarly, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 12.


Question 13.

A. NO CHANGE (painter, Georges Seurat’s,)

B. painter, Georges Seurat’s

C. painter Georges Seurat’s,

D. painter Georges Seurat’s


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

B. On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view painter, Georges Seurat’s 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

C. On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view painter Georges Seurat’s, 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.

D. On one hand, I couldn’t wait to view painter Georges Seurat’s 10footwide A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in its full size.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 13.


Question 14.

A. NO CHANGE (it’s tiniest;)

B. its tiniest;

C. its tiniest:

D. it’s tiniest,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of it’s tiniest; the Thorne Miniature Rooms.

B. It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of its tiniest; the Thorne Miniature Rooms.

C. It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of its tiniest: the Thorne Miniature Rooms.

D. It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of it’s tiniest, the Thorne Miniature Rooms.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 14.


Question 15.

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence.

Some scholars argue that the excesses of King Louis X V’s reign contributed significantly to the conditions that resulted in the French Revolution.

Should the writer make this addition here?

A. Yes, because it provides historical context for the Thorne Miniature Rooms exhibit.

B. Yes, because it explains why salons are often ornately decorated.

C. No, because it interrupts the paragraph’s description of the miniature salon.

D. No, because it implies that the interior designer of the salon had political motivations.

Explanation for question 15.


Question 16.

A. NO CHANGE (legs, they)

B. legs, the couch and chairs

C. legs and

D. legs,
Answer choices in context.


Begin skippable content.

A. The couch and chairs, in keeping with the style of the time, are characterized by elegantly curved arms and legs, they are covered in luxurious velvet.

B. The couch and chairs, in keeping with the style of the time, are characterized by elegantly curved arms and legs, the couch and chairs are covered in luxurious velvet.

C. The couch and chairs, in keeping with the style of the time, are characterized by elegantly curved arms and legs and are covered in luxurious velvet.

D. The couch and chairs, in keeping with the style of the time, are characterized by elegantly curved arms and legs, are covered in luxurious velvet.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 16.


Question 17.

Which choice gives a second supporting example that is most similar to the example already in the sentence?

A. NO CHANGE (that is based on a sevenfootlong couch.)

B. a tea cup is about a quarter of an inch.

C. there are even tiny cushions on some.

D. household items are also on this scale.
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. A couch, for example, is seven inches long, and that is based on a sevenfootlong couch.

B. A couch, for example, is seven inches long, and a tea cup is about a quarter of an inch.

C. A couch, for example, is seven inches long, and there are even tiny cushions on some.

D. A couch, for example, is seven inches long, and household items are also on this scale.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 17.


Question 18.

Which choice most effectively combines the sentences at the underlined portion (furnished. Their)?

A. furnished by their

B. furnished, but their

C. furnished: their

D. furnished, whereas
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. The plainer rooms are more sparsely furnished by their architectural features, furnishings, and decorations are just as true to the periods they represent.

B. The plainer rooms are more sparsely furnished, but their architectural features, furnishings, and decorations are just as true to the periods they represent.

C. The plainer rooms are more sparsely furnished: their architectural features, furnishings, and decorations are just as true to the periods they represent.

D. The plainer rooms are more sparsely furnished, whereas architectural features, furnishings, and decorations are just as true to the periods they represent.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 18.


Question 19.

Which choice most closely matches the stylistic pattern established earlier in the sentence?

A. NO CHANGE (a small table under a window of the third wall.)

B. a small table is under the third wall’s window.

C. the third wall has a window and small table.

D. the third wall has a small table against it and a window.
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. The room is simple but spacious, with a small sink and counter along one wall, a castiron wood stove and some hanging pots and pans against another wall, and a small table under a window of the third wall.

B. The room is simple but spacious, with a small sink and counter along one wall, a castiron wood stove and some hanging pots and pans against another wall, and a small table is under the third wall’s window.

C. The room is simple but spacious, with a small sink and counter along one wall, a castiron wood stove and some hanging pots and pans against another wall, and the third wall has a window and small table.

D. The room is simple but spacious, with a small sink and counter along one wall, a castiron wood stove and some hanging pots and pans against another wall, and the third wall has a small table against it and a window.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 19.



Question 20.

A. NO CHANGE (visitors’ remark,)

B. visitors remarking,

C. visitor remarked,

D. visitor remark,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs.”

B. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors remarking, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs.”

C. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitor remarked, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs.”

D. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitor remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs.”


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 20.


Question 21.

A. NO CHANGE (Dotted with pinsized knobs, another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.)

B. Another visitor, dotted with pinsized knobs, noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.

C. Another visitor dotted with pinsized knobs noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.

D. Another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers, dotted with pinsized knobs.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs. Its glass door swings open, and the clock can be wound up.” Dotted with pinsized knobs, another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.

B. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs. Its glass door swings open, and the clock can be wound up.” Another visitor, dotted with pinsized knobs, noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.

C. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs. Its glass door swings open, and the clock can be wound up.” Another visitor dotted with pinsized knobs noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers.

D. As I walked through the exhibit, I overheard a visitors’ remark, “You know, that grandfather clock actually runs. Its glass door swings open, and the clock can be wound up.” Another visitor noticed my fascination with a tiny writing desk and its drawers, dotted with pinsized knobs.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 21.



Think about the previous passage as a whole as you answer question 22.

Question 22.

To make the passage most logical, paragraph 2 should be placed

A. where it is now.

B. after paragraph 3.

C. after paragraph 4.



D. after paragraph 5.

Explanation for question 22.


Answers and explanations for questions 12 through 22 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.


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