Writing and Language Test



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Writing and Language Test


44 Questions
Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.
Directions

Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.


Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
A pair of brackets containing an uppercase Q and a number — for example, [Q1] — indicates that a question refers to that location in the passage or the following underlined portion of the passage. The number in brackets is the number of the question that is related to the indicated part of the passage. The bracketed element is hyperlinked to the associated question, and the question heading is hyperlinked to the related location or portion of the passage. There are two ways to follow a link. One is to move the flashing text cursor, or caret, into the hyperlinked text and press the Enter key; the other is to place the mouse cursor, or pointer, over the hyperlinked text and press Ctrl+leftclick (that is, press and release the left button on the mouse while holding down the Ctrl key on the keyboard).
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
In questions that ask you to consider potential revisions, the list of answer choices is followed by a presentation of each revision in context. The set of revisions is surrounded by “Begin skippable content” and “End skippable content” labels formatted as level6 headings. If a question includes a “NO CHANGE” option, the beginning of the skippable content will present the relevant context of the passage in its original form with the original underlined text. After that, the same context will be repeated with the underlined portion replaced by each revision to be considered.
Punctuation is essential to some questions in this test, so we suggest that you either activate the punctuationreading function of your application software or utilize the characterbycharacter capabilities of your application software.


Questions 1 through 11 are based on the following passage.



Librarians Help Navigate in the Digital Age
In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced [Q1] reducing in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels. [Q2] However, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons’ needs. Employment in all job sectors in the United States is projected to grow by fourteen percent over the next decade, yet the expected growth rate for librarians is predicted to be only seven percent, or half of the overall rate. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, [Q3] has led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession. As public libraries adapt to rapid technological advances in information distribution, librarians’ roles are actually expanding.
The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats [Q4] is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million ebooks were available [Q5] for them to circulate. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, [Q6] catalog, and updating these collections. But perhaps even more importantly, librarians function as first responders for their communities’ computer needs. Since one of the fastest growing library services is public access computer use, there is great demand for computer instruction. [Q7] In fact, librarians’ training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods. Many of whom teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, [Q8] but adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire jobrelevant computer skills. [Q9] Free to all who utilize their services, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, [Q10] law troubles, and retirement programs.
In sum, the Internet does not replace the need for librarians, and librarians are hardly obsolete. [Q11] Like books, librarians have been around for a long time, but the Internet is extremely useful for many types of research.


Question 1.

A. NO CHANGE (reducing)

B. reductions

C. deducting

D. deducts


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced reducing in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels.

B. In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced reductions in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels.

C. In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced deducting in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels.

D. In recent years, public libraries in the United States have experienced deducts in their operating funds due to cuts imposed at the federal, state, and local government levels.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 1.


Question 2.

A. NO CHANGE (However,)

B. Consequently,

C. Nevertheless,

D. Previously,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. However, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons’ needs.

B. Consequently, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons’ needs.

C. Nevertheless, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons’ needs.

D. Previously, library staffing has been cut by almost four percent since 2008, and the demand for librarians continues to decrease, even though half of public libraries report that they have an insufficient number of staff to meet their patrons’ needs.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 2.


Question 3.

A. NO CHANGE (has)

B. have


C. which have

D. which has


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, has led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession.

B. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, have led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession.

C. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, which have led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession.

D. This trend, combined with the increasing accessibility of information via the Internet, which has led some to claim that librarianship is in decline as a profession.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 3.


Question 4.

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following information.

—ebooks, audio and video materials, and online journals—

Should the writer make this addition here?

A. Yes, because it provides specific examples of the materials discussed in the sentence.

B. Yes, because it illustrates the reason for the increase mentioned later in the sentence.

C. No, because it interrupts the flow of the sentence by supplying irrelevant information.

D. No, because it weakens the focus of the passage by discussing a subject other than librarians.

Explanation for question 4.


Question 5.

A. NO CHANGE (for them to circulate.)

B. to be circulated by them.

C. for their circulating.

D. for circulation.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million ebooks were available for them to circulate.

B. The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million ebooks were available to be circulated by them.

C. The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million ebooks were available for their circulating.

D. The share of library materials that is in nonprint formats is increasing steadily; in 2010, at least 18.5 million ebooks were available for circulation.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 5.


Question 6.

A. NO CHANGE (catalog,)

B. librarians cataloging,

C. to catalog,

D. cataloging,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, catalog, and updating these collections.

B. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, librarians cataloging, and updating these collections.

C. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, to catalog, and updating these collections.

D. As a result, librarians must now be proficient curators of electronic information, compiling, cataloging, and updating these collections.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 6.


Question 7.

Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?

A. In fact, librarians’ training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods; many librarians teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy is taught by them.

B. In fact, many librarians, whose training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods, teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

C. Training now includes courses on research and Internet search methods; many librarians, in fact, are teaching classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

D. Including courses on research and Internet search methods in their training is, in fact, why many librarians teach classes in Internet navigation, database and software use, and digital information literacy.

Explanation for question 7.


Question 8.

A. NO CHANGE (but)

B. and


C. for

D. DELETE the underlined portion.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, but adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire jobrelevant computer skills.

B. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, and adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire jobrelevant computer skills.

C. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, for adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire jobrelevant computer skills.

D. While these classes are particularly helpful to young students developing basic research skills, adult patrons can also benefit from librarian assistance in that they can acquire jobrelevant computer skills.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 8.


Question 9.

Which choice most effectively sets up the examples given at the end of the sentence?

A. NO CHANGE (Free to all who utilize their services,)

B. During periods of economic recession,

C. Although their value cannot be measured,

D. When it comes to the free services libraries provide,
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. Free to all who utilize their services, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development.

B. During periods of economic recession, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development.

C. Although their value cannot be measured, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development.

D. When it comes to the free services libraries provide, public libraries and librarians are especially valuable, because they offer free resources that may be difficult to find elsewhere, such as help with online job searches as well as résumé and job material development.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 9.



Question 10.

A. NO CHANGE (law troubles,)

B. legal issues,

C. concerns related to law courts,

D. matters for the law courts,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, law troubles, and retirement programs.

B. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, legal issues, and retirement programs.

C. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, concerns related to law courts, and retirement programs.

D. An overwhelming number of public libraries also report that they provide help with electronic government resources related to income taxes, matters for the law courts, and retirement programs.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 10.


Question 11.

Which choice most clearly ends the passage with a restatement of the writer’s primary claim?

A. NO CHANGE (Like books, librarians have been around for a long time, but the Internet is extremely useful for many types of research.)

B. Although their roles have diminished significantly, librarians will continue to be employed by public libraries for the foreseeable future.

C. The growth of electronic information has led to a diversification of librarians’ skills and services, positioning them as savvy resource specialists for patrons.



D. However, given their extensive training and skills, librarians who have been displaced by budget cuts have many other possible avenues of employment.

Explanation for question 11.


Answers and explanations for questions 1 through 11 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.


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